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The choice is quite easy for me, the long distance, marathoner look is not what I like on me or anyone else. Endless, slow cardio will just eat away at your body producing an emaciated look, like our marathoners in the pictures above. Be mindful of your current fitness level and don’t overdo it when you first start out. If you are out of shape you may want to start with just two or three repetitions, and work your way up to eight, which is where the magic really starts to happen. TNB said that consumers are more likely to lower the temperature and increase the fan speed of the air-conditioner due to the scorching hot and dry weather. When the air conditioner is functioning in dry mode, the fan and other inner components of the device will be running. Using the dry mode will cause the fan in your air conditioner to operate at a slower speed, resulting in a cooler evaporator coil that condenses water vapor as dry air is blown out.
As infographics have grown in popularity, so have websites and blogs that attempt to catalog the best examples of these colorful, charts, diagrams and illustrations. Pattern recognition: The best infographics are all about extracting the patterns that underlie data and information.
Poly-mapping: Infographics remind you that mind mapping is but one of many ways of representing and communicating information visually.
Rich examples: Infographics provide you with some great examples of the ways in which creative designers have handled color, shape and spatial relationships.
Inspiration: They should inspire you to work at communicating your ideas in more compelling and impactful ways. So why not check out some of these blogs and learn from the visual expressions of the best infographic designers? Here we explain hot water boiler (hydronic heat) pressure reducing valves and types of manual and automatic water feeder valves used on hot water heating boilers, including when and how to add makeup water to a boiler. The photo above shows a modern automatic pressure-reducing water feeder valve on a hydronic (hot water) heating boiler - one of the safety controls which we discuss in this article.
Contact us to suggest text changes and additions and, if you wish, to receive online listing and credit for that contribution.
Water may be lost from a hot water heating system, however, due to a small leak that may be un-noticed, or water may be removed from the system during servicing. In our photo at left the gold colored bell-shaped device pointed to by the red arrow is an automatic pressure-reducing & water feed valve for a hot water boiler. The screw and lock nut on top of this valve permit adjustment of the automatic water feeder valve pressure (it's normally set to 12 psi). The device to the right of the automatic pressure reducer (water feed valve) in our photo above is a back-flow preventer that is required in some municipalities.
See CHECK VALVES, HEATING SYSTEM for more information about backflow preventers and other heating system check valves.
The automatic water feed valve reduces the incoming water pressure from the building supply side down to (typically) 12 psi. The water feed valve adds water to the boiler when needed: If water pressure in the heating boiler drops below 12 psi, the water feeder valve will add makeup water to the system automatically, until it reaches 12 psi inside the boiler. But the manufacturer warns that the purpose of the pressure-reducing (and automagic water feeding) valve is to fill heating boilers after installation or servicing. OPINION: this is interesting since for closed-system hydronic heating boilers (not steam boilers) that's how lots of service techs and inspectors view this device. In the company's service manual you'll see on the installation piping sketch (edited) for the pressure reducing valve (green, to the right of the blue shutoff valve at the left side of the sketch below) that they expect the installer to include a water shutoff valve (blue at the left end of the sketch below) before this pressure reducer. B&G wants you to keep the boiler water supply valve shut except during service - as a precaution that allows easy detection of a boiler leak by noticing the reduced water pressure in that system. In my [DF] opinion, a typical building owner or occupant almost never thinks to check the water level in a hydronic heating system (hot water boiler) until there is some indication of a problem (like no heat or a damaged leaky boiler). A safety improvement on hydronic boilers that gets around this argument is to add a low-water cutoff on residential hydronic heating boilers (hot water heating boilers). That device, always present on steam boilers, is required by local codes in some jurisdictions for hydronic heating boilers too.
OPINION: on a hot water heating boiler that does not have a low-water cutoff valve installed, we would be reluctant to leave the building unattended for weeks or months during the heating season with the boiler water supply shutoff valve in the closed position.
