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Other types of malignant cells that arise in the jaw bone are Ewing’s sarcomas or giant cell tumors. Signs and symptoms of jaw cancer are related to the growth of tumor on the area which restricts movement and circulation to the area. This is the most common symptom of jaw cancer due to the compression of the tumor on the surrounding nerves.
Compression of the nerves in the jaw results in tingling sensation and numbness in the area. The tumor does not only compress nerves, but also obstruct the blood flow in the area causing swelling.
Smoking and tobacco use have been one of the most common risk factor for oral and jaw cancers.
Constant irritation of the oral mucosa from alcoholic drinks may lead to secondary jaw cancers.
People fond of chewing betel nut are also at risk for secondary jaw cancers as a result of oral cancers.
Conditions that may cause constant irritation of the mandibular joint may also cause malignancies in the area. Human papilloma virus specifically type 16 of the virus is a definite causative factor for jaw and oral cancers.
The initial stage involves the growth of the cancer cells within cell membranes of the jaw tissues. Stage II involves growth of the tumor in the jaw bone including the subcutaneous, muscle tissues, ligaments and tendons. Regional spread involves the spread of malignant cells on adjacent tissues such as the oral cavity and surrounding lymph areas. This sub stage involves the occurrence of gross tumor with microscopic seeding on adjacent tissues with no lymph spread.
This involves gross tumor spread on surrounding tissues with seeding of less than 2 cm in size.
This involves gross tumor spread on surrounding areas with seeding of more than 2 cm in size.
The last stage of jaw cancer involves the spread of the malignant cells throughout the rest of the body due to lymphatic spread. The most preferred management for osteosarcoma of the jaws is surgery although chemotherapy and radiation may also be performed as adjunct therapies.
Chemotherapy is usually given as an adjunct to surgery to completely eradicate the cancer cells that may have spread to the adjacent organs.
The outcome of treatment for jaw osteosarcoma depends on the grade and stage of the diseases. I have black bone on the bottom of my jaw, they found this while I was getting centers Dr Vega at Vanderbilt has been treating, but I can tell it’s getting worse.
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This entry was posted in Oral Cancer and tagged Signs and Symptoms of Oral Cancer on January 12, 2015 by Dawnie Kildoo. If you notice a hard swelling and you are not sure how long it has been present it may be a tori. This unusual tori is just present on one side of the mouth and the patient believes she had a gum graft in this area. Our office would be happy to answer your questions about dental tori or other conditions in your mouth! It is believed that tori are caused by several factors but there is not one thing that always causes tori.
Tori on lower jaw below tongue (see lingual frenum or attachment of tongue to floor of mouth).
This information shared with you by Julie Gillis, DDS PC .  We feel that your dental health is the top priority, and if we can make your smile more attractive while improving your health that is wonderful! Dr. We have featured a couple blogs about evaluating your own dental work.  I feel it is very important to take an active roll in the health of your mouth.  The more familiar you are with what is going on in your own mouth, the more you will be able to determine when something changes or when something is not healthy!  Screening for oral cancer might just save your life!
Please let your dentist or oral surgeon know if you have sores in your mouth that do not heal within two weeks or if you have discolored areas that seem to be spreading or changing or if you have any questions about your oral health.  Note that pain is not an indication of a problem – several oral lesions do not hurt! Oral cancers are part of a group of cancers commonly referred to as head and neck cancers, and of all head and neck cancers they comprise about 85% of that category. Historically the death rate associated with this cancer is particularly high not because it is hard to discover or diagnose, but due to the cancer being routinely discovered late in its development.
Stick the tongue out as far as you can - this may be a good time to brush your tongue as well!
Often oral cancer is only discovered when the cancer has metastasized to another location, most likely the lymph nodes of the neck. This means that patients who survive a first encounter with the disease, have up to a 20 times higher risk of developing a second cancer. We love to give our patient’s information and options about their dental treatment and about getting and keeping their mouth as healthy as possible!  Dr. Many of us may see a trip to the dentist as a chance to get a quick scale and polish and perhaps a filling or two.
With mouth cancer rates increasing by over 40 percent in the last decade it has become one of the UK‘s fastest growing cancers and it is up to our dentist to check for the early warning signs. Yet, results from the survey reveal only 15 percent of us believe the dentist to be checking our mouths for the early symptoms of the disease. At Blessington Dental during our routine dental check up your dentist or hygienist performs a full examination of not only the teeth and gums, but the cheeks, tongue and floor of the mouth too.
New research also suggests that gum disease carries a higher risk of causing a stroke than diabetes, and its impact is nearly the equivalent of high blood pressure as a major cause of strokes. The latest research indicates that people with are twice as likely to suffer a non-fatal stroke than people with diabetes. This is another reminder of the serious impact that poor oral health poses to general health and wellbeing. Several theories also exist to explain the link between periodontal disease and heart disease.
The good news is that poor oral health is nearly always preventable and it is important that people make caring for their teeth a top priority. Next time you visit Blessington Dental ask about gum disease and oral cancer, their symptoms and how to check for them at home.
A Happy Daycare - Summer Program    Summer Program 2013Get ready to explore your worldthis summer at A Happy Daycare.This Summer at A Happy Daycare we will pretend to ride along with the Magic School Bus into a world of adventure. As the nation observes the 14th Annual Oral Cancer Awareness Month this month, the American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, American Academy of Periodontology, the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, and the American Dental Association have joined the Oral Cancer Foundation in its campaign to remind everyone that regular oral cancer examinations from your dental professional are the best methods to detect oral cancer in its early stages. In between dental visits, it is important for patients to be aware of the following signs and symptoms, and to see their dentist if they do not disappear after two weeks. Research has identified a number of factors that may contribute to the development of oral cancer. For more information about oral cancer, its diagnosis and treatment, visit the Oral Cancer Foundationa€™s website.
The American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (AAOMP) represents the dental specialty that identifies and manages diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions and investigates the causes, processes, and effects of these diseases. The American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) is the professional organization for periodontists a€“ specialists in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the gums and supporting structures of the teeth, and in the placement of dental implants. Saving Faces, Changing LivesA® a€” The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS), the professional organization representing more than 9,500 oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the United States, supports its fellowsa€™ and membersa€™ ability to practice their specialty through education, research and advocacy.
The not-for-profit American Dental Association is the nation's largest dental association, representing 157,000 dentist members. DESCRIPTION: With the develop-ment of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the problem of a€?harmonizinga€™ or reconciling the traditional world views laid down by Pliny, Ptolemy, Aristotle and Ambrose with that of the new discoveries became increasingly acute.
Beyond the equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius [Mela] and many others as well raise a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India; [nevertheless] they say that many have passed through these parts from India to Spain . This rather refreshing disposition towards agnosticism is exemplified again in the configuration of South Africa. Also typical of maps of the period, the anonymously compiled Genoese map is covered with legends in Latin, castellated towns representing major population centers, princes on their thrones, and loxodromes from the portolan tradition.
This map is now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be found in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, being catalogued Sezione Palatina No.
The Genoese map became the center of controversy in the 1940s when the Italian scholar Sebastiano Crino, suggested that this was a copy of the map that Paolo Toscanelli sent to the Portuguese court in 1474 and later but less certainly to Columbus, was a copy of it, touting the possibility of a sea route to India via the Atlantic.
A Genoese flag in the upper northwest corner of the map establishes this mapa€™s origin, along with the coat of arms of the Spinolas, a prominent Genoese mercantile family. The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis measuring 81 cm and a minor axis measuring 42 cm. Ptolemy is cited by name in several inscriptions, and there is evidence of his influence in the representation of Africa (Ethiopia, the source of the Nile), an enclosed Caspian Sea (Mar de Sara), the southern coast of Asia, and the Golden Chersonese, not named but identified by a legend noting that it is particularly rich in gold and precious stones.
Paradise does not appear on the map, and an inscription in southeastern Africa tells us why: a€?In this region some depict the earthly paradise. Of course, the cosmographers had no objection to monsters - even Ptolemy mentions a few, although he did not put them on his maps.
Although its cartographer explicitly disapproved of fantastic narratives in a legend in the Atlantic (frivolis narracionibus rejectis), Chet Van Duzer points out that the richly decorated map contains a number of fantastic illustrations, and the legends, many of which come from the travel narrative of Niccole dea€™ Conti (c.1395-1469), do not shy away from fantastic subjects.
In the eastern Indian Ocean there is an imposing creature with a humanoid head and upper body, but with large horns and ears and wing-like red membranes joining its outstretched arms to its torso, and a fish-like tail.
Turning first to Europe for a consideration of the details of the map, it will be noted that the contour of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our cartographera€™s greatest errors appearing in the regions which were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan chartmakers. The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve around the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar bear Forma ursorum alborum, and an ermine or sable, animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians. Many regional names appear and many cities are made prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a pennant.
