1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Possible on-site preceptorships available in Sweden, South Africa, or Costa Rica depending on the type of experience you are looking for! ULA is an online advanced ultrasound education experience delivered through an interactive, multimedia platform. We provide a global learning atmosphere using up to date techniques and equipment to provide the best online ultrasound learning experience in the world. At the heart of the Persian Army were the 10,000 Immortals a€“ soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill.
Created Zoroastrianism a€“ A religion that taught that the forces of good and evil were battling for control of the universe. First Persian War - In 490 BC Darius I invaded the Greek mainland to punish the Greek city-states for helping rebellious Greeks in the Persian Empire. A¬300 Spartans held off the Persian army at Thermopylae pass for three days until they were betrayed and overwhelmed.
A¬The Athenian navy defeated the Persians in a navel battle at Salamis and on land at Plataea.
Education, clear thinking (philosophy) and the arts were valued in Athensa€¦in addition to a strong military. After the Persian Wars Athens formed an alliance of Greek city-states called the Delian League. In 415 BC Athens attempted to expand its empire once again, by attacking the island of Sicily. In 359 BC Phillip II became king of Macedonia and (very soon) led his army south to conquer the disorganized Greeks.
Phillipa€™s success as a military leader was based on a fighting formation called a phalanx a€“ a group of warriors who stood close together in a square with long spears. Philip II planned to march east and conquer the Persian Empire, but in 336 BC he was assassinated while celebrating his daughtera€™s wedding. Alexander quickly demonstrated his leadership abilities at age 20 by ruthlessly putting down a rebellion in the Greek city-state of Thebes. Beginning in 334 BC, Alexander moved east and south out of Greece and conquered the Persians, Egyptians and other smaller groups. Alexander was a great admirer of Greek culture so his longest lasting legacy was that he spread Greek culture across his empire as he conquered. Over many centuries these cultures blended together to form Hellenistic Culture or Hellenism. Greek philosophers believed that one thing was more important than anything else in lifea€¦a€¦.using the human mind to think and understand. Plato a€“ A student of Socrates, Plato wrote The Republic in which he described the prefect society. Archimedes a€“ Invented the a€?water screwa€? that allowed the lifting of water to a higher level. At the heart of the Persian Army were the 10,000 Immortals a€“ soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill.A  The army also had an excellent cavalry a€“ a unit of soldiers who ride horses.
After four years of disorder, a prince, Darius I came to power.A  He became known as the a€?king of kingsa€?. Built The Royal Road.A A  It stretched 1,700 miles and allowed messengers to travel quickly. Philip II planned to march east and conquer the Persian Empire, but in 336 BC he was assassinated while celebrating his daughtera€™s wedding.A  His son Alexander would take his placea€¦a€¦. Alexander quickly demonstrated his leadership abilities at age 20 by ruthlessly putting down a rebellion in the Greek city-state of Thebes.A  He now could go and conquer an empire without fearing any further rebellions in Greece. Many government buildings in the US today are modeled after the Greek style.A  Greek buildings are known for their columns and balance. Aristotle a€“ Taught that people should live lives of moderation and balance.A  The should use reason, or clear and ordered thinking to guide their lives.
Petrarch was born to Florentine parents but was raised along the River Rhone in eastern France. It was as a writer that Petrarch has been referred to as the Father of the Renaissance in Italy. There were several experiences in his life that shed light into what shaped this man and why he became so revered and respected.
He confessed that even though he had a noble family and loving parents and even received training as a priest, he was deeply entrenched in patterns of sexual sin until the age of 40. A major event that led to the a€?throwing off of the old and putting on the newa€? was a climb with his brother to the top of Mount Ventoux (which means a€?windya€? in French), the highest mountain peak in southern France. The passage struck him like an arrow and from that wound he turned from a preoccupation with the world of nature around him and instead began to focus on the inner world of the soul.
A second major impact upon Petrarcha€™s life was his infatuation with a beautiful girl, Laura, who attended the same church in Avignon. As a priest, Petrarch was forbidden to marry but did father two children, a son and daughter, by a woman or women whose identity(ies) was lost.
