Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th president of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
When the North enthusiastically rallied behind the national flag after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war effort.
Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which permanently outlawed slavery.
Navy set up a naval blockade that shut down the South's normal trade, helped take control of Kentucky and Tennessee, and gained control of the Southern river system using gunboats.
An exceptionally astute politician deeply involved with power issues in each state, Lincoln reached out to "War Democrats" (who supported the North against the South), and managed his own re-election in the 1864 presidential election. Republicans who demanded harsher treatment of the South, War Democrats who called for more compromise, antiwar Democratics called Copperheads who despised him, and irreconcilable secessionists who plotted his death. Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as one of the greatest U.S. The son of a Kentucky frontiersman, Abraham Lincoln had to struggle for a living and for learning. Lincoln made extraordinary efforts to attain knowledge while working on a farm, splitting rails for fences, and keeping store at New Salem, Illinois. Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. In 1832, at age 23, Lincoln and a partner bought a small general store on credit in New Salem, Illinois.
Lincoln served as New Salem's postmaster and later as county surveyor, all the while reading voraciously.
Admitted to the bar in 1836, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law under John T.
In the 1835–36 legislative session, he voted to expand suffrage to white males, whether landowners or not.
Lincoln returned to practicing law in Springfield in 1848, handling "every kind of business that could come before a prairie lawyer". Lincoln handled many transportation cases in the midst of the nation's western expansion, particularly the conflicts arising from the operation of river barges under the many new railroad bridges. In 1851, he represented the Alton & Sangamon Railroad in a dispute with one of its shareholders, James A. Barry Schwartz, a sociologist who has examined America's cultural memory, argues that in the 1930s and 1940s, the memory of Abraham Lincoln was practically sacred and provided the nation with "a moral symbol inspiring and guiding American life".

Born to poor farmers in a humble backwater, Lincoln lacked the distinguished pedigree of many of his presidential predecessors. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including commanding general Ulysses S.
Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond; each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded in 1865. Politically, Lincoln fought back with patronage, by pitting his opponents against each other, and by appealing to the American people with his powers of oratory.
Thomas was a strong and determined pioneer who found a moderate level of prosperity and was well respected in the community.
Although the economy was booming in the region, the business struggled and Lincoln eventually sold his share. Following his return, Lincoln continued his campaign for the August 6 election for the Illinois General Assembly. He then decided to become a lawyer and began teaching himself law by reading Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and other law books.
He served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives as a Whig representative from Sangamon County. Twice a year for 16 years, 10 weeks at a time, he appeared in county seats in the midstate region when the county courts were in session. Barret, who had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to buy shares in the railroad on the grounds that the company had changed its original train route. The case is famous for Lincoln's use of a fact established by judicial notice in order to challenge the credibility of an eyewitness. His likeness also appears on many postage stamps and has been memorialized in many town, city, and county names, including the capital of Nebraska. During the Great Depression, he argues, Lincoln served "as a means for seeing the world's disappointments, for making its sufferings not so much explicable as meaningful". Americans asked, "What would Lincoln do?" However, he also finds that since World War II, Lincoln's symbolic power has lost relevance, and this "fading hero is symptomatic of fading confidence in national greatness". Lincoln, a moderate from a swing state, secured the Republican Party presidential nomination in 1860. He suspended habeas corpus, arresting and temporarily detaining thousands of suspected secessionists in the border states without trial. His Gettysburg Address of 1863 became an iconic statement of America's dedication to the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy.

The couple had two other children: Abraham's older sister Sarah and younger brother Thomas, who died in infancy. That March he began his political career with his first campaign for the Illinois General Assembly. Lincoln became an able and successful lawyer with a reputation as a formidable adversary during cross-examinations and closing arguments.
Lincoln successfully argued that the railroad company was not bound by its original charter in existence at the time of Barret's pledge; the charter was amended in the public interest to provide a newer, superior, and less expensive route, and the corporation retained the right to demand Barret's payment.
Included are many of Lincoln’s most notable speeches and letters, commentary and lectures by leading historians and political scientists, original lesson plans developed by history professors and master classroom teachers, and links to additional web resources.
With very little support in the slave states, Lincoln swept the North and was elected president in 1860.
Lincoln held a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to reunite the nation speedily through a policy of generous reconciliation in the face of lingering and bitter divisiveness. He had attained local popularity and could draw crowds as a natural raconteur in New Salem, though he lacked an education, powerful friends, and money, which may be why he lost. At his first speech, when he saw a supporter in the crowd being attacked, Lincoln grabbed the assailant by his "neck and the seat of his trousers" and threw him. The decision by the Illinois Supreme Court has been cited by numerous other courts in the nation.
His election prompted seven southern slave states to form the Confederacy before he took the office. Lincoln finished eighth out of 13 candidates (the top four were elected), though he received 277 of the 300 votes cast in the New Salem precinct. He won election to the state legislature; though he ran as a Whig, many Democrats favored him over a more powerful Whig opponent. Lincoln appeared before the Illinois Supreme Court in 175 cases, in 51 as sole counsel, of which 31 were decided in his favor.

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