In France appear the names Gascona, Lengadoc, Normania, Baiona, Bordeaux, Tolosa, Nar-bona, Montpellier, Arguesmortes, Avenio, Massillia, Lion, Dijon, Bourges, Renes, and a few undecipherable names. In Italy we find Italia, Masca, Calabria, Si-cilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Niza, and Venezia, which last our author has made especially prominent, while Genoa itself has been omitted altogether. In central and eastern Europe we find Bavaria, Boemia, Prutenia, Bruges, Dancic, Famosura [Frankenburg?], Poana, Praja, Ratisbon, Inbrunch, Vienna, Pruna, Potavia, Ungaria with Juanin (Raab), Burgaria, Polonia, Carcovia, Rossia, and near this last the classic names Sormatia prima and S. We also find the region Zichia designated on the north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the Black Sea, Savastopoli, Kaffa, Pidea, Flordelis, Turlo and Moncastro. On the Hellenic-Slavic peninsula we find the names Sclavonia and Albania, which had but recently withstood an attack of the Turks; here also are Macedonia, Grecia and Morea. But it is perhaps in respect to the islands of the southeast that the map is of greatest interest. It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf that extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Borneo and Java. The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the middle ages, and which in all probability the Genoese map-maker took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery it has been placed farther north. The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the form of the map, and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are also the numerous islands, not one of which we are able to identify.
The Genoese map abandons the northeastern quarter of Asia to the apocalyptic peoples: surrounded by impassible mountains and in the north and east by the ocean is a large territory in which are placed trees and fortresses. In addition to the usual medieval depiction of the mythical Gog and Magog the Genoese map also contains a large number of drawings of zoological interest. The main African interest lies in the fact that, as a departure from Ptolemya€™s conception, the Indian Ocean, as is also shown on the Vesconte, Bianco, the Catalan-Estense, Leardo and Fra Mauroa€™s maps (#228, #241, #246, #242, and #249), is not landlocked, and, significantly, the southern extremity of Africa does not run away eastwards, as on the Catalan-Estense map. The southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Persian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent reports of travelers.
The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the ocean into which a broad rivera€”perhaps the Mahia€”empties. In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe its origin to a statement made by Pliny or maybe an attempt to represent some one or more of the numerous artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous.
In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese mapmaker and the same islands as they appear on the maps of Ptolemy. The name Sumatra, which our cosmographer, together with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 14th century.
The long southern coast which, according to Ptolemy, makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in part appears in the Idrisi and the Sanudo maps (#219, Book II, #228), has been omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east of the peninsula becomes in the Genoese map an open sea, corresponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which sea had been found difficult of navigation because of continually unfavorable wind.
Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast of Asia, a legend gives the following information: These islands are called Java, of which the greater in circumference is three, and the other two thousand miles.
Marvelous beings are represented in parts of the Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon. Of particular importance are the other legends in the Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti. We find on other world maps similar information concerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes, such as the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235). Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making mention of ships that could carry a thousand mena€”six hundred seamen and four hundred soldiers. A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here contains numerous errors. It is of special interest that in a region so significant by reason of its physical features, where the Pamir Highlands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun unite, our cosmographer represents a second Iron gate where Alexander imprisoned the Tartars, or a wall with a strong gateway. In the interior of Southeast Asia there is a large lake with the legend: The waters of this lake are very pleasant and sweet for drinking. Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does Conti, the simple facts that he himself observed, that is, that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and through the washing and the sifting of the sands. No rivers are represented by the Genoese cosmographer in Northeast Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend Inaccessible mountains. On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be the descendants of the Ten Tribes who had departed from the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of the world.
As a characteristic representation of the animal world, we find sketched in Southeast Asia a snake with a human head. The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and topographical features. The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are probably Angora, Burssa and Philadelphia. In Arabia Arabia Deserta is distinguished from Arabia Felix, and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, that is, Oman, is called Fenicea et Sabba, suggesting that the Phoenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf. On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there are only two cities represented, Testango and Organzin. Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, but the Genoese cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, most of which apparently he has taken from Conti.
Of the several regions only Maabar is especially designated in a legend reading: This province is called Mahabaria. Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, which at that time was the most important commercial city of India, and which the Genoese cartographer calls combayta, making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Camcaia or the Latin Combahita.
West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large city Bizungalia, which Conti called Bizenegalia, and which seems to have remained a city of importance well into the 16th century. The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a great parallel mountain range, including apparently the entire Irawadi region, the Genoese cosmographer calls Macina, inscribing the legend: This province of Macina produces elephants.
Turning to the continent of Africa, we find its Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by the Portuguese.
On the west coast, in about the position where one should look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and two small islands extends into the mainland, as is represented by Sanudo, Leardo and Fra Mauro. In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to be the Bay of Zanzibar.
In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretching in a southerly direction. The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, especially that which pertains to the Nile. A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name Maria of Nazareth. That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, in his travels, had gathered considerable information concerning that region of Africa. On the Catalan world map of 1375 (#235) a war elephant is also represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again in India with the addition of a driver.
Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrography of other parts of Africa is very confusing. The reference to the character of the land in Africa and its different products is very full, attention being drawn particularly to the animals. The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the following legend: In this region certain ones have depicted the paradise of delights.
A sea monster illustrating a passage from Bracciolini's Facetiaea€”the ultimate source of the demon-like sea monster on the Genoese world map of 1457a€”in Sebastian Branta€™s 1501 edition of Aesopa€™s Fables.
Does the Genoese World Map represent an intermediate step between a heterogeneous medieval conception of space and a more modern homogeneous one?
He shows a critical approach in dealing with his sources, backing up his decisions or listing information, which is a very innovative feature.
As shown above, social customs and spatial perceptions are connected, and the mapmakera€™s intent to provide a near-natural depiction of the world might be related to the Christian faith.62 It is problematic to presume a homogenous conception of space is operative in the later Middle Ages or the Early Modern period, just because a mapmaker painted a mappa mundi using coastlines drawn from portolan charts, since geography is but one dimension of a mapa€™s content.
These continuities could perhaps explain why, as Evelyn Edson and Emilie Savage-Smith write, [the medieval cosmological modela€™s] a€?overthrow in the 17th century caused a profound spiritual and psychological disorientation from which we have yet to recover.a€?63 Studying conceptions of space in mappae mundi reveals how these conceptions change over time.
Description: This map is justifiably considered by many scholars to be the finest cartographic production of its age.
As royal cosmographer, it was Riberoa€™s duty to revise the patron real [padron general], the standard or official map, as new data was brought back by the pilots from their voyages of discovery. In 1524 Ribero was also a member of the Conference of Badajos that was assembled to settle the dispute as to whether the Philippine Islands lay within the part of the world allotted by the Treaty of Tordesillas to Spain or to Portugal. In 1526 Ribero was a prominent member of the junta of pilots at Seville, under the presidency of Ferdinand Columbus. The map shown here, the Propoganda map, is the one now in the Biblioteca Apostalica Vaticana, Vatican City. Beginning on the northern part of the North American continent, on the coast of Tiera de Labrador [Greenland] a brief inscription reads: The English discovered this country.
Tierra de los Baccallos [Newfoundland], which is still a part of the mainland as on the map of Ruysch (#313), is thus described: The land of cod fish discovered by the Corte Reals and where they were lost. Tiera De EstevA? Gomez commemorates the voyage made in 1525 by Estevan Gomez, the captain of the San Antonio, who deserted Magellan and returned to Spain.
On his return voyage, Gomez saw the Bermuda Islands, which were rediscovered long after by Gates and Somers in 1610. Tiera De Garay, north of the Gulf of Mexico, was so named for Francis de Garay, the Governor of Jamaica, who in 1519 sent Pineda to find a strait through the land to the a€?South Seaa€? recently discovered by Balboa. Nueva EspaA±a, or Mexico, has the following inscription: Nueva EspaA±a is thus called because it contains many things [of the kind found] in Spain. The northern coast of Brazil has this inscription: All over this coast, from Rio dulce to the Cape of San Roque, nothing of account has been found. Tiera Del Brazil has this legend: Here, the only thing of value is the brazil [dyewood], which costs only the trouble of cutting and carrying it to the vessels, which the Indians do for very little. The La Plata region of South America was first explored by Juan de Solis, who, in 1512, succeeded Vespucci as Pilot Major. The following inscription on Tiera De Patagones, or the Country of the Patagonians, discloses that Ribero was familiar with the description of that country which was brought back to Spain in 1522 by the survivors of the Magellan expedition: Those who inhabit that land where Fernam de Magellan found the strait, are men of large bodies, almost giants, covered with skins of beasts. As can be seen there are a multitude of place-names on the coasts of all of the continents. Further north, on the west coast of the modern day United States, but relating to the Atlantic coast, the inscription reads as follows: Everywhere on this northern coast the Indians are taller than those of Santo Domingo and other islands. In accordance with the recommendations of the Spanish members of the Conference at Badajos that all Spanish maps should thereafter locate the Line of Demarcation, Ribero drew such a line 370 leagues west of San Antonio, the westernmost of the Cape Verde Islands, using it as the initial meridian.
