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The Geothermal Resources Council (GRC), Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), and Geothermal Exchange Organization (GEO) have released guidance for U.S. With a temperature gradient of between 50 and 100 ℃ geothermal resources are more readily accessible. With better drilling technology geothermal resources at greater depth and temperature can be reached. Geothermal Power PlantsGeothermal power plants use hydrothermal resources that have two common ingredients: water (hydro) and heat (thermal). There are three basic types of geothermal power plants: Dry steam plants use steam piped directly from a geothermal reservoir to turn the generator turbines. The current production of geothermal energy from all uses places third among renewables, following hydroelectricity and biomass, and ahead of solar and wind. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), also sometimes called engineered geothermal systems, offer great potential for dramatically expanding the use of geothermal energy. The EGS concept is to extract heat by creating a subsurface fracture system to which water can be added through injection wells. Uses for low and moderate temperature resources can be divided into two categories: Direct use and Geothermal heat pumps. Direct use, as the name implies, involves using the heat in the water directly (without a heat pump or power plant) for such things as heating of buildings, industrial processes, greenhouses, aquaculture (fish farming) and resorts. Direct, or non-electric, use of geothermal energy refers to the use of the energy for both heatng and cooling applications. Furthermore, direct-use applications such as fish farms, greenhouses, microbreweries, fruit and vegetable drying, spas, pulp and paper processing, and lumber drying offer attractve and innovative opportunities for local businesses and entrepreneurs. Geothermal heat pumps use the natural insulating properties of the earth from just a few feet underground to as much as several hundred feet deep, offering a unique and highly efficient renewable energy technology for heating and cooling. Most work by circulating water in a closed system through a a€?loop fielda€? installed horizontally or vertically in the ground adjacent to or even beneath a building. The system is reversible, and heat is taken from the ground and used in the building in the winter. Geothermal heat pumps can support space heating and cooling needs in almost any part of the country. Geothermal Heat Pumps use the earth or groundwater as a heat source in winter and a heat sink in summer. This chart from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory provides a simple clear way to understand how energy is used in the US. Energy sources are on the left side – solar, nuclear, hydro, wind, geothermal, natural gas, coal, biomass, petroleum.
Energy users are broken in to four categories a€“ residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. The gray boxes on the right sum up the energy that was used and the energy that was lost (rejected). The width of the lines running from the various energy sources to their destination uses is proportional to the amount of energy used. As can be seen, the lion’s share of US energy consumption comes from fossil fuel sources (oil, coal, natural gas). Zooming in to the transportation sector, we can see that most of that oil is used for personal vehicles (cars, light truck and SUVs).
Any attempt to reduce our dependance on oil will require grappling with transportation in general, and personal transportation in particular. Personal transportation is 4 to 10 times less efficient than public transportation (commuter rail, trains and buses). WELCOME!Thank you for visiting 8020 Vision a€“ connecting the dots between global challenges and sustainable solutions.
Overall national net generation of Geothermal energy sources which pertains to heat energy extracted from reservoirs in the earth's interior, as is the use of geysers, molten rock and steam spouts.
From the state of Vermont comes the Vermont Energy Act of 2009, which will create and regulate new 10-20 year contractsa€”25 years for solar projectsa€”for the sale of power produced by owners of small renewable energy facilities.

