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Yellowstone Volcano Eruption Effects is part of the Mountain collection Hight Quality HD wallpapers. Any content, trademarks, or other material that might be found on this website that is not this site property remains the copyright of its respective owners. Despite relatively lax attitudes about marijuana, the drug does have the potential to be habit forming and to cause much trouble in people's lives. Abuse of cannabinoids, such as marijuana, can be dangerous, and many people have difficulties stopping. As a relatively new drug on the market, synthetic marijuana is on the market legally and is proving to be extremely dangerous.
Marijuana contains a plethora of cannabinoids, the most potent being delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that can cause addiction in people who abuse the substance for long periods of time. Lake Maggiore in Italy is an example of a lake already feeling the effects of climate change.
Not only are extreme weather events such as droughts and intense rainstorms becoming more common, climate warming is leading to increased algal growth and more frequent toxic algal blooms. New evidence from studies in Europe shows that a warming climate, in particular, is already having a profound impact on lakes, according to Dr. Two leading European freshwater research programs are REFRESH, studies of adaptive strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change on freshwater ecosystems, and MARS, focused on the management of freshwater lakes, rivers and streams under multiple stressors, including climate change. I learned about the extensive research by Jeppesen and his colleagues while attending the Joint Aquatic Sciences Meeting (JASM), a first-ever gathering of four freshwater science societies, in Portland, Oregon, in May this year. Among the impacts of climate change I’ve already written about, climate warming exacerbates lake eutrophication, a natural aging process whereby a lake becomes more enriched with nutrients and algal growth over time. As water temperature increases, it has a similar effect on a lake as increasing nutrient loading, although the mechanisms are different, Jeppesen says. Jeppesen’s research suggests that the more eutrophic a lake is, the more sensitive it is to warming water temperatures, especially in northern temperate lakes. Higher temperatures in shallow lakes also leads to higher release of phosphorus in the summer, when algal blooms prevail due to higher metabolism in the lake bottom.
A diagram showing changes in the food web of a Danish lake degraded by nutrient loading and warming.
Another well-documented effect of climate warming is on fish populations, which play a key role in the trophic dynamics of lakes. Warmer lakes favor fish populations with smaller and fast-reproducing individuals, which is similar to the effect eutrophication has on lakes. The effects of nutrient enrichment and climate warming are a “double-whammy” for lakes.  Evidence suggests that nutrient loading and warming water temperature have a synergistic effect, leading to further degradation of water quality than would be expected with one or the other mechanism.
One example of the latter is Lake Maggiore, in northern Italy, where the phosphorus loading declined from 1970 through the mid 1990s, and then leveled off through 2010. If water quality managers are frustrated by the slow response of lakes to nutrient loading reductions, they have good reason to be. Addressing the problem of eutrophication requires additional reductions in nutrient pollution than would be necessary in the absence of human-induced climate change. Jeppesen delivered his message with a sufficient dose of Danish-style humor, at one point showing a slide of a seal sunning itself on a rock with a cartoon-like thought bubble, “It takes time. For climate adaptation planning purposes, it’s not just hypothetical what might happen to lakes.
Thanks for the erudite article on the causal factors underlying the unhealthy state of Lake Maggiore and others in general globally. The monitoring work that your lake association is doing on Logan Martin Lake is critically important for understanding how lakes are changing.
Living on lake Geneva, the biggest lake in Europe, I can say with confidence that this is utter nonsense! According to the IPCC models, the Alpine region, since 2005, is supposed to experience HOT summers and MILD winters with almost no snow, except at high altitudes.
Instead, since 2007, we have FREEZING COLD WINTERS, cold springs, cool summers and tons of snow every winter, even right next to lake Geneva, which usually doesn’t get much snow.
Right now, as I type this, daytime temperatures for most of July were at 13-15C instead of the normal seasonal temperatures of 27 to 35C. In 2013, supposedly a “hot” year, we had summer temperatures for 3 weeks – the rest of the time, it was like now – FREEZING COLD! How can anyone claim that “the lakes change due to warming” when a study of the exact temperatures shows that THERE WAS NO WARMING? I will not argue with you about the cold winters you’ve experienced of late, having lived in Europe myself from 2007-2010 and visited Lake Geneva several times during that period.
To clarify, I refer you to the water temperature data provided in the review paper by Jeppesen et al.