The route or track taken by the famous Magellan expedition in 1519-20 is marked on Riberoa€™s map by drawings of his first two ships, the Victoria and the Trinidad. As mentioned earlier, several of Riberoa€™s famous large planispheres, impressively executed in the style of nautical charts, as well as a plan of the western hemisphere, have been preserved and are found today in the libraries of Mantua (the 1525 map), the Vatican (1529), Weimar (1527 and 1529), and WolfenbA?ttel (1532).
Typical of Riberoa€™s world maps is their decoration, which depicted quadrants, astrolabes (bottom left and right) and text providing the rules of navigation and information about various countries. On the Propoganda map, specifically, there are Indians, monkeys, opossums, rheas and parrots which were becoming familiar on the South American scene; but Ribero also adds deer, a jaguar, a possible bear, a dragon, some birds and a number of small animals that are difficult to interpret, but, according to Wilma George, give the impression of some of the South American rodents such as the mara, chinchilla and viscacha. This detail of the Pacific Ocean on the Vaticana€™s a€?Propogandaa€? edition of 1529 shows a quadrant (lower left) and circular figure for finding solar declination (dominating the central Pacific), both with accompanying instructions. Detail: Eastern Hemisphere from the 1529 Propoganda or Second Borgian edition of Riberoa€™s map. In 1524 Ribero was also a member of the Conference of Badajos that was assembled to settle the dispute as to whether the Philippine Islands lay within the part of the world allotted by the Treaty of Tordesillas to Spain or to Portugal.A  This conference dissolved without agreement, but Spain retained control of both groups of islands until 1528, when Charles V sold his claim to the Spice [Moluccan] Islands to Portugal as part of the Treaty of Saragossa. Tiera De Garay, north of the Gulf of Mexico, was so named for Francis de Garay, the Governor of Jamaica, who in 1519 sent Pineda to find a strait through the land to the a€?South Seaa€? recently discovered by Balboa.A  Pineda sailed along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico as far west as the river Panuco, discovering a large river, the R. As mentioned earlier, several of Riberoa€™s famous large planispheres, impressively executed in the style of nautical charts, as well as a plan of the western hemisphere, have been preserved and are found today in the libraries of Mantua (the 1525 map), the Vatican (1529), Weimar (1527 and 1529), and WolfenbA?ttel (1532).A  Fragments of a world map produced in 1530, probably for a member of the important Augsburg merchant dynasty the House of Welser, are preserved in the Studienbibliothek, Dillingen on the Danube. The patient may also feel an uneven alignment over the maxilla and mandible as a result of the mass or tumor.
Sometimes, dentists are the ones who initially diagnose jaw tumors because of affectations of the teeth during dental check-ups.
The carcinogens contained in cigarettes are potent reasons for the development of malignant cells. The virus travels from the mouth into the tonsils, pharynx and the bones on the jaws which cause cellular changes on the area. Patients who are diagnosed in this stage usually have poor prognosis and lesser survival rate. The teeth are also examined to determine any loosening that is associated with lump growth on tooth sockets.
However, radiographic studies are not definitive of malignant cells because benign cysts on the area may also be identified. A sample of the tissues and bones in the jaw is taken and subjected to histologic examinations to assess the cellular patterns and check any aberrations.
Generally, osteosarcomas in the bone have better prognosis than other forms of malignancies especially when the cancer cells are still confined inside the jaw bone. The survival rate of jaw cancer is 40% for men and 50% for women at the time diagnosis and treatment is made regardless of the stage. A friend of mine has jawbone cancer and is interestef in knowing the difference in length between the jaw bone that they took out and the femur that tney put in.
Kildoo put herself through school, how she was raised in a military family, learn about her renowned author husband and how she practiced near the CIA! We are located in Grand Junction, Colorado.  We would love to have you LIKE us on Facebook! In these areas tori are almost always present on both sides (bilaterally).  Tori are slightly more common in males. It is possible for ulcers to form on the area of the tori due to trauma and rubbing against other things like food.  Chips are a common culprit.
We all need to be proactive about our own health care and the health care of our loved ones. It will cause over 8,000 deaths, killing roughly 1 person per hour, 24 hours per day.        Of those 40,000 newly diagnosed individuals, only slightly more than half will be alive in 5 years.
Brain cancer is a cancer category unto itself, and  is not included in the head and neck cancer group.
Today, (2012) that statement is still true, as there is not a comprehensive program in the US to opportunistically screen for the disease, and without that; late stage discovery is more common. Prognosis at this stage of discovery is significantly worse than when it is caught in a localized intra oral area. It can frequently progress without producing pain or symptoms that you might easily recognize, and because oral cancer has a high risk of producing second tumors. Gillis has advanced training in cosmetic dentistry and is an Accredited Dentist with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry.
Have you considered that your dental treatment could diagnose Oral Cancer or help prevent heart disease or a stroke? 9 in 10 people survive mouth cancers that are caught early yet as most people are only diagnosed late in the disease the five year survival rate remains as low as 50 percent. It is vital to check our mouth for any unusual red or white patches, unusual swellings in the mouth or neck or an ulcer that does not heal within three weeks. The data also suggests the impact of gum disease is equivalent to that of high blood pressure. Obesity, alcohol abuse, poor diet and smoking are generally well-known risk factors which can cause strokes.
Heart Disease can develop when deposits of fats and other substances in your blood begin to stick to the sides of your arteries. Regular visits to the dentist and a simple routine of brushing teeth, twice a day for two minutes, will help to remove plaque – the cause of gum disease.
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Regular dental visits can improve the chances that any suspicious changes in your oral health will be caught early, at a time when cancer can be treated more easily. Those at an especially high risk of developing oral cancer are heavy drinkers and smokers older than 50. Our clinical practitioners, researchers, educators, and microscopic diagnosticians collaborate with other dental and medical professionals to advance oral health care. AAOMS fellows and members comply with rigorous continuing education requirements and submit to periodic office anesthesia evaluations, ensuring the public that all office procedures and personnel meet stringent national standards. The premier source of oral health information, the ADA has advocated for the public's health and promoted the art and science of dentistry since 1859. Hill, is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) public service charity that provides information, patient support, sponsorship of research, and advocacy related to this disease. The evidence is purely circumstantial, though the map would have been more encouraging to anyone hoping to circumnavigate Africa, and Crinoa€™s thesis has had no other advocates.
Oddly, there is no city view of Genoa [Janua], while Venice is represented by an impressive set of buildings.
Much scholarly ink has been spilled over the meaning of this caption, particularly cum Marino. It therefore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about twice that of the latitude. Hugh of Saint Victor had described the world as being the shape of Noaha€™s Ark, and Ranulf Higden world maps were oval (#232).
It is interesting that the maker of the Genoese map mentions peculiar customs (cannibalism, people who have no names) but no a€?monstrous races,a€? that is, people with aberrant physical characteristics, other than the pygmies. Gog and Magog are enclosed in northeast Asia, Noaha€™s Ark rests on a mountain range in Armenia, and the Red Sea is red, though there is no text about the passage of the Israelites through its waters.
There are four prominent sea monsters in the Indian Ocean, which ocean thus remains a venue for exotic wonders. The legend says that the creature sprang out of the water and attacked some cows pasturing on the shore, and then was captured and mounted and exhibited in Venice and elsewhere. By reason of the limited space, the geographical details inserted in this section of the map are not numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said that the author has crowded it with details. The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danubea€”the latter with an extensive deltaa€”have been inscribed in a manner which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows the Volga, though no names are affixed.
Here we also find the representation of a ruler, Lordo Rex with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the Golden Horde. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find the following legend: Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told. The names of nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: Florentia, Ravenna, Ancerra, Borletta, Bor[i], Rana, Galta, and Napoli, with one illegible. After the Alexandrian, the second main authority for the eastern portion is Nicolo Conti, the Venetian traveler, who reached the East Indian islands and perhaps southern China, returned to Italy in 1439 and whose narrative was written down by Poggio Bracciolini shortly after 1447.
In the extreme east are two large islands, Java major and Java minor, and to the southeast two smaller islands Sanday et Bandam. In this enormous prison, labeled Scythia ultra Ymaum montem [Scythia beyond Mount Ymaus], is the word MAGOG in large letters (perhaps in Ezekiela€™s sense as a country?). The remarkably strong ebb and flow of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti, is thought by the Genoese cartographer worthy of mention: Sinus persicus in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus [The Persian Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean]. This section of the coast could not well remain unknown to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus River.
The legend on the Genoese map relates in part to the Chinese junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the 15th century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the Portuguese seized it. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy.
This is doubtless one of the passes lying somewhat to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber. This lake, mentioned in the fabulous stories concerning India in the middle ages, is, again, derived from Conti. In the extreme northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a griffin have been sketched. In this part of Asia the cosmographer places the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the destructive races at the last day. In Armenia appears Azerum, and to the southeast of this, in an incorrect position, Sauasto. In the interior, Jerusalem, Damascus, placed far to the north; Antioch and, less accurately placed, Tiberias.
Among the cities Media Arabie appears most conspicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on the coast, is undoubtedly Dschidda, Contia€™s Zidem. In the interior are Tauria, a center of trade with remote Asia and India; and Ragis, the ancient Rhagas, a residence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction by the Mongolians, a vast ruin, out of which in part the neighboring Teheran is built. Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch-kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commercial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowaresmiens on the Darjalyk.