But a hot water heating system might have a tiny, small, even hard-to-find water leak that goes un-noticed for some time, especially if the boiler water supply valve is kept open so that the pressure valve also feeds a little makeup water into the boiler when needed. This feature is not normally used, but it's useful during some service procedures such as refilling a boiler that has been drained (more rapidly than otherwise) or for temporarily forcing water into a heating boiler at high pressure for diagnostic reasons or to attempt to force air out of an air-bound hot water heating system. Watch out: forcing cold water into a hot heating boiler can cause it to crack or be ruined. Installing the proper automatic pressure reducer water feeder should prevent this problem by feeding water to the boiler before boiler water pressure (or level if proper controls are added) is too low, and at a slow enough rate.
Watch out: constant addition of fresh makeup water to a heating boiler that is leaking can make discovery of the leak more difficult, and by constantly introducing fresh water, can lead to mineral deposits, clogging, or boiler damage. Watch out: take a look at the funny lever position on the pressure reducing valve in our photo (above-left). The Bell & Gossett Pressure Reducing Valve is designed for filling hot water boilers and associated piping systems to a properly controlled pressure after boiler installation or system servicing. Pressure Reducing Valve Set-pressure Adjustment: The incoming water pressure setting of 12 psi can be adjusted up or down by the service technician. Our photo (left) shows another model of pressure reducer valve on the water supply line to an Energy Kinetics oil fired heating boiler. The lever on the top of this valve combines a full-open bypass (when the lever is vertical) and a set-pressure adjusting locknut (below the round lever body). Safety note: If the pressure reducing valve is combined with a pressure relief valve, for safety these parts must be installed in the correct position. As Carson Dunlop Associates shows in the sketch above, and as you'll also see in the B&G installation piping sketch, the pressure relief valve should always be installed closest to the heating boiler so that it can respond to an overpressure in the heating system. What is the proper water pressure setting for a pressure-reducing valve or water feeder valve on a Hot Water Heating System? Hydronic heating systems (hot water) typically operate at about 12 psi cold and see a pressure increase to somewhere just under 30 psi when the system is at maximum temperature. If you set the water feeder pressure too high it's likely that when the boiler heats-up to operating temperature, the water pressure will exceed the safety limit (30 psi) and the boiler relief valve will open to discharge excess pressure and water.
A higher building may therefore need higher heating system water pressure in order to be able to circulate heat adequately to upper floors. But in most cases you should leave the water feeder at the psi set by the installer (typical factory setting is 12 psi) unless the building has unusual conditions (such as more than two stories) that require a higher in-boiler starting water pressure. The water feeder is the brass assembly found attached to the expansion tank where piping from the boiler enters the tank on these units. In our photo at left you can see the brass valve on top of the Fill-Trol™ expansion tank and underneath the cast iron air purge valve (red arrow). The vertical copper pipe is feeding water from the building supply, at building water pressure into the brass valve and through it, upwards into the heating system distribution piping through the silver painted cast iron air purge valve. This automatic water fill valve is not adjustable by the consumer and is factory-set to add water to the heating boiler whenever the system pressure falls below 12 psi. Keeping the proper amount of water in a steam boiler is a critical function for both safety and to avoid damaging the boiler itself. Automatic water feed valves on steam boilers (such as the McDonnell & Miller automatic water feeder shown at left) perform functions similar to the valve described earlier for hot water boilers.
All steam heat systems all consume some water which escapes from radiator air vents during the time that the steam (heat) is first rising in the building. Watch out: a clogged, damaged, or non-functional pressure-reducer water-feeder valve on a heating boiler can lead to abnormally low heating boiler water levels that in turn can cause gurgling sounds in water piping, baseboards or radiatiors, and ultimately to loss of heat or even damage to the heating boiler. After I was unable to figure why the furnace had a low water level that led to gurgling in the radiators, I decided to change the auto-fill valve above the expansion tank. I'd already changed the tank the week before but decided to cheap out and reuse the old valve. There are multiple B&G pressure reducing valve models, not to mention competing valves made by other manufacturers. Point in the right direction: The cast-arrow indicating direction of water flow must be in a horizontal position (and of course pointing towards the heating appliance). Open the cold water fill valve to allow the system to fill until the preset pressure of the valve has been obtained. Install a water shutoff valve on the inlet (water supply side) of the pressure reducing valve. Watch out: if you install a bypass valve to allow fast filling of the heating boiler, make sure that this bypass is closed during normal boiler operation.