Dedicated to bringing a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable. Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids.
Natural GasExploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. ElectricitySales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & EfficiencyEnergy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. CoalReserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable &Alternative FuelsIncludes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Total EnergyComprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. Analysis & ProjectionsMonthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, Congressional reports.
Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies.
InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. AK Division of Oil and Gas, Annual Report 2009, Section Three: Alaska Refining - Sales and Consumption.
AAPG Search and Discover Article #90021, 2003 GCAGS 53rd Annual Convention, Baton Rouge, LA, October 22-24, 2003, Under-Explored Oil and Gas Trends of Mississippi, by Stephen D.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dynamic Maps, GIS Data & Analysis Tools, Biomass Maps, Biomass Resources in the United States. It is believed that the ultimate source of geothermal energy is radioactive decay occurring deep within the earth (Burkland, 1973). However, due to a variety of geological processes, some areas, including substantial portions of many USA western states, are underlain by relatively shallow geothermal resources.
However, there are many areas around the world where the gradient is higher, the temperature increases at a faster rate with depth below the ground. The first geothermal power plant was built in 1904 in Tuscany, Italy, where natural steam erupted from the Earth.
Despite these impressive statistics, the current level of geothermal use pales in comparison to its potential.
Creating an enhanced, or engineered, geothermal system requires improving the natural permeability of rock.
Fluids with temperatures of <300A°F, adequate for direct use, are available throughout much of the United States. Direct-use geothermal energy projects leverage existing workforces and companies within the state. Geothermal heated facilities have the potential to stimulate economies through increased tax revenues, the creation of new businesses and local jobs, tourism, agriculture, and enhanced community involvement.
Directly using geothermal energy in homes and commercial operations, such as food production from local agriculture, can offset imported energy, keeping jobs, dollars, and other benefits in local communities.
Applications of geothermal direct use may include district heating, snow melting, spas and pools, agriculture, food processing, and other uses. Geothermal heating projects last for decadesa€”typically 25 years or morea€” providing reliable energy at a low, stable price. The system only moves heat, which is much more efficient than using a fuel or electricity to create heat.
On average, a typical home of 2000 square feet will require 4 tons of heating and cooling capacity with an average system installation cost between $5,000 and $7,500 per ton. Geothermal heat pumps use 25% to 50% less energy than conventional heating or cooling systems.

There is no combustion in a geothermal heat pump; therefore there is no chance of carbon-monoxide poisoning. Of the fossil fuels, oil is the source most in demand, the bulk of which is used by the transportation sector. When oil prices rise quickly, as they did in 2008 (to over $140 per barrel), consumer behavior shifts rapidly. So-called a€?Feed-in Tariffsa€? are used to encouraged the installation of grid-connected renewable energy systems by both individuals and businesses by making such systems a profitable investment and guaranteeing income that can help attract financing. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provides over $45 billion to encourage renewable energy production, which includes $4.5 billion for the creation of a smart grid to handle todaya€™s generation needs.
Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, The Gulf of Mexico's Past, History of Offshore Oil and Gas Development, Jan-Feb 2005, p. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico 2002: America's Expansing Frontier, OCS Report, MMS 2002-021.
We can use these resources by drilling wells into the Earth and piping the steam or hot water to the surface.
Flash steam plants take high-pressure hot water from deep inside the Earth and convert it to steam to drive the generator turbines. Direct use of geothermal energy in homes and commercial operations is much less expensive than using traditional fuels; savings can be as much as 80%! Their simple design and construction from off-the-shelf parts can utilize local engineering firms, geologists, drilling operators, construction trades, pipefitters, technicians, and welders. Depending on the existing heating fuels being offset, this may result in annual emissions reductions of anywhere between 1,700 tons (if offsettng natural gas) to 9,300 tons (if offsettng electricity) of CO2 saved per MWth of installed geothermal direct-use capacity. Within a single system these diverse applications can be a€?cascadeda€? and work together in the most efficient way possible to ensure the maximum benefit and lowest costs possible from direct-use systems.
This can provide price certainty and insulate consumers (and the economy) from more unpredictable fluctuations in fossil fuel prices. By adding high-efficiency air cleaners with geothermal, these systems can improve inside air quality. Accurate data is not available on the current number of these systems; however, the rate of installation is thought to be between 10,000 and 40,000 per year. Understanding the energy trends shaping our world is essential to managing risk and innovating solutions for business, government and community. We can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heatHome Energy buildings or generate electricity. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity, September 2005, p. When the steam cools, it condenses to water and is injected back into the ground to be used over and over again. Injected water is heated by contact with the rock and returns to the surface through production wells, as in naturally occurring hydrothermal systems.
A rough prediction of potential job opportunites created by installing direct-use systems may be 3 temporary jobs per MWth during construction, with 1 full-time job per MWth for ongoing operation. The linchpin for Governor Jim Douglas was the Acta€™s provision that the Vermont Public Services Board adjust the preliminary standard ratesa€”varying by method of generationa€”set by the legislature. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall and the heat is continuosly produced inside the earth. These loops are made up of high-density polyethylene pipe, the same pipe which is used in city gas lines. Commuters embraced public transportation, with many metropolitan areas seeing 30 to 45 percent increases in use of public transportation in just one quarter.
The heat causes the second liquid to turn to steam which is used to drive a generator turbine.

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