By this we are to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur.


Meliapur is distinguished by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, Here lies the body of the apostle Saint Thomas.
The Genoese cartographer appears to have known the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his representation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far from correct in its details. These last-named cartographers call this gulf Sinus Aethiopicus, while the Genoese cartographer, the name being repeated many times, designates the mainland as Ethiopia, and his legend here reads: Contrary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pomponius speaks of it with its islands. Before this bay, that is, in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with a swinea€™s head.
In the extreme south of the continent the Mountains of the Moon are represented as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: These are the Mountains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, are called Gebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile rises, and from which, in the summer-time, when the snows melt, a very large stream flows. It was the Abyssinian Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 14th century, had to thank for information concerning their country. Marco Polo ascribes the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar, while Masa€™udi expressly states that their land was rich in elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were they used in any manner. A river empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called by Idrisi Palmenoase, a river five daysa€™ journey south of the Great Syrtus. In addition to the elephant and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa in antiquity and in the middle ages. For instance, the name Ethiopia appears six times, and in addition, in Western Europe, Ethiopia interior, and in the east, Ethiopia Egypti. To tackle this question, it is necessary to hypothesize on the mapmakera€™s intentions and study the way he handles the space on his map. Just as important are the various dimensions of meaning on the Genoese World Map relating to faith and social life. Today, in character with the preferences of our own culture, we are persuaded to live our everyday life in a homogeneous, absolute space, neatly separated from time, notwithstanding that Albert Einstein disproved this notion.
Compare, for instance, this Catalan-Estense map (#246), the Walsperger world map (#245) and this Genoese world map, all of approximately the same date, ca.
The large declination table incorporating a calendar and, uniquely among Riberoa€™s charts, illustrations of the signs of the zodiac and a wind rose. Located immediately to the south of the fiercely contested and strategically important Molucca Islands and flanked with the standards of Castile and of Portugal, which fly from poles of unequal length placed at unequal distances from its top.
However, malignant cells can also spread to the jaw from other cancers in the neck and head, termed as secondary jaw cancer. The jaw pain may be characterized as slowly progressing, radiating to the face and neck and increasing in intensity while the jaw is moved. Jaw cancer pain may also be mistaken as a toothache by a patient that’s why the first consult is made from dentists. This treatment is more effective for localized growth rather than in cells that have metastasized because there is already extensive cancer in the body.
In this regard, patients should be placed in reverse isolation to prevent infections from occurring. Radiation therapy prevents the spread of cancer cells as well as reducing the size of the tumors.
Osteosarcomas are very responsive to chemotherapy and radiation which contributes to a high survival rate. Consequently, it is believed that mandibular tori are the result of local stresses and not solely on genetic influences.
Another obstacle to early discovery (and resulting better outcomes) is the advent of a virus, HPV16, contributing more to the incidence rate of oral cancers, particularly in the posterior part of the mouth (the oropharynx, the tonsils, the base of tongue areas) which many times does not produce visible lesions or discolorations that have historically been the early warning signs of the disease process. Our office is dedicated to helping you save your teeth and helping you to maintain a healthy mouth.  We would be happy to answer your questions about any concerns you may have about oral cancer or options for your treatment and your dental health!
Evidence (from the oral cancer foundation) indicates  that this is a virus that can be sexually transmitted between partners. These deposits can build up and narrow your arteries, clogging them like a plugged-up drain. The human papillomavirus version 16, which is sexually transmitted, is related to the increasing incidence of mouth cancer in nonsmoking patients. Oral and maxillofacial pathologists (OMP) are uniquely trained to efficiently address both diagnosis and treatment of oral disease, rapidly and reliably establish the critical connection between oral disease and systemic disease, and combine expertise in histopathologic diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and treatment.
They receive three additional years of specialized training following dental school, and periodontics is one of the nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association. For more information visit the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons website. The ADA's state-of-the-art research facilities develop and test dental products and materials that have advanced the practice of dentistry and made the patient experience more positive. Oral cancer is the largest group of those cancers that fall into the head and neck cancer category. However, the map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to careless handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evidently is very old. The map was made not for practical use but for display, probably in the library of the Spinola family. It has been read to refer to Marino Sanudoa€™s map, to the knowledge of sailors (though ungrammatically), and to Marinos of Tyre. It is, however, but mere conjecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map before him while working out his sketch, though it conforms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartographer. A standard way of describing the earth, from Bede to the Catalan Atlas (#235), was to compare it to an egg. But since this is a description of the cosmographers, who make no mention of it, it is omitted from this narration.a€? Who are the cosmographers, who also appeared in the caption cited above but in a more negative context?
Angelo Cattaneo has identified the source of this legend as Chapter 18 of Pero Tafura€™s Andancas e viajes de Pero Tafur por diversas partes del mundo avidos, written c. Between the Dniester, at that time the western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper is the city Lordo, a name that often appears in references to treaty relations established between the Mongols and the people of the Occident.
Here we also find Lisbona, Sibilla, Taragona, Barcelona, Saragosa, and a few other names which are illegible. From the names given which so frequently appear in the history of the period that of Constantinople is omitted. All these are taken from the Conti narrative: Java major is thought to be Borneo, and Java minor the island now known by that name.
West of the Golden Chersonese is an animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming. Heinrich Wuttke (Karten der seefahrenden Volker) provides a transcription of the captions in the margins and in the figure. In the place of Ptolemya€™s Taprobana two islands are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a representation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name Ceylon. The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes. According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption of Sumatra.
The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted ship, reads: The Indian Sea is filled with many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Chinese junks, after an interval of five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the end of the 13th century. In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to thirty men. Marco Polo called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known city on its shores.
A mountain range farther eastward, and stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east Iranian mountain range, along which flows the Indus. Here was a national highway over which, immediately preceding this period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came into southern Asia.
In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the southern highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between the Indus and the Ganges. Yule refers to it as one known in the fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is made to the hyacinth or jacinth. In Turkestan is the legend King Cambellannas, son of the great Khan, by which legend is probably meant Timur, who reunited the numerous small kingdoms into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen.
On most of the early maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia the names were given to lands further northward. Of the cities which are here most distinguished there may be named Sinope, which is adorned with a Genoese banner. Of the cities of Parthia only the name Yier appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan is meant.
Maabar, it should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or Melibar of Marco Polo.
There was scarcely a Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Meliapur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomasa€™ burial was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Mohammedan pilgrims. The Arnona Civitas of the Genoese cartographer seems to lie in about the position of Contia€™s Cernove, reached by him in a fifteen daysa€™ journey from the mouth of the river.
The southern coast of Africa is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sanudo, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro (#228, #242, #249).
A legend here reads: This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food with its snout like the land hog. This legend gives us the Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as Gebelcan, which is doubtless the same as Gebel Camr. The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most recent information from Abyssinia; this river, uniting with the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, in which an island is represented. It may be noted that even today the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, are the site of numerous churches and monasteries.
There can be no doubt that in the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytic and Ethiopian elephants against those from India. It is difficult to determine whether by this Wadi Schegea or Wadi um el Cheil is to be understood. One here recalls the description which Idrisi gives of a dragon living on an oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was often mistaken for a mountain. But since that is a representation of cosmographers who have given no description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted. What is clear is the mapmakera€™s declaration of intent, his striving for accuracy and a near-natural depiction of the world, all of which make his map look rather modern. Using these histories, he concentrated his attention on certain regions, emphasizing especially Asia, distinguishing certain locations through different forms of depiction, thereby creating a hierarchical space.
Perhaps in answering certain questions one should not look too hard for historical transitions or changes in cartography, as this tempts one to privilege current representational conventions.
Therefore, although this study focuses on maps that are centuries old, it just might enhance our understanding of the current conflict between our daily experience and our theoretical knowledge of space and time. The text in the boxes explains how to read solar declination off of the figure and the accompanying latitude scale (given the date), how to use the quadrant, and how to calculate latitude given the solar declination and the suna€™s height at noon. Some of the Indians came on board, and asked to be carried [away, and] they died afterwards at sea.A  According to Pigafetta, those Indians, so far from having left of their own accord, were treacherously chained and kidnapped. The maxilla is the upper portion of the jaw while the mandible supports the floor of the mouth. The death rate for oral cancer is higher than that of cancers which we hear about routinely such as cervical cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, laryngeal cancer, cancer of the  testes, and endocrine system cancers such as thyroid, or skin cancer (malignant melanoma). It is likely that there is a complex interaction of many external and internal factors that play a role in the development of oral cancer.
For more information, visit the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists' website. The ADA Seal of Acceptance long has been a valuable and respected guide to consumer dental care products. Common names for it include such things as mouth cancer, tongue cancer, head and neck cancer, and throat cancer. To prevent the crinkling of the parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thickness, which boards have been adjusted to fold.
In support of the last idea, it is noteworthy that the map appears to extend 225A° by 87A°, the extent of the habitable world, according to him.