Warning when using teflon tape on threaded pipe fittings: the same manufacturer warns that use of Teflon impregnated pipe compound and Teflon tape on pipe threads provides so much lubrication that it's easy to over tighten and damage the parts - risking unsafe or damaged equipment.
When the pressure reducing valve installation is complete and you are ready to fill the heating boiler, open the cold water fill valve to allow the system to fill until the preset pressure of the valve has been obtained. If you are using a Fast Fill model pressure reducing valve, instead of filling the system through the bypass valve and piping you lift the fast fill lever to the vertical position, overriding the pressure regulating features of the valve and allowing water to enter the heating equipment and piping at building water supply pressure.
Watch out: after this initial boiler fill-up, close the fast fill lever - don't leave it up - open or the system will be unsafe and possibly damaged.
For pressure reducing valve feed pressure adjustment to meet varying building conditions such as tall structures that need higher starting pressure, see the detailed explanation found above in this article.

B&G offers some excellent tips on how to check the pressure reducer for proper operation, and how to fix some common problems. Watch out: if you find corrosion, damage, or leaks at the pressure reducer valve, these should be taken as a very serious warning that the valve is about to cause serious damage, leakage, rupture, and unsafe conditions. But one tip for waterlogged expansion tanks that use an internal bladder is one we hand neglected to mention: pump a bit of air into the expansion tank, then put a dab of water (we recommend spit) on the opening of the air valve found on the bladder-type expansion tank. Turn off the heating boiler - set the electrical service switch to OFF to shut down the entire system. Watch out: water in the heating boiler may be at dangerous high pressure or high temperature. Reinstall the strainer and nut with its O-ring (don't lose or damage the O-ring or the valve will leak) and tighten the nut to at least 10 inch-pounds of torque, and not more than 100 inch-pounds of torque. Watch out: don't use Teflon tape when installing the pressure reducer strainer nut and o-ring or the risk is that you will over-tighten and damage the equipment making it and the system unsafe, risking injury or damage. Vent any excess air from the heating system - as you may have introduced air during the drain and refill procedure. Turn the boiler electrical service switch back on, make sure the room thermostat is calling for heat, allow the heating system to resume normal operation. To use the pressure reducer valve repair kit you will need to shut down the heating system, drain it, cool it, as we described just above at the strainer cleanout procedure. Remove the hex nut (this is the lock nut that holds the screw stem in place) by holding the stem assembly stationary while turning the nut counterclockwise.
Insert the new valve stem assembly (that came in your repair kit) into the valve body through the strainer opening in the housing, and hold it in place. Reinstall the strainer nut (the strainer is in place, too, right?) with its O-ring into the reducing valve body bottom and tighten it to at least 10 inch pounds and not more than 100 inch pounds. Close the boiler drain and refill and vent air from the heating system with cold water as we described above. Reader Question: What should we report if finding a water feed valve tied off as shown in this photo?
315-673-1755 provided this photo of a tied-off pressure-reducer water-feed valve and asked what we'd say about it, for an ASHI home inspector newsletter. Home inspectors are expected to be competent to recognize conditions at a home that are improper, unsafe, not functional, etc. In this photo we have a pressure-reducing water feed valve typically used on a hot water or hydronic heating system. The water feed valve's override lever in the photo has been secured to the water pipe by a black plastic tie. If the valve were in manual OPEN mode, the lever would be at right angles to the piping and valve body - its handle would be over the adjustment screw shown in the center of the valve top. Why would someone put a plastic tie on the automatic water feed valve override lever to hold it in the CLOSED position? But a more likely reason this valve was tied OFF or CLOSED was that it was leaking, feeding excess water pressure to the boiler on its own. If the valve has to be tied shut because it was feeding water when it shouldn't it needs to be repaired or replaced. If the boiler has been suffering from overpressure, causing the relief valve to spill frequently, there is a risk that the relief valve will have become clogged with mineral deposits - which in turn can cause the valve to fail to open in a true overpressure or over temperature emergency - the result can be a BLEVE or boiler explosion!
