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The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage.
In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South.
The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes.
With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v.
The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism.
The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president.
In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000.
33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations".
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T. 3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region. All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange.
The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source.
Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs. Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun.
The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube. The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system. The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange.
The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements. The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere.
The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3). The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun. The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region. The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting. The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis. The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support. The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun. The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins.
The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2).
The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4. The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region. Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors. The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output.
A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor.
The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification.
The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific.
The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit. The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses. The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's. Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output. Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off. Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier.
Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier. Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected. The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2). A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6). In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself. For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction. One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region.
The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected. Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers.
This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane. To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers.
The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam.
These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode. The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens. The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging. The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing.
The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum. As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised. The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates. The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature. The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube. The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates.
All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder.
Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above. The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators. The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup.
The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses.
The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's.
This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation.
The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms. Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers. In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup. In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies.
A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below).
The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board. The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment.
The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange.
The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough. The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter. In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks. The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs. The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus. An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC. The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth. This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10. The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies. The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running).
Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current.
Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer.
The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer.
Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other.
Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced.
The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously. The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament. The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode.
As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply. Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals. In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts. The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°. Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer. If you look out your window but cana€™t see the masts because they are obstructed by other buildings then the power density will be mainly absorbed by those buildings and too low to worry about. If the substation is immediately next to your home there is little in a practical sense you can do to reduce the magnetic fields. Unless the substation is immediately adjacent to your house the EMFa€™s from these small street substations fall to background levels within about 3 meters. WI-FI and DECT phones are overwhelmingly the main contributors to household electro pollution with power densities far above any nearby mobile phone mast. If your internet connection is by telephone you will need the Netgear DG834 model opposite.
If your internet connection is via a cable connection you would need the Linksys wired modem opposite.
These alarms use the same technology as DECT cordless phones and will continuously pulsate microwave energy throughout the babya€™s room and beyond. Best to change your old cathode-ray monitors (the ones with the deep backs) to any type of flat screen monitor as these give of far less Electromagnetic fields than the old type which thankfully you cana€™t buy any more.
In order to get your body back to its proper earth bound resonance you need to be sleeping earthed.A  Explanation of what is sleeping earthed and how you can do it is found on my website. Geobiology explores the relationship between life and the Eartha€™s physical and chemical environment.
The history of geobiology in this respect dates back to 1929 when a German aristocrat Baron Gustov Von Pohl, an eminent dowser, made the extraordinary claim that cancer was caused by a€?energy linesa€™ that ran under the beds of the people that had died from the disease. Underground Streams: a€?Water will flow through any underground passage, fracture of fissure. The dark square with flashing white lines is a photographic print of microwaves radiating in the space above an underground watercourse taken in total darkness. Diagram depicts the flow of underground water and consequential chemical reactions within certain geological features that could be the origin of geopathic stress issues. The dipolar nature of water molecules can also be part of the origin of electromagnetic fields originating from ground contained water. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.a€?These are usually sorted by the frequency. For visual explanation, NASA have a simple but useful diagram, and there is a far more detailed diagram available from thinkgeek (purchase required). We believe that one of the main reasons that EMFs (particularly microwave frequencies) are potentially bioactive is due to the nature of the signal itself. We have evolved with the natural levels of EMFs produced by both the sun and world around us.
Power frequency (50Hz in the UK) is given off by any appliance or transmission of AC (alternating current) electrity. Childhood leukaemia has been internationally accepted as linked to powerfrequency exposure magnetic fields, with a wealth of literature finding increases in risk to this and other illnesses. It is well documented and generally accepted that over-exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause burning and skin cancer.
There are internationally accepted guidelines by the International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) that have been designed to limit both residential and occupational exposure to levels that are safely below those that can heat up tissue. However, recently there has been a number of studies showing very specific biological effects far lower than these levels (see our Studies list), and as yet there is no international guidance that has taken any of these studies into effect. Powerfrequency electromagnetic fields are generated by any appliance running off AC (alternating current) power - anything plugged into a main power socket will generate them to some degree. At the moment, health effects primarily associated with powerfrequency EMFs are due to the magnetic component - these include, but are not limited to, Childhood Leukaemia, Adult Leukaemia, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Miscarriage, and Clinical Depression.
There is a fairly brief overview of health risks and evidence in the health concerns section of the electric power transmission article on Wikipedia. The last type of geopathic disturbance that I want to talk about before we have a look at man-made electromagnetic energies concerns the earth's natural geomagnetic field (the one that makes a compass needles pointA  north). The first geomagnetogram (G1) typically represents the values of the Earths normal geomagnetic field taken by me in a farmer's field near Poynings village not far from where I live. The second geomagnetogram (G2) was taken above a sprung mattress from a lady suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and severe depression, and has a magnetic anomaly of 22,435.4 nT. The Cliff of Tears a€?It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live.
Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field a€?A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy. Health risks due to exposure to electromagnetic fields EMFa€™s in the home were first suggested in America by Wertheimer and Leeper, when they estimated the levels people were exposed to, using a€?wire codesa€™, and the local incidence of childhood leukaemia.
Stress sensitive hormones such as prolactin and thyroxide have been found to be elevated in people at work in high electromagnetic environments.A  Prolactin plays a key role in moderating parts of the neuro-immune system and may also be an important precipitator of auto immune diseases. It has been scientifically proven for the first time, with a double blind study by means of an electrocardiogram, that the detrimental effects of a€?water veinsa€? and other geopathically disturbing phenomena can cause serious health problems to persons exposed to them.
This presentation took place in March 2003 in the large auditorium of the Saint Johanns-hospital Landesklinjken SalzburgA  Germany. At locations where Geopathic stress zones are present, subsurface water plays a predominantrole, either as lakes, slowly moving underground water, or as water streams. Technical electromagnetic fields can also drastically affect the human body, as soon as certain field strengths are reached.
The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.These are usually sorted by the frequency. The Cliff of Tears It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live.
ACTUALLY DIED AT AGH, WHICH OF COURSE THEY ACCOMPLISHED (even though Canonsburg General Hospital is the rehab's NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR!).
1.1 Students learn to identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates. Most people would know that some animals (like frogs, snakes and lizards) are a€?cold-bloodeda€? and that when the weather is cold, these animals are less active than when ita€™s warm. Each enzyme has a unique shape - it is this shape that means it will make just one reaction go. Enzymes are not usually used up in chemical reactions - they can be used over and over, so they can be present in tiny amounts.


Enzymes are difficult to study in high school but there is one in saliva that we can study. Explain why our bodies need to make large amounts of digestive enzymes (like pepsin) but only tiny amounts of other enzymes (like hexokinase, which is present in every cell and catalyses the breakdown of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate). This experiment is important to addressing the skills outcome H11 (a€?A student justifies the appropriateness of a particular investigation plana€?). I hope you have a picture of many chemical reactions occurring in your own body right now, each one occurring because of the presence of tiny amounts of enzymes.
So, it is important that the temperature and acidity in your body has to be kept at the right level. Maybe you can think of some changes that occur in your body when the temperature gets too low! The first step to prevent your death is for your body to recognise the change in your body temperature. I have only considered what happens when there is a danger of you over-heating but there are many aspects of your body that have to be kept constant - for example, oxygen, sugar and water levels in the blood. Nerve impulses travel very quickly, and travel from one small part of the body to another small part. Hormones travel relatively slowly in blood, from an endocrine gland to a number of target organs.
An example might be the hormone adrenalin, travelling from the adrenal glands above the kidneys to skin (constricting blood vessels), the pacemaker in the brain (increasing heart rate), the liver (increasing the level of glucose in the blood) and many other organs. At the Mid-Atlantic ridge, a€?black smokersa€? raise the temperature of the ocean above 100oC without the water boiling (because of the very high pressure). There are other organisms that thrive in temperatures close to the freezing point of water. The temperatures at which organisms are found and the range over which they can survive is because of the enzymes in their bodies.
A Grylloblattid - (Grylloblatta bifratrilecta) an insect related to crickets and cockroaches that lives in snow. Leta€™s make our ectotherm the impressive but relatively harmless (if left alone) Red-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus). Comparing our ectoderm (Black Snake) and endoderm (Wombat) it is clear that both have behaviours and bodies that help them to survive extremes.
Your textbook does not give any examples of plants responding to temperature change - only adaptations to temperature extremes -so Eucalypts have drooping leaves which helps them to avoid overheating when the Sun is high; deciduous trees drop their leaves which helps them to avoid frost damage.
Responses of plants to temperature change are not common but there has been great interest from horticulturalists over several hundreds of years in the ability of Rhododendron spp to curl their leaves in response to temperature change. Most people would know that some animals (like frogs, snakes and lizards) are a€?cold-bloodeda€? and that when the weather is cold, these animals are less active than when ita€™s warm.A  Why is this? Enzymes are not usually used up in chemical reactions - they can be used over and over, so they can be present in tiny amounts.A  But most importantly, they only work under special conditions - a narrow temperature range and a narrow pH (acidity) range. That usually doesna€™t happen because things happen in your body to cool your body.A  You sweat, surface veins open up so that blood flows closer to the cooling air, and you breathe more often releasing warm our from your lungs.
This is a practical investigation involving second-hand research.A  Before you start it, you should read these notes.