This abandonment of the more common circular form enabled the cartographer to show features that were increasingly squeezed on 15th century mappaemundi. The main purpose of the analogy seems to have been to describe the various spheres surrounding the earth (egg white, shell), but the idea of an egg shape could have been derived from these works. In the Indian Ocean are shown a mermaid and a fish with a devila€™s head, while on land nearby is a snake with a human head.
Prester John is represented behind a wall, protecting him from the future rampages of Gog and Magog. This monster is said to attack the ships of the Indians, usually breaking them immediately, but its crest can get stuck in the ship's wood and as a result the creature, unable to escape, kills itself. Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, and in the 14th century was a city of great importance, but in 1395 was destroyed by Timur.
Though the names Sanday and Bandam have not been satisfactorily explained, the reference in the legend to spices and cloves makes it fairly certain that they are islands of the Moluccas group. If we have here an attempt at a representation of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably Bangkok.
A legend gives the following information: This species of fish, recently [caught?] in Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows.
A legend near this reads: The island of Ceylon, having a circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, sapphires, and cata€™s-eyes, and produces cinnamon from trees similar to our willow tree.
Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, called it Java the Less, under which name, however, according to the Genoese cartographer, we are to understand Java or Borneo.
Their ships, therefore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. Marco Polo, who, on his homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, gives us a detailed picture of these boats. The larger vessels also carried small boats, which were used, as Marco Polo states, a€?to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like.
Mons Synai, near the northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the summit of which is the Convent of St.
Aside from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here represented, rising in a range of mountains that extends in an east-west direction.
This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain range two tributaries. Indeed, from the most ancient times this important highway was the connecting link between northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins a€”the fortifications erected by the different peoples at different timesa€”point to its significance. It was one known to the Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems to owe its origin to India. King Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan, is represented in a picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is represented on horseback with sword in hand. Here the cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic sources, and especially on Idrisi. On the Persian Gulf lies Ragan, by which Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with Fars on the Ab Ergum. Destroyed first by Genghis Khan in 1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier commercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins. The tradition that the holy Thomas preached Christianity in India, suffered martyrdom, and was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early times.
Conti gives a vivid description of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he states, he sailed for the space of three months; and from his description one might conclude that he had passed entirely through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired commercial observations he turned about to make a long sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important cities to which he refers. The southern continental boundary of the Indian Ocean appearing on Ptolemya€™s world maps, reduced to a long and narrow peninsula by Sanudo and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced by the Genoese cartographer. The name Djihal-alqamar, Mountains of the Moon, according to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemya€™s time erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains. Meroe, however, does not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river peninsula.
The large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it the outside world is not admitted.
In Tunis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch emptying on the north side of the Gulf of Tunis, and with another into the Gulf of Hammamet. It had the form of a snake in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extending forward.
Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as signifying that the Genoese cosmographer based his information on pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while omitting his own view concerning the position of the earthly paradise.
The mapmaker saw apparently no inconsistency in depicting different times simultaneously or one element in multiple locations, melding time and space seems to be effected unconsciously.
In studying cosmological models of the Middle Ages, it would be more constructive to look for continuities that might even expose our modern understanding of homogeneous space as an illusion. The astrolabe, which is dated 1529, carries a shadow scale; the inscription below identifies it as a marinera€™s instrument. Lawrence, mention is made of an archipelago, which may refer to the Iles de la Madeleine, borrowed apparently from some Portuguese map of the Fagundes expeditions.A  On the northwest coast there is a Rio solo and, on the Pacific coast, what the Weimar Ribero calls R. The tori may make it difficult to make dentures if this is needed as the bone may interfere with the seating of the denture or the tori may be irritated by the denture.
There is a link between inflammation caused by periodontal disease and the build up of these deposits. We will join the magic school bus on a few of it’s many adventures as it journeys to the bottom of the sea, goes back into the time of the dinosaurs, and explores the hidden world of bugs. The monthly Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) is the ADA's flagship publication and the best-read scientific journal in dentistry. In certain parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age; in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing has contributed more to this destruction than the nibbing of part-on-part. Without an expert and minute palaeographical investigation, it is impossible either to accept or reject the attribution to Toscanelli, but Crino presented a case which requires further examination. What we now know about Marinos is mostly from Ptolemya€™s criticism of him, but the Arab geographer al-Maa€™sudi reported in the 10th century that he had seen Marinusa€™ geographical treatise. Jerusalem does not appear in the center of the map but is considerably to the west of a center located south of the Caspian Sea.
Another possibility is that the oval form represents the mandorla, or nimbus, which surrounded Christ in many medieval works of art. The title of Ptolemya€™s work, as it circulated through Italy in the 15th century, was usually given as Cosmographia rather than Geography, a less familiar Greek term. As we might expect from a Genoese map, good use has been made of the nautical chart as well. Van Duzer adds that Tafura€™s account derives from Poggio Bracciolinia€™s Facetiae, written between 1438 and 1452, which describes a very similar monster that attacked some women by the seashore, and was killed and exhibited in Ferrara. Between the Dnieper and the Don the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attributed to the early Teutons and the Huns. Saratellis, if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti. We may have in this gulf one of the earliest cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Petchili. In this island there is a lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabitants, given over to astrology, predict all future events. Conti gives to the island a circumference of about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is very nearly correct. These, moreover, are supplied with several masts, from three to ten, and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves joined together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity. When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung to her side.a€? Many of the vessels had as many as four decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins.
Catherine; and we also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being especially distinguished by a representation of Noaha€™s Ark.
From the mountain range on the northern border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on the east, to which gulf reference has been made. Very properly, the name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, were called Tartars.
They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve the purpose of reservoirs for artificial irrigation. Northern Asia is properly made to appear as a region covered with pine forests, a representation which is to be found on no other early world map, and which seems to suggest that the Genoese mapmaker was in possession of somewhat detailed information concerning the character of the region.
He places Magog north of the mountain range stretching entirely across Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range several towers are indicated. In the highlands of Iran appear the names Media, Zilan, Parthia, Aria, Aracosa, Gedrosia, Cormania and Persis. This place, incorrectly located on the coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on any other map. The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which the Persian and the Arabic writers frequently used for Manzi, the southern part of China. Legends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, wherein the author refers to his work and gives the date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. This seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro and Kenya, as seen from a great distance, which mountains send their waters toward the interior of the continent.
Even the irrigation canals, which lead out from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by the Genoese cartographer.
About the time that the Genoese cartographer produced his map he could well have received excellent information concerning Abyssinia. A similar river, dividing into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of Ceuta. Medieval cosmographers place this now in East Africa, now in East Asia, but more frequently in the latter.
Taking his stated aim for truth seriously would imply that all of these features were part of his truth. The world maps in the Vatican, Dillingen and WolfenbA?ttel also feature masterful drawings of mountains, trees, castellated towns, ships, birds and mammals. The astrolabe shown by Ribero is not the standard marinera€™s version, but a a€?quadrante horarioa€?, as described in the inscription next to the drawing. Unfortunately, at this time, only about 15% of dental professionals are actually screening their patients for oral cancer ( quoted from the oral cancer foundation). Researchers have found that people with periodontal disease are almost twice as likely to suffer from coronary artery disease as those without periodontal disease. Supporting the foundation's goals is a scientific advisory board composed of leading cancer authorities from varied medical and dental specialties, and from prominent educational, treatment, and research institutions in the United States. On the question, of main interest here, as to the correspondence between the letter of 1474 and the map of 1457, it is possible, however, to form some opinion. The highly pictorial character of this well-preserved map leads us to think of it as more traditional than it actually is. In the 14th century didactic poem, a€?Il Dittamondoa€? Fazio degli Uberti, described the inhabited world as long and narrow (a€?lungo e strettoa€?) like an almond (mandorla), with no apparent religious significance. Certainly, neither Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, nor Pliny had given a location for Paradise, save for fantasies about the Fortunate Islands, and the Genoese mapmaker appears to associate classical with scientific geography.
These fantastic creatures join other wonderful but real animals, such as a giraffe, a leopard, a crocodile, two monkeys, and a swordfish.
Illustrations of the monster which are very similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map accompany excerpts from the Facetiae which are appended to various 15th and 16th century editions of Aesopa€™s fables.
Such a wagon with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is represented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, Ubi lordo errat. The other [story relates] that certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, becomes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies like a bird. According to Pigolotti, Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, Saracanco in eight days by water or by land.
Longer legends take material from Conti on the funeral practice of wife burning (a€?if they refuse out of fear, they are forced to do ita€?), the cultivation of pepper, the collection of human heads in Sumatra, the sea-tight compartments of Chinese junks, the practice of tattooing, and the availability of spices and multicolored parrots. Sanday sends saffron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an abundance of cloves.
Magog (Gog is missing), the Tatars, the Ten Lost Tribes, the Antichrist and the Alexander story are mixed as though they naturally belonged in the same place - as they by then did, at least in the literature and exegesis directed to the literate but not learned.