If the homeowner has been opening this valve, for example during a DIY attempt to correct an air bound heating system, I'd give him or her a good spanking. The maintenance of proper water level and pressure in a hydronic heating boiler and its piping is critical not only for proper delivery of heat to the building, it is also critical to avoid overheating, damage, and unsafe operation should the boiler water level drop too low or be lost entirely. Watch out: The manufacturers of this type of automagic water feed valve recommend that additional manual control valves be included in the piping system, so in some installations you might also find that the automatic water feeder is not really so automatic.
Which is pretty interesting since so many people in the trades as well as among inspectors consider it a safety device. This article series answers nearly all questions about Heating System Boiler Controls on central heating systems to aid in troubleshooting, inspection, diagnosis, and repairs. Continue reading at CHECK VALVES, HEATING SYSTEM or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
If you are having to add water to your boiler too often either there is a leak somewhere (a condensate line, or hidden in the boiler itself), or steam vents are not closing when they should. In regards to my gravity feed system "pressure" problem question -- Municipal water, system has been working fine for last 15 yrs. Particularly with a gravity circulating system, that is you rely on hot water rising through the heating pipes by convection rather than by using a circulator pump, if there is not enough pressure in the heating system hot water may rise too slowly or even not at all to upper floors in the building. Check the water pressure in your heating boiler (furnaces are hot air systems, water based heating systems are boilers) when the system is cold - for a typical 2 story home you'll want to see 12 psi cold pressure in the boiler. Also take a look at "What is the proper water pressure setting for a pressure-reducing valve or water feeder valve on a Hot Water Heating System?" in the article above.
You're asking a question under an article on automatic water feeders -- valves that maker sure the water in a heating boiler is kept at proper level. Fixing the problem by opening and closing the flow-control valve is a stopgap that as you have seen, is not a great solution. To replace a flow control valve or some circulator pump assemblies that are plumbed directly in line in the hot water heating system, unless there are isolating shutoff valves before and after the device, you'll need to cool down the system, drain the affected piping, replace the part, and indeed, purge air from the lines to restore heat. Keep us posted - what you learn will help other readers.Question: Top floor radiator is not getting water - should I up the system pressure? Joey I would NOT start by changing system pressure since there is a good chance that your top floor radiator is simply air bound.
If the system is not maintaining pressure we need to look for a leak or a defective backflow preventer or check valve. My boiler has been leaking at the pressure relief valve for 1 week, with the pressure at 30-35 when hot. If it's an older bladderless type expansion tank (some call these compression tanks) it may be that it wasn't adequately drained. And don't forget to double check that someone else has not manually added water to the boiler. Indeed finding where to add water to a steam boiler can be tricky for an unfamiliar building owner because the water supply valves are not always located in the same place.
That route will show you where water enters the boiler as the piping will end either at a manual valve, at an automatic water feeder valve, or at a combination of the two - that is, some boilers may include an automatic water feed valve as well as a manual valve located on a piping loop that pipes around the water feed valve.
Or use the CONTACT link at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article to send me some sharp, well-lit photos of your system and I'll be glad to look them over and give more specific advice.
Going on vacation for 2 months and wondering if it's OK to shut the cold water supply line to the hydronic water heater.
If you mean a steam boiler, almost certainly not - the risk is loss of heat or boiler melt-down or worse. I sometimes shut off the water main to a home heated by a boiler but *only* if I am very confident that the system is bullet proof and leakproof - the worry is that a leak in the system can destroy the boiler or even lead to a fire. If the boiler has a low water cutoff valve on it then you're safe: it will simply shut down if it loses water. In some buildings it's possible to leave the water supply on to the boiler but to shut off all of the hot and cold water supply piping to the rest of the house. Question: What valves do I need on my boiler: why do I have no heat in half of my baseboards? Check that each room thermostat for each heating zone is calling for heat - set the thermostat well above room temperatures.
Then check that the boiler is circulating hot water in each heating zones - touch or feel (with care) for hot pipes at each circulator or zone valve. There could be a thermostat, zone valve, check valve, or even an air bound heating system problem.