The sonnet is a lyrical poem expressing onea€™s emotions rather than tell, for example, a story. The following is an example from Petrarcha€™s collection of sonnets (1327), Rime in vita e morta di Madonna Laura (a€?Rhymes in life and death of Lady Lauraa€?) contained in his major collection of works, Il Canzoniere (a€?Song Booka€?).
I bless the place, the time and hour of the daya€?that my eyes aimed their sights at such a height,a€?and say: a€?My soul, you must be very gratefula€?that you were found worthy of such great honour. His son died young in a plague but his daughter lived on and off with Petrarch for her entire life.
Although he was born in Florence during the later stages of the Middle Ages, Dante is considered to be one of three a€?mountainsa€? of poetry that Italy produced during the Renaissance, together with Petrarch and Boccaccio. In Dantea€™s lifetime, the Emperor Henry VII entered Italy, and Dante envisioned him as the new Charlemagne. Henry VII is depicted in Dantea€™s Paradise seated on a seat of honor as the one a€?who will come to set Italy straight before her time is ready.a€? (Or, a€?. In Hell (Inferno) Dante has as his personal guide, the Roman philosopher Virgil who cannot leave hell for purgatory because as a Roman he was a pagan.
Mohammed is seen as a disemboweled spirit wandering aimlessly through hell because of his deception of millions through his false religion.
In addition to Boniface VIII, Dante meets various leaders of the Italian city-states who are confined in hell because of instigating political intrigue, warfare, and death. Dantea€™s treatment of Boniface in the Comedy created a wide audience of readers, because the Pope was considered by many throughout Italy to be a notorious villain. In the third section or book in The Divine Comedy, Dante is accompanied by Beatrice, the young woman he loved in life but for whom his love was never fulfilled. Paradise concludes with Dantea€™s encounter with God, which he describes as an experience filled with glory and brilliance in Goda€™s presence. Hence, The Divine Comedy is a work filled with Dantea€™s theological comments and political opinions.
Dante was married at the age of 9 by his parents to the daughter of another wealthy Florentine family of nobility. Dante states, however, that he loved another girl who he knew in Florence but that this was a secret love known only to him and never by her.
Perhaps because of his infatuation with Beatrice and his inability to come to terms with what would seem to be a necessary masculine maturity, Dante never mentioned his wife in any of his writings and she never accompanied him during the many years of exile in northern Italy.
The novel depicts ten youths (seven girls and three boys) who flee Florence to escape the Black Death. The tales they tell were gathered by Boccaccio from all over Europe and the Middle East and reveal important insights into the cultures of that time period. The novel was banned for long periods of time because the bawdy tales broke custom, not only by including sexual content generally but also tales of priests engage in illicit sexual activity as well. Just as Dante was in trouble because of his public opposition to the political power of the pope, so, too, Boccaccio was in deep trouble because of the content of Decameron, especially the public broadcasting of the immorality of priests and bishops.
In the later part of his life, Boccaccio had a desire to enter the priesthood, perhaps in an attempt to atone for the sins he committed in his younger years (he was in loved with a married noble woman while in Naples and made her famous through the false name, Fiammetta). He established the novel as an effective part of Renaissance literature which became a model for novelists in later centuries. Decameron was an important collection of tales gathered from many areas of Europe, the Middle East, and India and served as an instrument preserve the tales. The important literary work for which he is known, The Courtier, was his handbook for courtiers. The royal courts were located in the palace of the king or prince that required onea€™s full time attendance.
Courts were also the place where musical concerts were preformed, plays presented, and recitations of recent literary works given.
It was in this climate that The Courtier greatly influenced Renaissance behavior and further advanced the qualities of the ideal Renaissance man.


His most important work, The Prince, was a handbook which gave advice to young rulers who were inexperienced in ruling.
