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Did You Know?Projects in 12 countries are registered in the Living Building Challenge and six other projects have been certified to date. The building automation market is set to take off, thanks in large part to corporate, government and institutional interest in energy efficiency that can save millions of dollars in operational costs.
Mike Keller, the Americas sales director of Honeywell Environmental & Combustion Controls, believes high-end home systems integrators have several transferable skills, especially in taking a myriad of systems and migrating them onto one common interface. Instead of a homeowner and a wife, and maybe an architect or interior designer, in the commercial world you may be dealing primarily with a project manager—and quite possibly an architect, developer, designer, IT guy, building manager, electrician, general contractor, you name it. The specification process in commercial can have more layers, and require a lot more justification. One Response to Can Residential Pros Get into Commercial Building Energy Management and Automation?
Furthermore, the Honeywells and the Johnson Controls are The Sopranos that control the facities markets. Finally, the laws themselves are corrupt which is why I cannot work as an architect anymore. I’ll leave this at that for now but to conclude from my own experience that AV vendors who can cut all the mustard will only be able to lawfully work on buildings 50,000 cf or smaller and those who think they are going into the OEM business will have to deal with T. The Geothermal Resources Council (GRC), Geothermal Energy Association (GEA), and Geothermal Exchange Organization (GEO) have released guidance for U.S. With a temperature gradient of between 50 and 100 ℃ geothermal resources are more readily accessible.
With better drilling technology geothermal resources at greater depth and temperature can be reached. Geothermal Power PlantsGeothermal power plants use hydrothermal resources that have two common ingredients: water (hydro) and heat (thermal). There are three basic types of geothermal power plants: Dry steam plants use steam piped directly from a geothermal reservoir to turn the generator turbines. The current production of geothermal energy from all uses places third among renewables, following hydroelectricity and biomass, and ahead of solar and wind. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), also sometimes called engineered geothermal systems, offer great potential for dramatically expanding the use of geothermal energy. The EGS concept is to extract heat by creating a subsurface fracture system to which water can be added through injection wells.
Uses for low and moderate temperature resources can be divided into two categories: Direct use and Geothermal heat pumps.
Direct use, as the name implies, involves using the heat in the water directly (without a heat pump or power plant) for such things as heating of buildings, industrial processes, greenhouses, aquaculture (fish farming) and resorts. Direct, or non-electric, use of geothermal energy refers to the use of the energy for both heatng and cooling applications. Furthermore, direct-use applications such as fish farms, greenhouses, microbreweries, fruit and vegetable drying, spas, pulp and paper processing, and lumber drying offer attractve and innovative opportunities for local businesses and entrepreneurs. Geothermal heat pumps use the natural insulating properties of the earth from just a few feet underground to as much as several hundred feet deep, offering a unique and highly efficient renewable energy technology for heating and cooling. Most work by circulating water in a closed system through a a€?loop fielda€? installed horizontally or vertically in the ground adjacent to or even beneath a building.
The system is reversible, and heat is taken from the ground and used in the building in the winter. Geothermal heat pumps can support space heating and cooling needs in almost any part of the country. Geothermal Heat Pumps use the earth or groundwater as a heat source in winter and a heat sink in summer.
Geologists have known about vast reservoirs of natural gas and oil trapped in shale formations across the United States for decades, but until recently cost-effective extraction techniques weren't available, and the resources remained untapped.
Meanwhile, global energy prices have fallen, and many other countries are studying the U.S.
Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, refers to two processes used to extract natural gas trapped in shale formations.
Then, since shale gas is trapped in dense layers of rock and can't flow through the well by drilling alone, producers must deploy hydraulic fracturing—first introduced into commercial practice in 1947 and effectively combined with horizontal drilling in the late 1990s—which pumps millions of gallons of water, sand, and chemicals at high pressure to open fractures in the rocks, allowing oil and gas to flow.
Though basic fracking techniques have been available for decades, technological breakthroughs in the 1990s paved the way for newfound commercial viability in the shale sector, as CFR Senior Fellow Michael Levi recounts in his book The Power Surge.
Meanwhile, tight oil, which is extracted from shale and other rock formations, has been the fastest-growing segment of U.S.
Although natural gas burns cleaner, emitting less carbon dioxide than oil or coal, producing it can negatively impact the environment in a number of ways. Finally, seismic activity is a concern because both the fracking process and the practice of injecting wastewater into deep wells can cause earthquakes, according to the U.S. Oversight falls primarily to local and state governments, each with varying enforcement priorities. The 2013 ARI analysis of global shale formations outside the United States revealed that more than half of the world's shale oil resources are located in Russia, China, Argentina, and Libya. At the same time, the confrontation over Ukraine has delayed Russia’s shale energy development.