I have only considered what happens when there is a danger of you over-heating but there are many aspects of your body that have to be kept constant - for example, oxygen, sugar and water levels in the blood.A  For each, there are receptors that detect the changes and a control centre (usually in the brain) that counteracts the change.
Nerve impulses travel very quickly, and travel from one small part of the body to another small part.A  An example might be from a fingertip to a very small part of the brain when we touch something. There are other organisms that thrive in temperatures close to the freezing point of water.A  For example, there are bacteria-like cells that grow on snow turning it red (to produce a€?watermelon snowa€?). On the other hand, individual organisms can generally survive in a fairly narrow range.A  For example, tropical fish die in cold water, yet antarctic fish would die in tropical waters.
Choose an ectothermic animal species, an endothermic animal species and a plant species.A  Dona€™t forget the advice about second-hand research, especially to acknowledge your sources. Your textbook does not give any examples of plants responding to temperature change - only adaptations to temperature extremes -so Eucalypts have drooping leaves which helps them to avoid overheating when the Sun is high;A  deciduous trees drop their leaves which helps them to avoid frost damage.
In Pittsburgh the Italian underworld was broken into two ethnic faction the "Sicilian Mafia" controlling the North and South sides of the city and the "Neapolitan Camorra" which controlled the East end of the city.[1] In the early 1920s, the two faction became involved in bootlegging, the illegal making, selling and transporting of alcohol. After the murder of Siragusa, the family came under the control of Sicilian John Bazzano, who was selling sugar and yeast to home breweries allowing them to manufacture illegal alcohol.[1][6] Bazzano formed an alliance with the eight Volpe brothers which he allowed to operate out of a coffee shop in Middle Hill. Vincenzo Capizzi, became the new boss after Bazzano's murder, but he eventually resigned in 1937,[3] and was replaced by Frank Amato. Since the bootlegging and ammunition trading industries were finished, Genovese turned to gambling and drugs. 1991–1999 – Lenine "Lenny" Strollo – nephew of Prato,[16][21] imprisoned and defected to the government in 1999.
Sebastian "John" LaRocca – a former boss.[1] Under LaRocca's leadership the crime family became a powerful force in Pittsburgh's labor unions. Antony "Tony" Grosso – controlled gambling operations in the Pittsburgh area, the FBI never categorized Grosso as an organized crime member. Morgellons Disease Awareness - Morgellons Disease: Tips for healing lesions, oral care and environment   Information for dealing with Morgellons lesions using topical aids as well as FAR infrared technology. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department.
They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890.
In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring.
It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process.
The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v.
Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional.
These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation.
Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik.
One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments. These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose.
One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region. This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2).
The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube. This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc). The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun.
The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible.
These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures. This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane.
These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system. The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable. These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs.
This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range. The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted. The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet.
Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam.
This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers.
In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment.
An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2).
A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets. Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density.
This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this.
The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz. The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints.
It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification.
These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable. These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line.
Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable. These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed.
All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter. This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1. This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line. The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support. Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning. The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode. This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W).
This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer. These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time. A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers. This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line. Or if you are addicted to cordless phones by the low energy Eco + friendly types that only emit a signal when you are using them.A  Google Siemens Gigaset Low Radiation Phones.
An example of this is a digital bedside alarm clock that only need 6 volts to operate but plugged into your 240 volt ring circuit. Click first on my a€?Studenta€™s Notesa€™ button and scroll to the end for pictures and explanation. The term was adopted many years ago by some German dowsers, a€?geobiologistsa€™ who specialised in surveying houses for both geopathic and electromagnetic stress using both dowsing and scientific instruments.
To test his theory he persuaded the Mayor of the Bavarian town of Vilsbiburg to allow him to survey the town for such energies with his dowsing rod.
As it does so it produces its own electromagnetic field often high into microwave frequency.
It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground. As an extremely dialectic medium, water favours the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly. Background levels of EMFs vary hugely depending on which part of the spectrum being looked for - natural light is an obvious example. Electrical wiring creates electric and magnetic powerfrequency fields throughout houses and other wired buildings, but these levels are usually very low unless there is a wiring fault. Most areas of science can only deal in probabilities, and that becomes clearer as more scientific studies investigating health effects are produced.
There is more disagreement about ill health effects from radiofrequency radiation, which is newer for most of the population, though a well-established 'microwave sickness' has been described. As a result fortunes are spent on protective sun cream and information services as to prudent avoidance of such exposures. Molecules in the food are vibrated by high levels of microwave frequency Electromagnetic energy, causing it to heat up and subsequently cook. This, coupled with misleading statements designed to imply that there is currently no published evidence showing a link from organisations such as WHO, are the primary reasons why this topic remains in such hotly-disputed contention.