There were three major ideas advocated by Machiavelli that set him in opposition to the pope and clergy. First, the most famous pieces of advice from The Prince given to young rulers was the line, a€?It is better to be feared than loved.a€? Ita€™s nice if those you govern love you, but eventually without fearing you they will turn on you and attack you behind your back. Machiavelli was perhaps the clearest spokesman for a humanism that concentrated on the here and now and divorced itself from the concept of personal accountability to God. Today people in contemporary politics who constantly change their values and follow the principle, a€?the end justifies the means,a€? are referred to as being a€?Machiavellian.a€? The term was applied, for example, to President Nixon when he lied to Congress about his knowledge of the Water Gate break-in, and to President Clinton when he lied to Congress about his relationship with a young female aide. The Prince was more widely read and followed than any other literature produced during the Renaissance because it touched a raw nerve, the frustration in Italy with the Churcha€™s involvement in civil government. How did Petrarcha€™s climb up the mountain and reading Augustinea€™s Confessions change his life? Dantea€™s work, The Divine Comedy is considered one of the greatest pieces of literature in history.
What did Dante do through his literature to greatly aid Italy later to become a unified nation?
How did Castiglionea€™s work, The Courtier, help shape Italian society, especially among the nobility? If someone today is accused of being Machiavellian (and often people are), what are others saying about that person?
If from the little you have read about these three authors, which do feel most attracted to?
Petrarch from early childhood loved to learn and the study of ancient history was his special area of interest. I bless the place, the time and hour of the daythat my eyes aimed their sights at such a height,and say: a€?My soul, you must be very gratefulthat you were found worthy of such great honour. During his lifetime, Italy was torn with conflicts between the city-states and between the pope and the Holy Roman Empire. In the third section or bookA  in The Divine Comedy, Dante is accompanied by Beatrice, the young woman he loved in life but for whom his love was never fulfilled. Dante states, however,A  that he loved another girl who he knew in Florence but that this was a secret love known only to him and never by her. As an experienced courtier (one who serves in the kinga€™s or princea€™s court at his invitation) Castiglione felt it necessary to counter the Middle Agesa€™ concept of the perfect knights who were sworn to bravery and virtue.
1.How did Petrarcha€™s climb up the mountain and reading Augustinea€™s Confessions change his life?
3.Dantea€™s work, The Divine Comedy is considered one of the greatest pieces of literature in history. 5.What did Dante do through his literature to greatly aid Italy later to become a unified nation? 6.How did Castiglionea€™s work, The Courtier, help shape Italian society, especially among the nobility? 9.If someone today is accused of being Machiavellian (and often people are), what are others saying about that person? 10.If from the little you have read about these three authors, which do feel most attracted to? Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. His father had been forced into exile from Florence during one of the numerous political intrigues that plagued Florence.
Some cite Petrarcha€™s passion for mountain climbing to be an example of the Renaissance spirit -- the quest to see the new, higher view. Today the mountain is a major ski attraction and is most famous as a major climb in the Tour da€™France bicycle race.
He attempted on several occasions to avoid what appeared to be hard parts of the climb which were taken by his his brother, and to save energy Petrarch took what appeared to him at the time to be easier routes to the top. It contains 14 lines broken into two sections: the octave (eight lines following an abba abba rhyming format) and the sestet (six lines following a bcb cbd format).
The majority of his sonnets were written to Laura -- 365 sonnets in all -- one sonnet per day to the love of his imagination.
In Il Canzoniere were contained other important themes addressed by Petrarch: politics, time, spirituality, religion and the papacy. He is considered one of the literary greats in history and his greatest work, The Divine Comedy. Dante was politically active and was vocally supportive of the emperor and critical of the popea€™s involvement in politics.
The Comedy is a tale covering an extensive journey that Dante took through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. Dante meets many famous persons from history, including Mohammed and several popes, including Boniface VII, who Dante labels a€?Public Enemy #1a€?!
Dante sees also Ali, Mohammeda€™s son-in-law, leader of the Shiite sect of Islam, who also wanders eternally in hell.
In other words, Dante picks a fight with many of his contemporaries and must move from city to city in northern Italy for protection, where many who share his opinions are able to shield him.
He was accused of heresy, simony, sexual fornication, self-idolatry, sodomy, assassination, violation of the confidence sworn to in the confessional, political intrigue, embezzlement of Crusade funds, and a whole host of other sins and crimes. This was not an unusual practice in Florence at the time when families needed to establish as many alliances as possible to achieve additional success or, on the other hand, protection in an era of great political intrigue and upheaval.