Chemical treatments (iodination or chlorination) are not recommended because they become ineffective at low temperatures. And, he says, many light commercial as well as some large commercial buildings have similar mechanical systems that can be operated similarly to high-end homes.
Then those go out to contractors and general contractors—and at that point it’s a lot more than product they’re selling.
There are real budgets to be dealt with here, and margin expectations, so don’t expect the typical residential budget overruns. Every state now imposes crippling licensing requirements which have become virtually impossible to meet by mandating licensing acquisition and provision to the incumbents that already control the markets.
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It is believed that the ultimate source of geothermal energy is radioactive decay occurring deep within the earth (Burkland, 1973). However, due to a variety of geological processes, some areas, including substantial portions of many USA western states, are underlain by relatively shallow geothermal resources. However, there are many areas around the world where the gradient is higher, the temperature increases at a faster rate with depth below the ground. The first geothermal power plant was built in 1904 in Tuscany, Italy, where natural steam erupted from the Earth. Despite these impressive statistics, the current level of geothermal use pales in comparison to its potential. Creating an enhanced, or engineered, geothermal system requires improving the natural permeability of rock. Fluids with temperatures of <300A°F, adequate for direct use, are available throughout much of the United States. Direct-use geothermal energy projects leverage existing workforces and companies within the state. Geothermal heated facilities have the potential to stimulate economies through increased tax revenues, the creation of new businesses and local jobs, tourism, agriculture, and enhanced community involvement. Directly using geothermal energy in homes and commercial operations, such as food production from local agriculture, can offset imported energy, keeping jobs, dollars, and other benefits in local communities. Applications of geothermal direct use may include district heating, snow melting, spas and pools, agriculture, food processing, and other uses. Geothermal heating projects last for decadesa€”typically 25 years or morea€” providing reliable energy at a low, stable price. The system only moves heat, which is much more efficient than using a fuel or electricity to create heat.
On average, a typical home of 2000 square feet will require 4 tons of heating and cooling capacity with an average system installation cost between $5,000 and $7,500 per ton. Geothermal heat pumps use 25% to 50% less energy than conventional heating or cooling systems. There is no combustion in a geothermal heat pump; therefore there is no chance of carbon-monoxide poisoning.
Shale production helped reduce net imports of energy by one-third between 2011 and 2013, according to the U.S. The first step is to drill down to the sedimentary rocks, sometimes as far as ten thousand feet, then drill sideways for a mile or more. As Levi explains, while the EIA, which publishes widely anticipated annual reviews of the sector, didn't even include shale gas in its 2009 outlook, by 2012 the EIA was reporting that more than one-quarter of U.S. Water supplies are one area of concern, as millions of gallons of water have to be trucked in to each well, sometimes diverting water from other uses. A 2014 New York state health department report synthesized multiple studies carried out across the United States, finding serious concerns in areas including respiratory health, drinking water, seismic activity, soil contamination, and impact of new roads and infrastructure on local communities.
There is an ongoing debate over the amount of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, released by the fracking process.
Critics have accused the federal government of being weak on fracking due to Congress’s controversial decision to exempt the practice from EPA drinking-water regulations, through an exception inserted into the 2005 Energy Policy Act. The EPA has proposed  fracking operations to report more thoroughly on their greenhouse gas emissions, and may soon require companies to disclose all of their chemicals.
In New York, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced a total ban on the practice in December 2014 in the wake of the state’s health department study. Some countries see their shale resources as potential geopolitical game changers: Poland, Turkey, and Ukraine in particular harbor hopes of  reducing their dependence on conventional gas from Russia and Iran.
If we think that way, we’re going to limit ourselves to the projector on the ceiling or the screen, and we’re going to get crushed. No worksheet or portion thereof is to be hosted on, uploaded to, or stored on any other web site, blog, forum, file sharing, computer, file storage device, etc.
We can use these resources by drilling wells into the Earth and piping the steam or hot water to the surface. Flash steam plants take high-pressure hot water from deep inside the Earth and convert it to steam to drive the generator turbines. Direct use of geothermal energy in homes and commercial operations is much less expensive than using traditional fuels; savings can be as much as 80%!