Mike am not expert on radiant heat slab systems that do not use a mixing valve to keep the water temperature at the required level and to avoid overheating. Have you asked a heating design engineer for help with your system to be sure it will meet its requirements? In any event a water feed valve as discussed in the article above is completely separate from the mixing valve used to maintain radiant heat system temperature. How do I know the feed valve or relirf valve are bad or replace both the relief valve is letting water out. If you are seeing leaks from the water feeder valve chances are it needs repair or replacement; some water feeders can be repaired using a re-build kit. Watch out: when you also cite that the relief valve is leaking that suggest that either the heating system is at too high a pressure or temperature (unsafe conditions that deserve a system shut-down) or the leaks could be caused by a water-hammer problem at the building or high water pressure or both. Watch out: But if you are seeing 40 psi on the boiler side, such as on the boiler's gauge, something's wrong and if that's really the pressure you should shut down the system as it is unsafe.
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If you can do a Innate Cardio workout twice a week you will increase your production of growth hormone (future article) and start to loose the weight and gain the muscle you are working sooo hard to acquire. It also added that consumers are may be using their air-conditioner unit for prolonged hours. In a nutshell, what the dry mode does is to lower humidity in the room, as many do not realise that an increase of humidity translate to an increase of temperature. The air in the room passes through the aircon and the water vapor condenses on the evaporator.Dry air will then exit the unit and flow back into the room.

The reduce in energy equals to less electricity!According to an experiment, a watt usage meter is used to compare the differences in electricity usage between dry and normal mode. Humans are very sensitive to humidity and respond to moisture-heavy environments by sweating. Infographics should help you to remember that mind maps are not a panacea – in other words, you should not mind map everything.
A chart illustrates the adjustment to heating boiler operating pressure as a function of building height or the number of floors in a building being heated. Once the boiler and the baseboard, radiator, or convector piping are connected and filled with water, that same water remains in the system indefinitely. To maintain the water level in these heating systems, water can be added from the building water supply piping manually by simply opening a make-up valve. An arrow cast into the valve base shows the direction of water flow (from building supply at right into the boiler at left in this photo). The back-flow preventer makes sure that water from inside the heating boiler cannot flow backwards into the building (and community) water supply. That's because the normal in-boiler water pressure, when the heating boiler is cold, is about 12 psi in a normal residential system. The company also points out that too-frequent feeding of water into a heating system can increase the effects of corrosion and system damage. The manufacturer is telling you what's safe in some regards, but they may not have the same view of what people actually do in the field. That way if a small leak develops we're not at risk of destroying the boiler by firing it without adequate water in the system. Only if there is a leak (or during service) would the water level in a hot water heating system drop and need replenishment. Failure to follow those instructions could result in serious personal injury or death and property damage. It is not a safety device and is not intended to be used as a water feed valve to control boiler water at a safe operating level. The schematic at above right, courtesy of Carson Dunlop, explains how this pressure reducing valve works. The sketch, courtesy of Carson Dunlop, explains that a three-story building will need heating system pressure set up to at least 15 psi.
So on a steam boiler we consider the automatic water feeder to serve as a safety device too. So unlike a hydronic water feeder, the steam boiler water feeder is going to be much busier, regularly adding makeup water to the steam boiler, but operating at low water pressures.
That's why all modern steam heating boilers can be expected to include at least a low water cutoff valve.
Otherwise the boiler will be over-pressurized, the relief valve may spill, equipment or the building may be damaged, the equipment may be unsafe. We are seeing more LWCO's installed on both hydronic and steam boilers, required by code in some jurisdictions. Indeed we found that when tightening a part such that we are approaching the part's desired final position, the lubricant effect of teflon can cause you to turn the part too far - so you're tempted to turn it for another complete rotation to get it where you want - followed by breaking the part.
So be sure to stop filling when pressure in the heating system is at the proper cold-water temperature pressure. This valve should be inspected periodically, in our OPINION [DF] no less than at annual heating system service time. Before proceeding to work on the pressure reducer valve you must either reduce the heating system internal water pressure to zero, OR you must isolate the pressure reducing valve from the rest of the the heating system. Remember to close the bypass valve or fill valve when the heating system has been filled to its cold starting pressure. A dab of Loctite (thread fastener) must be added to the hex nut before threading it onto the stem. The valve valve, this one is a B&G model, has the job of feeding makeup water to the heating boiler should the water pressure in the heating system fall below the set-pressure on the valve - typically 12 psi for most one or two story residential buildings, though the set pressure may need to be higher in taller structures. If you set the boiler water pressure too high when cold then when the boiler heats up the pressure will exceed the (roughly 30 psi) pressure at which the relief valve will open.