What is important to remember about lakes is that they are integrators of changes in their surrounding environment, and as a result, they are very reliable indicators of changes in climate. As published today, the lack of fish in the lakes is due to excessive water purification, which doesn’t leave enough nutrients.


To your point about no detectable warming in the alpine region, see my reply to “Pro Libertate,” which includes further explanation. Again you have distilled a lot of science into easy to comprehend information for a lay person like me. Global temperatures are at peak since the advent of satellites to monitor the surface temperatures of oceans in the 1960s. Water CurrentsThe goal of Water Currents is to bring together diverse voices to discuss pressing issues in freshwater. Help Save the Colorado RiverBy promising to conserve water you can help restore freshwater ecosystems. Some 170,000 have already cut their water footprint, and, with conservation partners, Change the Course has restored more than 4 billion gallons to the Colorado River Basin.
Perspective: What Will Happen When the Aquifers Run Dry?If you think the water crisis can't get worse, wait until the aquifers are drained. The might Colorado, the life and soul of the West, is one of the most tapped rivers in the world. Although many states are already banning it, it is still for sale legally in some areas of the United States.
Cannabinoid addiction signs are present in people who have formed an addiction to the ‘five leaf plant,’ which has slowly begun to make its way back into society as a legal drug. In the 1990s, the population of coldwater fish species such as trout and whitefish declined dramatically. It also affects the entire aquatic food web, including the number, size and distribution of freshwater fish species, according to the latest research. This process, sometimes called “cultural” eutrophication because it is accelerated by nutrient pollution from humans (think Lake Erie), has become one of the greatest problems facing lakes throughout the world. Part of the reason is that eutrophic lakes tend to have large stores of nutrients in the sediments. With climate warming and less winter ice cover in recent decades, deep lakes remain stratified longer, with warmer water near the surface and cooler water at depth.
Warmer water at the surface creates ideal conditions for algal blooms, including toxic ones.
Note the smaller fish sizes and increased amounts of algae in the degraded and warm lake examples. Researchers are finding changes in the types of fish and the size and age structure of the fish population in recent decades, Jeppesen says. The trend favors species such as bream and carp, which prey on zooplankton instead of some salmonids, pike and perch, which are considered “good guys” because they can prey on smaller fish. This can be understood by looking at lakes that have low nutrient inputs across a wide range of climatic zones or where management interventions have successfully reduced excessive nutrient loading. Warming water temperatures are making the challenging task of achieving water quality goals a whole lot harder. The take away message from Europe is that nutrient reduction efforts need to be stepped up, not just to meet today’s water quality goals, but also to increase the lake’s resilience to warming trends that are already underway. Let’s wait and see…” He said, “Even though we humans may change our minds from day to day about whether climate change is real, depending on how hot or cold the weather is outside, the lakes and their biological communities are feeling it.
There is enough evidence on the impacts of climate change in recent decades and from comparing lakes across different climatic zones to take action now.
With her husband, she co-founded LakeNet, a world lakes network, and co-wrote a sailing guide called “The Black Sea” based on their voyage around the sea in 2010. Unfortunately, as the naysayers commenting hereon highlight, better environmental and health promotion efforts are urgently needed to halt and reverse this increasingly dire ecological development. Not only is this helpful for use on your lake, but it can be useful for others in statewide, national and even global studies. Last year, I was so imprudent as to not wear a winter jacket in june – I almost froze to death! It gives me the opportunity to mention another example of a European lake (Geneva) affected by climate change.
But it is important for all of us to understand that even during a warming trend, there is considerable variability in temperature. It is true that fish biomass goes down with nutrient loading reductions, and this is seen in many lakes worldwide, Erik Jeppesen says. While it has been relatively cooler in recent years, there is an overall warming trend going back to 1960. The situation on Lake Maggiore is one of multiple stressors at work (see reply to Stefan’s comment).
It gives me the opportunity to remind readers that lakes are considered good indicators of climate change for a variety of reasons, including some mentioned in this post. We are particularly interested in water consumption, locally and globally, and restoration and conservation of freshwater ecosystems. For every pledge, Change the Course will restore 1,000 gallons back to the Colorado River.
The water the dinosaurs drank millions of years ago is the same water that falls as rain today.


As I have noted in earlier posts, this is an important issue because other studies show that lake temperatures are on the rise throughout the world.