Their simple design and construction from off-the-shelf parts can utilize local engineering firms, geologists, drilling operators, construction trades, pipefitters, technicians, and welders. Depending on the existing heating fuels being offset, this may result in annual emissions reductions of anywhere between 1,700 tons (if offsettng natural gas) to 9,300 tons (if offsettng electricity) of CO2 saved per MWth of installed geothermal direct-use capacity. Within a single system these diverse applications can be a€?cascadeda€? and work together in the most efficient way possible to ensure the maximum benefit and lowest costs possible from direct-use systems.
This can provide price certainty and insulate consumers (and the economy) from more unpredictable fluctuations in fossil fuel prices.
By adding high-efficiency air cleaners with geothermal, these systems can improve inside air quality.
Accurate data is not available on the current number of these systems; however, the rate of installation is thought to be between 10,000 and 40,000 per year.
Energy Information Administration (EIA), and by 2014 foreign petroleum imports had fallen nearly 40 percent compared to 2006.
This horizontal drilling has been widely practiced since the 1980s to extract conventional oil and gas. The EIA projects that tight oil could remain the largest contributor to domestic supply for at least another decade. Such projections are difficult, however, since the viability of deposits depends on a number of unknowable factors, including the future of energy prices, global demand, and technological developments. The often hazardous chemicals used for fracking can be released through spills, leaks, or badly constructed wells. However, an earlier report from New York’s environmental conservation department determined that the risks were manageable, while an energy department report found no evidence that fracking tainted drinking water. A 2013 University of Texas at Austin study (PDF) found that the volume of escaped methane gas produced by fracking wells was lower than government estimates.
Youngstown, Ohio, for instance, has become an epicenter of seismic activity, likely due to an injection well. And although President Barack Obama campaigned on shifting the country away from fossil fuels, the federal government has not stood in the way of oil and gas companies expanding U.S. In March 2015, the Department of the Interior released broad new rules on chemical disclosure, well standards, and wastewater disposal for all fracking operations taking place on federally managed lands, drawing an immediate legal challenge from energy companies. Over half of New York’s shale was already off limits due to local moratoriums or bans, and similar grassroots opposition has spread nationwide. I think there should be, for the industry's own good, because bad news in one state is going to migrate to others and affect prospects elsewhere." Common federal rules, in theory, can help companies to transfer rigs and procedures across the country more efficiently, Levi says.
You want to tell the people who can help move your idea forward, but if you're just looking to your friend, co-worker, husband or wife for validation, be careful. When the steam cools, it condenses to water and is injected back into the ground to be used over and over again. Injected water is heated by contact with the rock and returns to the surface through production wells, as in naturally occurring hydrothermal systems. A rough prediction of potential job opportunites created by installing direct-use systems may be 3 temporary jobs per MWth during construction, with 1 full-time job per MWth for ongoing operation. A drilling renaissance over the past five years has transformed the United States into a leading natural gas producer and potential oil and gas exporter, reversing a decades-long trend of increasing reliance on foreign sources of oil and gas.
The EIA's 2014 outlook (PDF) shows that proved natural gas reserves (a category of resources that have been established to be economical to extract under present conditions) increased nearly 10 percent in 2013 to 354 trillion cubic feet (tcf), while the more inclusive measure of “technically recoverable reserves” amount to over six hundred tcf—nearly one tenth the global supply. Globally, an EIA-commissioned estimate of technically recoverable resources, produced by Advanced Resources International (ARI), found that 10 percent of the world's crude oil and 32 percent of natural gas comes from shale formations.
After a site is fractured, the resulting wastewater must then be treated and either disposed of or reused. And in June 2015, a long-awaited draft report from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found no "widespread, systemic impacts" on drinking water. Other research, such as this October 2014 study, has found that methane leakages, as observed by satellite, may be higher than previously thought.
The United Kingdom and Poland, by contrast, are more enthusiastic but have had disappointing first attemptsat drilling. These loops are made up of high-density polyethylene pipe, the same pipe which is used in city gas lines. The industry practice of temporarily storing wastewater in open pits has prompted concerns about the contamination of freshwater aquifers, and a Duke University study (PDF) found elevated levels of radium, bromide, and other contaminants in wastewater released into local streams from a treatment plant in western Pennsylvania. Bills have been introduced to both increase EPA authority to regulate fracking, as well as to loosen federal oversight, but Congress has not taken action in either direction.
China is sitting on almost as much shale as the United States and Canada combined, but mountainous terrain, water shortages, and other restraints are hampering opportunities. The heat causes the second liquid to turn to steam which is used to drive a generator turbine.

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