The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here placed to the east of a peninsula that we can recognize as the southern point of India. In its outlines Further India, UltraIndia (Southeast Asia) is Ptolemaic, a fact which is especially noticeable in the very prominent peninsular character.
And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, trade with the Western merchants through an exchange of their goods.
South of the Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains that appears to be Parthia, according to the representation of Ptolemy.
The Genoese cosmographer must have had information concerning the numerous towers scattered here and there over this pass. They are remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks. In the extreme north appears the figure of a man casting himself into the sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: It is the custom of these people, as old age comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into the sea.
The people Gog appear as a group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked by two cranes.
On the Sea of Marmora is Palolimen and Diascinolo which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai. Including in part Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Southeast Asia, for which there is support in certain 15th century references, as there are people of Southeast Asia among whom the custom of tattooing prevails; this being particularly true of the Laos and the Burmese. One of them seems to read: This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmographers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering the earth except about a fourth part here laid down.
It was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a visit to the east coast of Africa.
On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, which contains forests and groves and a great temple of Apollo. In 1439 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambassador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441. If the Genoese cosmographer, in the well known regions, represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can certainly expect to find this in the less known regions. Three human figures are introduced to represent the political and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription Dominus; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, Presbyter Johannes Rex, denoting the Christian ruler of Abyssinia. The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which Regnum fesse and, in part, Regnum Trenecen belong. Calata is probably Idrisia€™s Al Cal, near Msila in the highlands of the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. Horary quadrants were usually used on land to tell the time; they incorporated features for taking measurements that were either unnecessary for navigation (such as the indirect determination of altitude or distance) or readily available in other forms (such as tables of solar declination).
Although clearly labeled as an a€?[a]strolabio maritimeoa€?, it consists of a solid disc rather than an open wheel, and it has a shadow square on the back. For more information on oral health, including prevention, care and treatment of dental disease, visit the ADAa€™s consumer website. Kimble, there are at least three distinct influences, in addition to the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, that can be detected in these examples: Classical, Christian and Arab. Oversized crowned or turbaned kings, monstrous and simply exotic animals, an elephant bearing an elaborate howdah, and scary sea monsters associate with more scientific signs, such as flags and city symbols.
Ptolemya€™s maps, while not exactly oval, were wider from east to west than they were high (north to south). A partially finished network of rhumb lines appears on the map, and on the right are two scale bars, though they are more a sign of intention than reality.
One such edition is Sebastian Branta€™s Esopi appologi sive mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (Basel: Jacobus de Phortzheim, 1501), in which Bracciolinia€™s text about the monster is cited and accompanied by an illustration of the monster quite similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map. A good picture of a Mongol appears on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruction of their rule.
The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the East and brought to Venice.
In this as well as in other parts of extreme southern Asia the Geonoese cosmographer seems especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti who referred to Ceylon as Zeilan.
Cannibals inhabit a part of this island, who, continually waging war with their neighbors, make a collection of human heads as treasures, and he who has the most heads is the richest. It stretches toward the south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a name which the legend suggests: Here gold is found in abundance with jewels and precious stones.
In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch. These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropamisus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan Schan, and the other border mountains of eastern central Asia today, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf of Petchili. As in questions relating to the Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than were geographers of later date, even to very recent times, so it also appears that his representation of the mountain systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, was remarkably well done in the larger general features. This statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the mouth of which lies Cambay. A legend gives the following explanation: These are of the generation of Gog, who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not attain the age of nine years, and who are continually molested by cranes. On the same strait, but farther to the southeast, lies a second city, Caila, near which is the legend, Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead of papyrus. The Genoese cartographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which since the 13th century had belonged to China. This sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his Natural History. In support of the statement that the Genoese cosmographer was well informed concerning Abyssinia may be found the representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled with armed men.
A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in the following legend: These are the people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting sun with direful imprecations.
Yet the inscription to the left of the quadrant on the chart describes not only how to use it to deter- mine the declination of the sun or stars, but also how to use the altimetric scale on it to find the height of a tower or of a flat surface, or the width of a river. Inscriptions on the map, as well as recently discovered geographical features, however, proclaim the map to be a document of cartographic thinking similar, if not as large and ambitious, to that of Fra Mauro (#249). For a 15th century mapmaker, this form made convenient room for discoveries in the Atlantic and in Asia. The Genoese mapa€™s sea monsters reflect the cartographera€™s interest in exotic wonders, which is everywhere in evidence on the map, and typical of the scientific outlook of the early modern period, which was driven by curiosity and took a great interest in marvels.
The Italians were then in close relations with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Kaffa, Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a position to know intimately their customs and manner of life. Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones the size of hens.
That rare animals at the time of the construction of our map were brought to Italy, where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness.


This description of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our cartographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. The Caucasus stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Caucasus empty into the former, the mountain range had to be drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be sufficient space for the range and the representation of the Iron Gate near Derbent. The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia into Hither and Further Scythiaa€”Scithia citra ymaum montem and Scithia ultra ymaum montesa€”is very prominently represented on our map. Herein in particular does the value of the Genoese map appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro (#249), although the latter is richer in details. Even today in northeast Asia, there may be found a people among whom suicide is common, the result of a belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is secured.
Idrisi also represents the people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies them as the pygmies of Pliny, who placed them in the mountains of the north of India, exactly as does the Genoese cosmographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the cranes. On the west coast only the name Altoluogo appears, which name one finds on almost all sea charts.
The city Calacia, lying in the interior, seems more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by Conti, but is not definitely located. Caila is Contia€™s Cahila on the Gulf of Manaar, Marco Poloa€™s Cail, and Ptolemya€™s Colchi.
It appears from this that Albertus Magnus was one of the Genoese cartographera€™s authorities. June 24-June 28 Ocean Explorer’s CampCome journey to the bottom of the sea as we explore the wonderful world of oceans and sea animals.Time Traveler’s Camp July 1-19July 1-5 A short stop in 1776 for America’s birthday. Crone, is that the letter definitely refers to a chart for navigation, while the 1457 map is primarily a world map drawn by a cosmographer. By the end of the century, the circular form was becoming impractical, and once the Americas were added to world maps, it was gone almost completely. The demon-like monster in particular is evidence of the cartographera€™s research in recent travel literature to find sea monsters for his map. If this is so, this is the first time that the much sought after spice islands appear clearly on a map. Mention may be made of the peacock which he brought from Alexandria for Cosimo de Medici; also of a chameleon, and, more important than all, of a big serpent with 100 teeth which he seems to have brought to Florence from Beirut (possibly a reference to the crocodile). This city is distinguished by a strong tower and the legend: This is Derbent, which in their language [means] a gate of iron.
It branches in diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy. In the representation of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our author follows Ptolemy. The river Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the Ganges, and the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a mountain which is further explained by the legend: In this mountain carbuncles are found. Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost tribes of Israel, and the other to Antichrist.
This identification of Gog with the pygmies of classical antiquity is peculiar to this map. There may have been a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations that again and again in their history Persian rule controlled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast.
For centuries, even into the 16th, Caila was the central point of commerce between China, Further India, and the archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Mediterranean.
Though the geography of India as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties which are equally great along the east coast.
The other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an intelligible reading asserts that: Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India [the Indians], say that many have passed through these parts from India to the Spains, and .
With some degree of certainty we may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador. On the Mediterranean, from east to west, we find Larissa, Alexandria, Senara (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Vesconte also gives Zunara). Further, the Toscanelli chart presumably depicted the ocean intervening between the west coast of Europe and the a€?beginning of the Easta€™.
Conti describes them as lying on the extreme edge of the known world: beyond them navigation was difficult or impossible owing to contrary winds.
The Iron Gate, usually associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the world maps of the middle ages.
In the region at the foot of the mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the Indian desert represented. Judging from the rivers that spring there from, and from this legend, we are led to conclude that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet.
The one to the east of Inaccessible mountains, designated here as Ymaus mons, reads: From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, Antichrist is to be born, who, opening these mountains by magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ. The towers referred to above are explained in the following legend: King Prester John built these towers in order that those shut therein might not have access to him.
In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama gives information concerning the city and kingdom of Cael. Whether the rivers emptying still further southward represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Senegal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine. On the portolan charts there is always represented a large bay in the southeast corner of the Great Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. We will make American flags, have a parade, and celebrate America’s birthday with a delicious Apple Pie. On the map of 1457, this ocean is split into two, and falls on the eastern and western margins.
In the southern sea there is a note: In this sea, they navigate by the southern pole (star), the northern having disappeared. Doubtless it was the medieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the legend of the Iron Door. In contrast, the Ganges is represented according to recent information, that is apparently from the record of Conti. The representations of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti narrative that it is not simply the story of a practical merchant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of a learned copyist. The other reads: Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence.
These towers stretch along the crest of the mountains, as if intended to protect the more highly civilized parts of China from the wild people of north and central Asia. Farther southward, Antioceta, a fortification on the coast often referred to in the 15th century; also corocho, the ancient Corycus, northeast of the mouth of the Selefke. The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm. It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the southwest to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks. The children will dress up like the Statue of Liberty for our infamous Statue of Liberty photos. Though Crino raised many points of interest, he did not establish his case beyond reasonable doubt. The Carbuncle Mountains and the art of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages. It seems probable that we have here an early reference to the Great Wall of China, which appears on no other medieval map. This is Straboa€™s Cape Korykos with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortification.