ICNIRP have set guidelines for residential and occupational exposure to powerfrequency magnetic fields, based primarily on electric shock responses and induced currents, currently set at 100 microtesla (AµT) - equivalent to 1 Gauss.
The evidence on these is mixed, but the link with Childhood Leukaemia is now considered to be pretty solid, with a doubling in risk at magnetic fields above 0.4 AµT (again far below the guidelines set by ICNIRP).
The bottom line is that nature neverA  intended us to sleep on such a disturbed site as shown in figure G2 which has been artificially produced by the bed being placed near to a radiator ( causing the high spike to the right of the graph)A  and the springs causing the rest of the disturbed site. As you can see the magnetic contours of this bed size area (6a€™x4a€™) are very gentle and slightly undulating showing an overall geomagnetic anomaly of 582 nT (nano Tesla).
The sprung mattresses I have measured so far over the past two years have had magnetic anomalies between 4,000 and 61,000 nT. However there are instances in nature where abnormal magnetic anomalies exist usually due to a sudden change in mineralogy or geological structure over a short distance.
It appears that the exposure of a dividing cell to an inhomogeneous DC magnetic field causes a physical force to be exerted on the chromosomes or on one of the other microscopic structures associated with mitosis, resulting in structural abnormalities in the chromosomes. Since that time, international research has increased year by year, and the potential health risks have been identified as cancer (especially childhood leukaemia, probably the most studied illness because of the original findings), depression, suicide, miscarriage, some forms of dementia, respiratory and immune system problems.
Research by scientists such as Ross Adey in the USA and Dr Cyril Smith here in Britain is moving the frontier of our understanding.
Hubank of Vienna: a€?Speaking at a conference in England paid tribute to a group of Austrian researches composed of medical doctors, physicists and biochemists. There is clear indication that a combination of technical fields and Geopathic stress zones can multiply the effect and therefore become extremely harmful to all living beings.
However, because it can maintain its body temperature within a narrow range, wombats can remain active over a much wider temperature range. Throughout the Prohibition era the factions fought in the city for control over the Italian neighborhoods of Larimer, Homewood, Hill District and Downtown. By this time, around the 1980s, the mob was slowly losing its influence on the government so the FBI quickly saw the path the Mafia was about to take and so the FBI pursued them.
His crime family also tried to take control of the McKees Rocks gambling rackets.[31] After the 1990s defection of his underboss Charles Porter and capo Lenny Strollo, Genovese's family lost power. Grosso was linked to Chuckie Porter, and he had ties to the Pittsburgh political system allowing him to run his organization unscathed for many years and unconnected to organized crime.
The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American.
Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft.
United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.
Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national.
A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP.
Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane. The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament. The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone. This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other). The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations.
The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube. It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system. Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8.
The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally. This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned.
The Mayor agreed and in January that year Baron Von Pohl accompanied by the Mayor and other officials measured numerous energy lines that ran through the streets and houses of the town. This field will fluctuate depending on what is dissolved in it, how fast it is flowing or whether it is interacting with any other type of earth energy.
While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere.
Taking its electric charge distribution in to account, turning a water molecule will result in a changed field composition. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents).
The earth's magnetic fields are static fields, unlike man-made alternating current (AC), which has no natural counterpart. Unfortunately the studies are not always well done, and the flaws in any given study (showing an effect or otherwise) are often not reported. Precautionary levels which will protect us from illness have not been agreed on, as some countries wish the levels to be lower than others.
If you stood in front of an operational microwave with no door your insides would slowly be cooked. The reason for these abnormally high magnetic abnormalities is a result of the bed springs intensifying the magnetic flux of these fields, made worse by the interaction of high magnetic fields around the bed and house from numerous electrical appliances, extension cables running under the bed and transformers placed near to the bed. One instance of this is in the USA, at a place called Gyngywamp, near Croton, Connecticut knownA  as 'The Cliff of Tears' where visitors to this site very frequently become depressed, gums start to bleed and nose bleeds occur.
Messages pass between the brain, nerves and organs and even from cell to cell by electro- magnetic signalling. In the course of several years research using classical medical methods they investigated about 1000 people for the effects of these geopathic interference zones. There were about 400 people present including numerous renowned specialists; physicians, physicists and geologists, in the all-German audience.


Also, metal ions moved by water can induce small intensity broadband electromagnetic fields (EMF). The FBI quickly traced Genovese's cocaine trail to his top men, Charles "Chucky" Porter and Louis Raucci Sr.[11] Another challenge the mob had was finding new people for the Family at this time. He was eventually arrested by law enforcement and he served significant jail time, ultimately dying while incarcerated. All information in the lesions section comes from individuals that have dealt with extreme skin problems and have found ways of managing them using non-pharma products. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans.
Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States.
He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV. The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications. This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry.
Baron Von Pohla€™s energy lines were then compared with the towna€™s record of houses where people had died from cancer during the last ten years, which showed a remarkable coincidence.
Dr WA?rst conducted experiments in several German towns, in the rooms of cancer patients and found unusual amounts of gamma radiation in the houses he surveyed using a Geiger a€“counter. Interference with the earths natural energy field is particularly marked by the flow of these underground streams especially where two watercourses or other types of energy line cross. If thus in a pipe a hydronamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and magnetic vortex and eddy current, are the result. Microwave frequency exposure is a relatively new phenomenon: 100 years ago the background radiation was millions of times lower than it is now, and it is as recent as the mobile phone boom (~1990's) that the modern, digitally pulsed signals have become ubiquitous in the Western world. Because of this, microwave ovens are stringently designed against leaks, and opening the door operates a safety mechanism which disables the oven, thus removing the risk to the operator. Within our evolutionary history our bodies own magnetic field has integrated with this magnetic field which is responsible for controlling amongst other things, circadian rhythms, mood changes and certain hormone production such as melatonin and serotonin.
Our forefathers sleeping on straw or feathered mattresses in houses devoid of any electrical fields or microwave energy would not have experienced such geomagnetic disturbances. Much of the research in the past 35 years into EMF health effects has concentrated on magnetic fields because they are easier to measure and it was thought they were more likely to interact with our bodiesa€™ cells. When this is interfered with by outside EMFa€™s problems begin to emerge, as the systems that control and regulate our bodies are impaired. They found that the altered electrical and magnetic field above a geographical distressed zone changed the electrical impulses passing along the nerves of the body.
Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register.
Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama.
Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser. The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun. Well this surprised the establishment at the time, and knowing Vilsbiburg to have a high degree on cancer victims anywayA  he was asked to repeat the exercise in the City of Stetten which had a far lower incidence of cancer thus ironing out any chance factors. StA¤ngle, who had a very good reputation of locating water bearing fissures in crystalline rock with his dowsing rod developed a stintilisation counter more sensitive and accurate than a Geiger counter and carried out a scientific survey in the French town of Moulins where a local physician, Dr, J Prichard claimed that cancer victims in the town dwelt above geological faults. In a league table of radiation associated with biological damage, the outside line of a subterranean water course would be at the very top since it is found in association with many terminal and debilitating diseases. You can't see, feel or hear electromagnetic fields, apart from visible light, which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each static magnetic field bump or sink on geomagnetogram (G2) may speed up or slow down body fluids (blood and lymphatic) in exposed areas such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, legs etc. Most scientists believe that, although EMFa€™s do not directly cause the illness in most cases, at least, living in fields above 200 nT (nano Tesla) may make a person develop the cancer or other illness, when if they didn't live in this field level, their bodies would be able to repair themselves, or cope with the daily damage from other causes in a healthier way.
This wrong or confused information resulted in the dysfunction of individual organs and also explained the high number of diseases. However the major fall the Mafia took over the years and decline of political and governmental power led to the murder of Naples by an unknown mobster believed to be Strollo in 1991 and the arrest of Thomas Ciancutti in 2000 for "running a gambling ring in Fayette County". The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown.
The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers.
The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region. The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor.
Whilst WA?rst and StA¤ngle thought that gamma radiation from fissures could be a significant cause of cancer, more recent studies suggest that this is unlikely as gamma radiation tends to whiz straight through the body rather than causing direct hits on DNA. Sleep time exposure to the same sharp variations of magnetic fields for years may induce some chronic health effect.
Indeed, in the town nearby, doctors and nurses are familiar with this sudden onset of illness in visitors to this old Indian sacred site. They proved a weakening in the immune system, which interacts with the wrongly programmed nervous system in persons who had been exposed. Using a randomized double blinded trial*, it has been scientifically shown that Geopathic stress zones do cause chronic stress and therefore can weaken the body's defence systems. Finally, this stress, in combination with a possible suppression of certain functions of the immune system. This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment.
The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture. Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range. Harger, chairman of the city's medical scientific association, declared that all such a€?deadly earth currentsa€™ ran beneath the beds of all the 5,348 people who had died from cancer during the last 21 years. The culprit is thought to be the more pernicious alpha radiation from Radon which is found with high levels of gamma radiation.
The World Health Organization in a health criteria report recognizes interactions between variations in static magnetic fields in cellular tissues to include an induction of electrical potentials and magneto hydrodynamic effects in the circulatory systems and by direct stimulation of nerve and muscle cells even under extremely weak thresholds. The causation seems to be that within a few meters the geomagnetic DC field varies from 330 milligauss at an 80 degree dip to 700 milligauss at a 59 degree dip.