One of the failure modes of these valves is that the valve begins to feed water when it should not.
And if there indeed has been a recurrent problem with the heating system becoming air-bound, I'd look further for a problem with the automatic air bleed valve(s) that should be found at strategic locations on the boiler itself and perhaps on some sections of baseboards or other heat radiating devices.
When I leave the incoming water on the pressure in my system goes sky high the expansion tank discharges the water. Hop over to our radiator troubleshooting articles at RADIATORS and you'll see how to check for and fix an air-bound heating radiator by simply opening an air bleeder. If the expansion tank is a newer type that has an internal bladder the bladder may be damaged or the air valve may be leaking out the air charge. This would still allow all the circulation etc but allows me to shut down the main water supply to our house. But there too if the boiler leaks it could be destroyed or cause very serious damage to the building if the boiler lose heat or explodes from loss of water.
However there are some modern hydronic heating boilers that include sophisticated controls to adjust boiler temperature to work with radiant floor heating. The results show that normal mode uses up till 600W of electricity while the dry mode only used up to 350W. Examples of the most compelling infographics help us to think in terms of the bigger picture, of the patterns that reside within the information we’re recording in our mind maps. Sign up today and you'll get my Mind Mapping Software Update and Visual Thinking Digest e-newsletters.
The water in the boiler is heated and circulated through the occupied space to provide heat to the building occupants. A manual valve will simply be a shutoff valve that can be opened by hand to force water into the heating boiler. This prevents back-contamination of potable water piping from the boiler should the building water pressure fail. A tall building may need to start with higher cold-system water pressure to be able to push hot heating water to upper floors.
This violates the B&G installation instructions for their pressure reducing valve - so be sure to review this concern with your trained, heating service company service manager. We weren't sure, but this very valve was blamed for a major house flood causing thousands of dollars in damage from mold.
Water feed valves on steam heat systems operate under very different requirements than those on hot water (hydronic) heating systems. And it's rare to see a modern steam boiler that does not have the recommended automatic float operated water feeder.
The concern is that excessive pipe dope oozes into working control parts and can prevent safe, proper operation of the equipment.
This should not be happening if at the same time the heating boiler is already up to its operating temperature.
Leave the system drain valve open and allow the heating system to cool to a safe temperature - below 100 °F. The fact that you drained your expansion tank and then found that you could drain it again makes me suspect that as the best starting place. If the boiler has a low water cutoff safety valve (as is installed on all steam boilers) then you'd hav some protection from the latter castrophe.
The copper pipe is in a circle at the boiler and one of the handles is at the top and one is upside down on the bottom (the valve is a circular dial style handle). This guy is what women must be naturally attracted to, when they are unconsciously looking for a mate- strong, virile, healthy, protective, full of energy.
Some may reach their anabolic threshold by walking at a quick pace, while others may need to perform a mad-dash to get the same effect. Some people, like Dave Gray, founder of XPLANE, one of the thought leaders in this area, believe that infographics represent a new visual language. For example, a business process is usually better described by a flow chart than a radial mind map. You'll also get immediate access to my exclusive report, 12 Building Blocks of Effective Mind Maps - FREE! The building was unattended and the valve fed water into the structure for days, resulting in flooding and mold contamination. Without these controls, and without appropriate air controls (air purger and thermal expansion compensation), B&G warns that the boiler may not work properly nor safely. Don't confuse increased boiler water level with surging when the steam boiler is heating up. We wondered if the house-watcher made a mistake or was messing around with this device before the flood. If OK then the heat would still be available but I would not have the potential problem of water leaks from the plumbing system components such as a cracked toilet tank etc. Can I turn the pressure screw on the water feeder to increase the pressure while the system has been operating for the past 2 months and the boiler is not cool?

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