Calacia, or Calacatia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name. The fanlike leaves, about two hundred square feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of paper.
Our Statue of Liberty photos are so good one of the children’s  photos made it all the way to the office of a Supreme court judge. Biasutti argued that the horizontal and vertical lines on the map are parallels and meridians taken from the world map of Ptolemy, and that the longitudinal extent of the old world approximately corresponds to his figure of 180 degrees. However, Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives their position as fifteen daysa€™ journey east of Java major and minor, to which their products were brought for transportation to the west. Two of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above it is a legend taken from Conti: Rather the Ganges which otherwise is called the Dava. On the Catalan world map of 1375 appears a legend with an interesting pictorial representation. Abulfeda and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog. Here we find Tarsso and Layazo, which in the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an important terminal on the commercial route to India.
The ancient Pusk olay manuscripts in the Buddhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, prepared by cooking and drying.
The inscription reads as follows: The country of Stephen Gomez, which he discovered at the command of his Majesty, in the year 1525. It is difficult to see, therefore, if this map of 1457 was similar to that sent to Portugal, where its importance lay, for this information was accessible to all inquirers. Cloves at that time came only from the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, which perhaps the Genoese author has attempted here to represent. The word is Persian, signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met with in Persia. Though our cosmographer makes certain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra Mauro. A mountain is indicated with a deep valley out of which a bird flies, having a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a river flows which in its course forms the boundary between India and China.
As the builder of this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester John who appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name seems to have been connected with the last-named region, though, as the Genoese map shows, it did not completely disappear from central Asia. Kalhat, from the time of Idrisi to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Muskat.
The interest of the cartographer seems more probably to have lain in Contia€™s description of the oriental spice islands and the possibility of reaching them by circumnavigating Africa. The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a corruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as cloves do not come from that island.
As the Indus and its delta received special consideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is marked by the following legend: The mouth of the Ganges River, the width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the islands grow nuts which we call Indian. There is support for the belief that in the letter of Alexander III, the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, although the great majority of the allusions to him seem to support the idea that the original Prester John was a central Asiatic ruler. It appears that at the time the Genoese map was drawn the shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from that point with the monsoons direct to India.
July 22 - August 5 Science Explorer’s Camp We will enter the fascinating world of insects and go inside the human body. His work is clearly related, though not closely, to the great map of Far Mauro, his contemporary. The wall stretching landward along the mountain ridge is yet, in part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a distance of many miles. The creek was rising and the fish were a bit sluggish, but I was able to tempt a few wild browns to hit my Yozuri stick bait. According to popular tradition, it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it appears on this map extending from the second iron door, or pass, across Asia. From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a thirteen daysa€™ journey eastward to the Carbuncle Mountains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which the Genoese mapmaker attempts to represent.
The first European who actually visited the Moluccas was the Italian Varthena, about seventy years after Contia€™s expedition to the East. A legend on the map of the Pizigani makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally constructed to protect the Persian territory from the people of the steppe region. A summer full of fun and imagination.   June 24-28, 2013This week the magic school bus stopped at it’s first destination, under the sea, to explore the ocean’s coral reefs and tidal zones. The islands were considered as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known world, and as marking the limit of navigation. We, Ocean Explorers, were along for the ride and what an adventure we had discovering the ocean and it’s many wonders. You can’t be an ocean explorer without an ocean explorer’s guide to identify what you see in the great big blue sea.
Ray’s Ocean Explorers’ Guide to the real animals that live in Nemo’s neighborhood, the Great Barrier Reef. Clownfish live in stinging anemones but the anemone’s tentacles don’t sting them because they are covered in a special slime. I don't question why, but I will say that the Berkley Trout Worm in a PINK or ORANGE color will usually get you a few bites. With that being said, I have created my own Pink Worm that has enabled me to land many trout, both wild and stocked.
So, I am sorry for that.A Now, when the power is out for 7 days and the clean-up effort at your house is over, you need a few hours to unwind. You cut 8 legs in the hot dog and when you place it into a pot of boiling water the tentacles curl all up. A few local streams were scheduled to be stocked with trout-- Manatawny Creek, Hay Creek and Tulpehocken Creek. It is Movie Friday.  We watched Finding Nemo and made graceful jellyfish out of a colorful mosaic of tissue paper. I should be in very good company this year with my best friend Mark and a college buddy named Mark joining in the fun. Remember: We will be closed Thursday for the Fourth of July    July 8-12, 2013This week the Magic School Bus transported us back to the Prehistoric World of Dinosaurs and Reptiles and next week we will become Paleontologists in search of dinosaur bones and fossils. I wonder what mine will be?” The children were expectant dinosaur parents during our Hatch A Dinosaur science experiment. They filled the glasses with warm water, placed the colorful egg capsules into the water, and eagerly waited for their dinosaur eggs to hatch.  They decided Catalina was the best Dinosaur Mother because her red egg hatched first and everyone gathered around to help Christopher hatch his blue egg which needed some extra help with the hatching process.
There was a little dino envy when Jaden’s hatched into a big red Iguanodon but they each loved their little hatchlings as only a parent could.  The children are wearing Dinosaur T-Rex hats through out the day for special Dinosaur story times and to practice their own reading skills.
The children are continuing to learn to stay in their own seats or on their own letter on the alphabet rug until the school activity is complete.
He taught us the signs for the letter D, Dinosaur, the letter V and Volcano.  He even read us the book Harold and the Purple Crayon: Dinosaur Days in Sign language! Mia, a future teacher herself, shared a special photo book of all their adventures around the world.
I managed a few smallmouths and had a nice brown follow my 3-inch stickbait for about 15 yards. It was pretty cool, the water was clear and you could see the fish slash and slash at the stickbait. Can't wait to fish all the local streams, as they all will have a new look and feel to them. Signing Time: A special sign language class with Thomas Cabaluna and a Dinosaur Story time in sign language. New Sign language signs learned include the signs for dinosaur, volcano, and the letter signs D and V Movie Friday and Lunch: Disney’s Dinosaurs and Dinosaur shaped chicken nuggets.
Math: Counting spots on the Triceratops, Skip counting, addition, and patterns with Leapfrog Math to the Moon. Art: Harold the Purple Crayon Art, Using stencils with paint, How to make a volcano and prehistoric landscape, and Sticker Art. Prehistoric Play Dough Center: We discovered how to make and identify  dinosaur and lizard footprints in play dough. I have no idea what Erie will look come late October, early November, but I am hoping they get some serious rain up there. Pretend Play: We introduced new stegosaurus, and brontosaurus toys to our play and block area. The last two weeks the children have been busy discovering the exciting world of paleontology. A paleontologist is a scientist who learns about prehistoric animals like dinosaurs by studying their fossils. Squeezing modeling clay with their hands they picked out  dinosaurs and pressed them as hard as they could into the clay making an imprint fossil. In this learning unit the children learned what a paleontologist does and the tools they use to discover fossils.
So here at A Happy Daycare the children actually touched a real piece of a dinosaur bone and examined an ammonite shell fossil over 65 million years old. All in all we landed 8 species of fish: Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Rock Bass, Redbreast Sunfish, Bluegill, Green Sunfish, Fallfish and a Crappie.
The children were very excited to discover that when you look through a Magnifying glass it make things huge!
The children measured and helped mix up the recipe in a big bucket to use to make treasure stones.
They molded it into a rock shape  and we hid a treasure into each of their stones for them to dig out when the treasure stone harden. On Friday we brought out more tools, brushes, and little shovels for the children to dig out their treasures. We read the book The Dinosaur Stomp and then stepped right on to the dinosaur stilts to see how it feels to stomp around with big dinosaur feet.
The dinosaur feet stilts we used were only a few inches off the ground but when the children stood on them they  thought that they were bigger than life!  Dinosaur had bones and when you look at the shapes of their bones you can tell what kind of dinosaur it is. The children learned how to identify stegosaurus bones, t-rex bones, and long-neck dinosaur bones by using critical thinking and matching skills.
We learned that even if you find a dinosaur skeleton you have to put it back together in the right order. We practiced our puzzle skills with mixed up t-rex flash cards and a plastic skeleton mold.
Dinosaurs have bones and so do we.   Next stop on the Magic School Bus Adventure is Inside the Human Body. She looks at me with a absolutely no freakn way look and goes, so daddy, How much money do I have to pay you. There is no better way to cool down in the summer heat than wet wading and catching some fish. Reading and Writing: We are practicing sight words, sounding out three letter words, and recognizing that print is a part of our daily lives. This fall Lindsay will be attending Kindergarten at a school in Prunedale and Jaden will be attending Kindergarten at a school in Monterey. Smallies, Largemouth Bass, Redbreast Sunfish, Bluegill and a White Perch were the fish I brought to hand.