Jeppesen, who like me is also a member of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), gave a talk about the impacts of climate change on lakes and freshwater fish in Europe. The lake’s growing season is longer, the nutrients are more readily available, and predation on phytoplankton is lower. Less mixing and a lack of oxygen in the deeper layers create ideal conditions for algae-loving nutrients, such as phosphorus, to be released from the sediments.
There has been a shift towards a dominance of fish species that can tolerate or adapt to a wide range of temperatures.
In the mid 1990s, the population of coldwater fish species such as trout and whitefish declined dramatically in Lake Maggiore, as determined by fisherman catches, while warmwater species such as shad increased.
While it is difficult to separate out the climate signal from other stressors on lakes, especially eutrophication, the latest research is closing in on doing just that. Reducing the amount of nutrients available also increases the resilience of a lake to climate change.” In an earlier post, I noted that this is an approach being embraced on Lake Tahoe, and more recently by the USEPA, which is developing climate change resiliency criteria that some Great Lakes restoration initiative projects will have to meet to receive federal funding.
A native of the Great Lakes region, she served as coordinator of the Lake Champlain Basin Program in the 1990s.
It would make sense that you are seeing improvements in dissolved oxygen with a decrease in pollution.
First, I would like to point out that the warming trends I refer to in the post are long-term trends, not the short period since 2007 that you mention.
This has impacted the fishery, with conditions favoring warmer water species and a dramatic reduction in Arctic char, a cold water species, as measured by fish catches. A long-term view and looking at changes in similar ecosystems (in this case lakes) throughout an entire region (Europe) puts climate trends in proper perspective. There are indications of this on Lake Maggiore, where fishing yields have declined since the 1980s, but it doesn’t explain the shift to more warm water species in the lake.
I refer you to the above paper by Jeppesen and one of my previous posts on the topic: Alpine Lakes in Austria Reflect Climate Change. The nutrient reductions I was referring to are those that were achieved as part of lake restoration efforts in the 1970s, when the lake began to make a recovery in water quality. We are fortunate to have in-lake measurements of water temperature that pre-date satellite technologies, such as on Lake Tanganyika, a record that goes back 100+ years.
How Cannabinoids Affect the Brain Stigma surrounding the recreational use of marijuana has all but fallen by the wayside as the U. Below is a summary of what they are finding in Europe and what they propose doing about it.
Some of these species are what Jeppesen calls “bad guys” because they feed directly on zooplankton, such as water flea, that help control phytoplankton growth. This shift occurred despite a reduction in nutrient loading that would have otherwise favored the larger, coldwater fish species living in more nutrient poor waters. Based on the data from European lakes, experts are calling for even more reductions in nutrient loadings to offset the impacts of rising water temperatures. The US being no exception despite changing attitudes seemingly associated with a correlation between the frequency of many recent national, natural disasters, climate change and human activity and behavior. The changes in the fish communities are likely triggered by multiple stressors, including warming water temperature, changes in the trophic state of the lake and the introduction of invasive species, according to a review paper by Jeppesen et al (2012). However, other climate trends are now at work to further complicate lake restoration efforts.
Also known as the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoid drugs like marijuana bind directly onto specialized cannabinoid receptor sites within this system, according to Vanderbilt University. Cannabinoids in general consist of different chemical compounds that exert varying effects at these receptor sites.When smoked, marijuana moves from the lungs directly into the bloodstream, which carries cannabinoid compounds to the brain as well as throughout the body. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, cannabinoid receptor sites in the brain normally secrete naturally occurring endorphin chemicals in response to whatever a person experiences.
Cannabinoid compounds trigger these secretions automatically, which accounts for the immediate effects of the drug.Effects on Brain ChemistryThe brain uses chemicals, known as neurotransmitters, to communicate between its different regions.
These neurotransmitters also communicate messages to other parts of the body.According to Columbia Health, cannabinoids exert their greatest effects on acetylcholine levels in the brain. As one of the primary neurotransmitter chemicals, an imbalance in acetylcholine levels can disrupt any number of brain and bodily processes.Changes in brain chemistry account for the drug’s effects on a person’s personality and behavior.
With large doses of marijuana, short-term memory capacity declines considerably.Long-Term Psychological EffectsWith long-term use, cannabinoids can slowly deteriorate brain processes and structures to the point where a person has difficulty managing the affairs of everyday life.



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