He would see her occasionally on the streets of Florence while still they were still young. However, Petrarch, the priest who was torn by unrequited love, talked Boccaccio out of joining the clergy.
He was sent by Pope Clement VII to Spain as papal ambassador and watchdog on the activities of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Some were even invited to spend the night at court and others were given apartments for longer periods of time. One such was a young member of the Medici family who had just been given his own small area to govern.
It was humanistic, opposed to traditional values and morality, and advocated a harsh, selfish approach to governing. But if their attitude is primary one of fear, they will be too fearful to do anything but support you. It is still widely read in many languages and is used in college courses in history and political science. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. But a careful reading of Petrarcha€™s letter about this trip reveals something more profound. He sat down to rest and pulled from his pocket a copy of Saint Augustinea€™s Confessions, a work he probably found comforting, since in his Confessions Saint Augustine also admitted to being plagued by sexual sin prior to his conversion. There is no evidence that he ever addressed one sonnet to the mother or mothers of his children, but those written to or about Laura comprise the majority of his writing. As a priest forbidden to marry, Petrarch reveals the searing pain of love that can never be fulfilled and a longing for relationship with a woman that is never an attainable possibility. He wrote in the Monarch that the ideal situation for all of Europe, including Italy, would be union under the leadership of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VII. The Black Guelph party favored the popea€™s involvement in Florentine politics and the White Guelphs, Dantea€™s party, opposed the popea€™s involvement.
Throughout his journey Dante meets numerous people from history who live in either hell or purgatory, depending upon Dantea€™s opinion of them.
On one occasion, for instance, in a dispute with the king of France, Boniface replied that he would rather be a dog or an ass than a Frenchman! His most noted work was Decameron, a collection of bawdy tales gathered from a variety of places and times and woven together into a novel with a setting during the time of a plague that had fallen on Florence. Each of the ten is to tell stories on successive days, for a total of one hundred tales (ten days x ten story tellers = 100 tales). The courtier was to reflect the Renaissance ideal of being well-rounded, educated in poetry, art, language, history, and,cultured, bright, witty, and a good conversationalist.
It was a place where people sought to be a€?seena€? and a€?hearda€? and thought of as being a€?coola€? and part of the a€?in crowd.a€? Most were wealthy nobility who could afford to spend so much time away from their own properties and duties. Often the king or prince could spread word to the common people by simply sharing it at court. Machiavelli hoped that this good deed would atone for his sins and bring back into the good favor of the Medici family.
Do whatever it takes to achieve the goal and stop doing whatever does not achieve the goal, even if it means going contrary to traditional Christian morality.


His ideas were read by rulers in subsequent generations, including Adolph Hitler and the leaders of Communist Russia. He refocused Castiglionea€™s reshaping of the values and morality for the ideal Renaissance courtier by switching it to how the ideal Renaissance ruler should govern. He refocused Castiglionea€™s reshaping of the values and morality for the ideal Renaissance courtier by switching it to how the ideal Renaissance ruler should govern.A  And, like Boccaccio, Machiavelli dismissed the value of the clergy because of their immorality and the failure of their values system. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. In 1340, at the age of 36, he was invited by both Paris and Rome to come and live as their Poet Laureate. There is no evidence that Laura ever knew about or suspected the love that Petrarch had for her. His opposition to the Vaticana€™s political adventures put Dante into a precarious position, causing him to be in constant flight from city to city during most of his career to avoid papal capture and death by burning at the stake. Dante and Henry shared the hope that a united Italy could be formed under Henry and this would lead to a peaceful Greater Europe. This early novel served as a model for later English authors, Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Keats.
However, while in Spain Castiglione developed a friendship with Charles and purposely failed to alert the pope of Charlesa€™ plan to sack Rome in 1527 for the citya€™s many sins.
Other areas in which he should be skilled were jumping, swimming, running, and playing tennis. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. Like Petrarch with Laura, Dante wrote three love sonnets to Beatrice, the object of his unrequited love. The handbook also gave advice to the wives of courtiers concerning behavior that would best advance the reputation and achievement of their husbands. A major idea promoted as an example was a€?the end justifies the means.a€? Although practiced since the time of Cain and Abel, Machiavelli was the first to place this concept in writing for wide reading. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.
In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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