Potato Head as a teaching tool for the children to visualize the body parts that make up the five senses. The nose knows how to smell and we practiced using our sense of smell to explore the world around us by seeing how many things we could smell.
The temps during the day were brutal and the skeeters made me pay for attempting to fish Cherry Run. The children even put on silly glasses with big noses to go on a nature walk in the garden to smell the flowers. We have X-rays hanging up on the windows for the children to explore and discover how an X-ray takes a picture of bones. I only fished where some cool tributary water emptied into Penns.Saturday was tricky with a few bugs in the air. Sunday evening was reverse fashion -- Isos then BWOs.I got a half-decent picture of a Iso stuck in the shuck. Potato Head Art, and my five senses chart  August 5-9, 2013Next week the Magic School Bus Science explorers will explore the wonderful world of bugs and butterflies. This week we joined the Magic School Bus as it magically shrank down in size to explore inside the human body! All the children thought it was hilarious that on the Magic School Bus Series the children have a friend named Ralphie in their class too.
The fish took a CDC Sulphur pattern -- it was DARK, no light at all when the fish took the fly. When we learned about community helpers and farmers we read about a rooster named Ralphie too.
Before we explored inside the human body the children laid on a big roll of paper to trace the shape of their own bodies!
I stayed off Penns during the heat of the day-- it was 90 degrees in the afternoon on both days.
I made an attempt to fish Cherry Run and landed 2 brookies in short order on my Moth pattern.
Seuss’s Horton Hears A Who is, “A person is a person no matter how small.” And it is true it doesn’t matter how big or how small a person is everyone has their own body with the same amazing bones and body organs inside. Their brain’s job is to think and learn, their heart’s job is to pump, their lung’s job is to breath in air, and their stomachs job is to help digest their food. Now that everyone had made a tracing of their own unique outline the children were ready to paint and add  in  the different bones and organs, during the week, as we learned about them. On Movie Friday we watched a Double Feature with Sid The Science Kid’s episode on the sense of smell and the Magic School Bus’s series Inside Ralphie. Thanks to Irie and her mom for bringing the Movie Friday Snacks last week and this week.  The children’s sense of taste says the snacks are delicious! This week the children explored the life cycle of butterflies with Eric Carle’s The Very Hungry Caterpillar. We practiced the days of the week and counted fruit right along with that wiggly lovable caterpillar. The caterpillar even helped us learn about placing in order from biggest to smallest with the wooden caterpillar stacking gameNoodles, noodles, and more noodles. Can you find the noodle type that looks like a curly caterpillar, little eggs, a cocoon and a butterfly taking flight. The sportsman then proceeds to tell me that he is going to cross the creek and kick my BLEEPITY BLEEP. The hunt was on for the children to match the noodles to each butterfly stage and to find the most eggs.  They even selected special leaves and sticks from the garden for their noodle caterpillars.
Spoke to the gentleman again, with Ronnie explaining that the area is posted and the signs are on the road. We harvested green, yellow, and purple organic beans from our Jack and the Beanstalk beans. They are easy to see too, especially when the wings are made of CDC.A I won't be out fishing again any time soon. If you want to wet a line--give me a shout and I'll do my best to put you on some fish.A Trout fishing locally will cease with water temps hovering around 70 degrees. Big Spring Creek, Letort, Yellow Breeches, Big Fishing Creek or Spring Creek are some of the streams that are fishable in the summer.
We can also hike along some cool mountain creeks in search of native brook trout or wild brown trout. Vinny caught a Smallmouth Bass on a worm and Zoe landed a nice-sized Brown Trout on a crayfish lure. Then we explored volume with water by transferring the water from one container to another. Thanks to Irie’s Mom for the Yummy Chocolate pudding with gummy worms and Gabriel’s Mom for the homemade muffins.
Magic School Bus: Ants in his pants and Butterfly BogAugust 19-23, 2013This week we are finishing up the last of our summer program and preparing lesson plans for the new school year.
We have so many activities and lessons full of learning planned for the upcoming fall season! Please send your child to school in a yellow or black shirt for a day full of bee and bug themed activities.
All summer the children have been exploring how to use a magnifier to enlarge objects and this week we introduced how a microscope works.
We have a special microscope for young children that plugs directly into the TV screen so the entire class can see all at once.
We went on a nature hunt in the backyard to discover interesting leaves and bugs to look at under the microscope. Catalina, Cole, and Omari were the helpers who held the buckets full of their finds.  We placed them in a jar and used the microscope to enlarge them. We could see the tiniest  caterpillar eggs on our sunflower leaf.  An ant looked like a monster and we didn’t even know that a roly-poly had that many legs.
Each of the children helped pick out the color pattern of their caterpillar, pressed their painted little toes onto the wooden magnet, and tried not to wiggle their toes too much.   Then we added eyes and antennas.
I'll probably be fishing with a friend on Sunday evening or taking the rugrats to drown some worms!!!
She even included an array of nutritious fruit for us and the cake caterpillar to eat just like in the story. August 26-30, 2013This year we finished up our Summer Program with a Busy Bee Celebration Day.
The children came in on Wednesday dressed in yellow and black ready to be busy little bees. We had bobbling bee antennas on our heads to greet the children as they arrived at our “hive”.
Trinity had little bees on her dress, Jonathan had on his striped bumblebee shirt, and Irie even had bee barrettes in her hair.   What would the little bees eat for breakfast? A Sunday, I was able to fish a local Class A water and noticed many Blue-Winged Olive spinners. We learned that if you are going to be a bee then you have to build a hive to go home to.  The children worked together to help build a honeybee hive out of our many tunnels and tents.
The “hive” ended up covering their whole play area and they had so much fun crawling in and out of the tunnels buzzing like worker bees.
The children dressed up in the bee costumes to fly through the yard and gather pretend nectar from the garden to make their  honey. Pretend play like this gives the children the opportunity to apply the learning and knowledge that they have gained.
During Music and Movement Time we danced, jumped and learned how bees communicate to each other where the best flowers are by dancing. The children put on the headbands they made and we all marched through the garden in a buzzing bee parade. The children loved every minute of it.  A special thanks to Asher’s family for the delicious bee cupcakes they made. I managed one fish landed, one fish missed and one fish lost before I had to run to the truck.
Thanks to Irie’s family who worked so hard on making a beautiful honeybee hive filled with honeycomb treats to share.
Have a great holiday weekend and remember we will be closed Monday September 2 for Labor Day. Best trick tonight was to cast down and across and inch an emerger back to the shore, pausing it at spots were a fish just rose.
I made my cast---the fish slid out from under the brush---he sat in a lane with his mouth open waiting for my fly---with ease, he swallowed the fly. No wild trout today, but the Rainbows were very colored up with beautiful pink fins and the Browns looked like they have been living in the stream for years. Thursday was brutal where I saw creeks that were in perfect shape one minute, turn into Willy Wonka within' two hours. I volunteered a few hours Sunday morning with the A Great Day Outdoors fellas, Roger and Bob who help put together the Bob and Jeff Miller Trout Fishing Clinic, which is a mentoring program for the Big Brothers and Big Sisters.The fish were provided by Mike's Tattoo and Body Piercing that is located in Reading, PA.
I helped a few kids land some trout and was able to see many folks that I have not seen in a few years. We had a great time and found some really neat critters and managed to catch a fish or two.
We caught a good number of wild brown trout and missed many more.The slower pools had fish sipping in Little Yellow Stoneflies.
Plenty of yardwork to make the little woman happy, drive happy little woman to her mother's house and call your best friend to go fish a stream you have not fished in about 15 years. Saw a huge Barred Owl fly up the stream and hang out in a tree for a little bit before he flew elsewhere. He launched them up out of the water and onto the dirt bank like the bass fisherman do on tv. After I saw him boot his 4th fish in about 20 minutes, he goes: That's what I came here for.
Two-- a stickbait--a Yozuri Pin's Minnow is my favorite-- is also tough to beat during cold, high and dirty water conditions.
Three -- My favoritefor fly fishing is a 2 fly rig that consists of a bigger and brighter glowbug with a Green Weenie dropped off of it.
If there are rainbows around, they will hammer a nicely presented egg pattern pretty much any time of the year. Local Class A waters are running at agood rate and are still on the cold side.Trout season opens next weekend for SE PA waters. Headed to the Little Lehigh and when I got there the lot was full and anglers were top to bottom. Fished the quarry hole and managed toland a few bluegill and a good number of smaller Largemouth Bass. Most ofthe bass were taken on smaller ice spoons tipped with waxies.With the heatwave we are in, not sure how much longer the ice will be around. Drilling through the ice with my Nils 8 inch ice auger was too much for my shoulders.Hey, I have an 8 inch Nils Ice Auger for sale !!! The PFBC was on the ice and it was the first time in over 10 years that I had my license checked.
We started the day using tungsten jigs, then switched to shrimpos and did some sight fishing.
I don't question why, but I will say that the Berkley Trout Worm in a PINK or ORANGE color will usually get you a few bites.
Can't wait to fish all the local streams, as they all will have a new look and feel to them.




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