Confirmation of these experiments continue to appear and links have been, formed with the onset of cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Miscarriages, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other diseases of the central nervous system. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy. The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected. The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam. Research in this field continues with an increasing number of sophisticated environmental measuring instruments coming on the market to aid the geobiologist in identifying causative factors to illness and disease. The very high electric fields associated with high voltage overhead power lines also cause air ionization, charging toxic aerosols so that they become even more dangerous.
The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun. To varying degrees the health consequences of staying above one of these geopathically stressed locations can be replicatedA  in our own homes by the choice of mattresses we use.A  The bottom line is, if you suspect your sleeping site is being disturbed by an unusually high magnetic anomaly then buy a bed that has a wooden base and place there upon a mattress that has no springs and make sure it is not placed near a radiator or other heavy metal object. In the 1930a€™s a French engineer Pierie Cody who lived in the sea-port of Le HavreA knew of local a€?cancer housesa€™ in the port where many people had died from cancer over the years. The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed. This equipment known as the Genitron Felix - 3 detects ultra short and radio microwave frequencies with the ability to print them out on a [UKW- Spektrometer und Linienschreiber] This equipment is used in German universities and research institutes that confirms dowsable energy above subterranean water lines. Effects central nervous system and the brain in the ways which effect powerful hormonal mechanisms. After checking large numbers of these dwellings, Cody concluded that the air in these a€?Cancer Housesa€™ were ionized to an unusual degree.
Important areas to be aware of are bedrooms, especially where pillows are on beds, because EMFa€™s affect an area of the brain, called the pineal gland, which works to protect the body against illness overnight. From various other tests Cody concluded that the ionization radiation consisted of positively charged Alpha Particles. It is also a good idea to look at places like a favourite armchair, or in front of a computer or TV. The only known source of alpha particle emission in dwellings was from a radioactive gas called Radon.
It is important that places like these where you are sitting or lying still for a longish period of time should have low EMFa€™s; cells tend to cope better with external fields if the person is moving around. The mix will not stop new itch spots or bumps and lumps, but it will get RID of existing ones without leaving a trace.
When you are sitting still and particular cells keep being interfered with by EMFa€™s, there is an increased risk that the damage may become unrepairable.
Without proper flora the body is open to many different type of skin infections since the flora is our immune defense against invaders.
You can also open capsules of probiotics and not just one since you are covering a large area Beware that in the morning the liquid will have absorbed into your skin or evaporated leaving lots of crumbs and it's messy. It is worthwhile taking particular precautionary action with regard to childrena€™s living environments. I also learned and am not surprised that scientists are discovering that humans are missing certain key bacteria from the skin that the human body requires.
There is also a clinical trial underway to study the skin of children across USA."??Posted Oct.
At the store I found Absorbine Jr Cream and although it did burn for about 2-3 minutes after a short amount of time enduring I found it to be soothing and took the itching and pain away. After a few days of applying 2-3 times per day I found that it actually pulled out alot of all the horrible things that were under the massive very deep crusted lesions on my arm (can be seen before and after photo).After some success I began looking at the ingredients and determined all the natural things that it was made from, one of which was camphor (another good one is wormwood and aloe), and began trying other over the counter camphor based items by looking at the percentage of camphor within each product. The ones I currently have now are all microscopic and can no longer be seen with the naked eye. However I will say that while the camphor I believe is helping to rid my internal system, it also has a price of the purging and expelling (so it has not been an easy pain free task), but I know I am healing.
The camphor bottle has a stopper in the top allowing only one drop at a time, and once I did get too many drops which caused a euphoric sensation through my body. Again everything in moderation!!I also use a bottle of Vaposteam in hot baths for soaking that has camphor.
The oil in the camphor and the aroma baths soften the skin, pull the fibers out, clear the sinuses, and help relax for a good nights sleep as well.
Much to my amazement I actually saw tons of blue fibers pour out of the lesion right before my eyes (I had never seen them come out of my body like that, usually when fiber bundles were present with the naked eye I would wake in the morning to find them there).After several months of taking it internally I had concerns that I may be hurting my blood, kidneys or liver and told my doctor what I was doing and requested referrals for urinalysis and bloodwork. Just as a test I stopped taking it once and within a week the clumps of fibers returned, so I began again which took another week for it to get back in my system to get relief again. I sometimes now take a break for a day or two if I am doing good, but don't go more than 2 days without at least a few drops.Disclaimer I am not advising anyone to use any of the items I choose to use for myself, you and you alone are responsible for your own healing and research, I am merely telling what has worked for me!?Posted Oct. She used this formula on the face and on the eyelids with no problem and claims her eyebrows and eyelashes are growing back.
Her before and after photo shows the improvement, but I am not publishing them as it reveals her face.
Her formula contains DMSO which some feel is controversial, so do your own research and decide if it's the right direction for you. This is the only thing that ever worked without destroying my skin.I got onto the idea of DMSO. It is a carrier and contrary to what experts say it is not harmful, you can research it yourself if you haven't already done so. I believe the DMSO carries the other oils deep into the skin and  kills the "what ever they are". You won't be able to get them all out and yes some may die in the skin and cause a breakout, but over time is will subside. It's taken me over a year now as certain section of my face were harder to deal with specifically the chin and cheeks. You don't have to wash your face but rinse it and apply a very thin layer at night before you go to bed. It seems now that I may never be rid of this completely but it is manageable.
I was using antibiotics and I'd have to smear it on everyday and still not get rid of this and those antibiotics are not good for you.
Most of my pores are tight like they were when I was young. FAR Infrared Using a FAR infrared sauna suit, Donna Staehr was able to clear up lesions that had been present for two years all over her body. With her permission, I'm sharing her "before" and "after" photos as well as her story (in italics).
I couldn't breath properly, couldn't even walk to my letterbox without puffing and wheezing. I'm still not healed, but it's more maintenance now, and these days I'm trying to fix all the damage done to the body—a long road as you know. If I had to buy a unit right now, I would not purchase this unit again but would go for a suit or blanket that envelopes the entire body as I think these would be much more effective then having a pad. Learn how Infrared Therapy will benefit your healthHow does Far Infrared Therapy really work?The infrared light increases cellular metabolic rates by triggering mitochondria activity. The build up of toxins in a health body could block the normal blood circulation and impair the cellular energy. When FIR waves are applied, the water molecules that encapsulate the toxins get heat up, and start to vibrate.
This vibration reduces the ion bonds of the atoms that are holding together the molecules of water.
Scientists in Japan report that in the FIR treatment of clogged capillary vessels, heat expands the capillaries and then initiates the start of a process to dissolve hidden toxins. Far Infrared thereby promotes elimination of fats, chemicals and toxins from the blood: Poisons, carcinogenic heavy metals - toxic substances from food processing - lactic acid, free fatty acids, and subcutaneous fat associated with aging and fatigue - excess sodium associated with hypertension - and uric acid which causes pain.
Furthermore, if sebaceous glands are activated, accumulated cosmetics in pores can be eliminated through the skin (sweat and oil glands) rather than by the kidneys.3) Far Infrared stimulates enzyme activity and metabolism - One hour under the Hotouse improves metabolism.
Furthermore, it increases growth of cells, DNA syntheses, and protein synthesis all necessary during tissue repair and regeneration. Excellent for healing burns, scar tissue and skin problems.6) Far Infrared relieves nervous tension and relax autoneuro muscles thereby helping the body make the most of its intended healing abilities.
I am mentioning this because people with Morgellons know they flair when they sweat and it was like that for me as well but NOT when I sweated from FIR. It is the furthest red on the spectrum and that spectrum of light is a very healing kind of light for humans and animals too.Incidentally the military has used FIR for ages for detoxification purposes.
I always thought it was normal for me to run low, as I can never remember not running low.It doesn't seem to be normal though, because now that it's up, it stays up, I'm feeling good. None of this is medical advice and all of it is based on only my own VERY un-scientific observations. His experience is that if lesions ooze onto clothing, you can spread the infection via the fabric.
Sometimes I back the square with another square which is "dry" on the back of the first honey soaked dressing square.
I treat new lesions immediatly before they get worse. The manuka honey        One unique advantage is manuka honeys ability to rapidly re-granulate the wound after the expulsion process. It also has the unique ability to stimulate immune cells at the wound site, something that no over-the-counter or Rx product can do. This works well for me because I do not have to endure pain as previously, because manuka honey is an excellect analgesic. Massage it in and they come to the surface before they can grow laterally in the skin layers. When he tells me he finds something that works, I pay particular attention because he has been hitting this disease hard. Tests on the morg bacteria on slides shows that it does kill the bacteria that makes the gels. Had a major breakout of lesions on one side of my face. Sure enough, there are those courageous and marginally insane folks who refuse to succumb to the drill and are healing their own teeth. It was tough, and at times scary but the tooth did heal." I'd like to share my experience with oil pulling using coconut oil. Three or four times in the three years since getting Morgellons, a sore has popped up on the roof of my mouth near the teeth. In the past, it has taken up to two weeks to fully go away because brushing the teeth rips open the sore which bleeds. The last time I got one of these sores I decided (after two days) to begin coconut pulling. I swished the oil around 20 minutes? in the morning upon awakening and in the evening before bed. Since then, I've continued to do coconut pulling at least once in the morning.? I have to admit, I'm pretty obsessive when it comes to my teeth.
Things I have used on my teeth over time. Bentonite clay Rub the gums with it before bed (and leave it in the mouth). It's fine if you end up swallowing it in your sleep as it's very healthy and helps with detoxification. For those that take Bentonite internally as a detoxifier, note that it should be taken away from supplements.Garlic is a natural antibiotic I have experimented with extensively for fighting infection both internally and externally for years and can attest to it's antibiotic properties.
I've used this method on my teeth before I even had Morgellons with good results. If you feel you've got a serious infection in your tooth, taking garlic internally, might be a secondary support to your system.
Make sure there is food in your stomach before ingesting raw garlic as it can burn in the most brutal fashion.
Use only a half clove (or less) at a time to make sure your stomach is okay before taking a whole clove.
Also, some cultures like the Chinese, believe too much garlic overstimulates the liver, which can cause fitful sleep.
If you have a bad abcess in the mouth, and feel the infection has progressed to a serious stage, you will need to determine if antibiotics are the way to go.
I had a really bad infection (pre-Morgellons) that I took antibiotics for and feel that was the best choice at the time. At the time of writing, I believed that I had had some sort of infestation in my apartment. However, if you do have a bug problem in your environment, these tips should get rid of it.
I've written more about the need to get confirmation that there really is a problem in your environment on the "Reflections" page. Do not breathe in the fumes if you can help it and don't stay in any room you are treating! Make a point of using them in sealed areas or bins and open windows or use an exhaust fan to ventilate afterwards. Some people buy the diffusers that have a candle in them. Menthol usage for dirty laundry (do not use menthol crystals in the washing machine) —Clothes are a big reinfection point.
The whole idea behind using the bin with crystals is that you want to kill anything in the laundry BEFORE you put it in the wash so that you are not exposing yourself to re-infection when you handle it at the washer. You'll get the feel for how much you should use over time. After the clothing has been mentholating for a few hours, you can reach in and turn the laundry ensuring that everything in the bin has been well exposed to the menthol. When you are ready to turn off the heating element, pull the plug rather than opening the bin.
This works well—especially if you have things like down coats.You can do your shoes this way too or any other items you are unsure of!
Using menthol crystals on furniture (such as a couch) —Buy a big plastic drop-cloth from a hardware store with as thick a plastic as is available and 'TENT' your couch. I wouldn't make a habit of wearing unwashed mentholated clothing as I believe it is unhealthy to inhale the vapors over a long period. Some people have tried to mentholate rooms. Open dresser draws, closet doors, and try to keep in mind that you want to make sure as much air circulation gets around things as possible. Don't do this if you have fishtanks in the room, and make sure to protect your pets by keeping them out.
Computer Equipment —I disassembled all my equipment including cords and put them into a big bin with mothballs. It did the trick.Mothballs are nasty and toxic, this is a last resort solution and I suggest you do your best to limit exposure especially when it comes to inhaling.
Also, note that certain plastic foams will absorb the odor of the mothballs and there is no way to get that smell out. If you have a problem in an isolated area such as a room, I'd put a bin right outside the door with diatomaceous earth? in it, or methol crystals. I encourage those wanting to interact with others in the Morgellons communtiy to join the forum (or the many other Facebook groups). Gratitude to Rayelta Nayar? for all her hard work preparing these!Note that I am not publishing the below pdfs as recommendations. I'm not endorsing nor do I follow any of the protocols below, yet, feel the public should have easy access to the information and form their own opinions about them. Reflections Awareness Poster Links Ayla's Art Contact Ayla Morgellons Disease: Tips for healing lesions, oral care and environment   Information for dealing with Morgellons lesions using topical aids as well as FAR infrared technology. It's not a cure, but it WILL rid each and every lesion if the application is consistent. You can also open capsules of probiotics and not just one since you are covering a large area Beware that in the morning the liquid will have absorbed into your skin or evaporated leaving lots of crumbs and it's messy.
Her formula contains DMSO which some feel is controversial, so do your own research and decide if it's the right direction for you. It is a carrier and contrary to what experts say it is not harmful, you can research it yourself if you haven't already done so. You won't be able to get them all out and yes some may die in the skin and cause a breakout, but over time is will subside. It's taken me over a year now as certain section of my face were harder to deal with specifically the chin and cheeks. I was using antibiotics and I'd have to smear it on everyday and still not get rid of this and those antibiotics are not good for you.



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Comments
  1. Santa_Claus 12.04.2015 at 11:41:55
    Herpes outbreaks of the face known.
  2. VIRUS 12.04.2015 at 23:36:31
    Soda or cornstarch applied on to the painful the commonest infection, but they.
  3. BIG_BOSS 12.04.2015 at 16:28:33
    With genital herpes by utilizing price of antiviral medication doesn't help.