Finance Ministry on Wednesday said India will continue to attract investments because of the inherent strength and the return it offers to investors. Amid concerns on how markets will react to the decision taken by India to tax capital gains from Mauritius, Economic Affairs Secretary Shaktikanta Das said international community is moving away from countries with zero tax regime.
The amendments to the tax treaty with Mauritius provide India the right to impose capital gains tax on shares sold in Indian companies post April 2017. An investor should not get special advantage vis-à-vis domestic investors just because money is coming through a particular route. The leaders of Afghanistan, India and Iran signed the Chabahr port agreement in Tehran, the capital city of Iran today.
President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and The Iranian President Hassan Rouani signed the agreement. The Afghan President directly travelled to Tehran today to sign the agreement after concluding a two-day official visit to Qatar.
The draft agreement for Chabahar port was finalized during a meeting organized in Ministry of External Affairs of India in mid-April this year. Afghanistan is expected to have sea-land access through the strategic Chabahar port in Iran by the end of this year as the work on the port already begun by a joint venture of Kandla Port Trust (KPT) and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) last year. Chabahar port using the existing Iranian road network and the Zaranj-Delaram road, constructed by India in 2009. Afghanistan, India and Iran will sign the Chabahar port agreement on Monday to establish an international transport and transit corridor. The agreement is expected to be signed by the leaders of the three countries as the Indian Prime Minister and President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani are due to visit Tehran.
Modi further added “My meetings with President Rouhani and Hon’ble Supreme Leader of Iran will provide an opportunity to advance our strategic partnership. Afghanistan was represented by representatives from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Commerce and Industries Ministry, Ministry of Finance, Ministry Transportation and Aviation Directorate of Railway Network and Embassy of Afghanistan in India.
Afghanistan is expected to have sea-land access through the strategic Chabahar port in Iran by the end of this year as the work on the port already begun by a joint venture of Kandla Port Trust (KPT) and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) last year.
Access to Afghanistan’s Garland Highway can be made from Chahbahar port using the existing Iranian road network and the Zaranj-Delaram road, constructed by India in 2009. This would establish a direct road access to four of the major cities of Afghanistan – Herat, Kandahar, Kabul, and Mazar-e-Sharif. The $1.17 billion CASA-1000 power project will be inaugurated by the officials from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan next month. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA) said the Ministers of Power and Energy of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan finalized the document and decision on the implementation of the project. A statement by MoFA said the project will be inaugurated on 12th May as per the request of Tajikistan officials.
The statement further added that the inauguration ceremony will be attended by high level government officials of the four nations as well as representative of the donor countries and financial supporters of the project.
The Afghanistan Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah will attend the ceremony for the inauguration of the project. According to MoFA, the CASA-1000 project will pave the way for the transmission of electricity from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to Afghanistan and Pakistan through 1,250 kilometers of high voltage transmission line. Two converter stations have been considered for the project including a 1300 megawatt AC-DC Convertor Station at Sangtuda Tajikistan.
Another high voltage transformer will be built in Pul-e-Khumri city of Baghlan province to ensure supply of 300 mega watt of electricity to Afghanistan. MoFA said the World Bank, United States, United Kingdom, European Investment Bank and Islamic Development Bank have committed to support the project.
Afghanistan will have an income of $45 million from the the project, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said. Kabul Bank was the first of its kind, a commercial bank in Afghanistan that was established in 2004. Kabul Bank was seized by the government of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in 2010 after a fraud of USD 900 million was revealed which then led the International Monetary Fund IMF as a precautionary measure halt its hundreds of millions of dollars loans to Afghan government. After the establishment of National Unity Government (NUG) Mohammad Ashraf Ghani president to National Unity Government ordered to reopen the case related to Kabul Bank and various stakeholders responsible in its collapse.
The answer to this very important industrial economic question is worldwide answered by the cost-benefit analysis of privatization process. Private companies do not care about common persons’ interest as their only motive to operate in a market is to earn profit, which is with complete contrast to government companies which continues to do social responsible works. The biggest advantage of privatization of New Kabul Bank will once it is privatized, there will be no government and political interference and one will not have do undue favor to them which in itself is an economic and industrial boost when it comes to doing business and increasing profitability. The Head of Afghanistan Investment Support Agency (AISA) Mohammad Qurban Haqjo said President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani’s decree on merger of AISA with the Ministry of Commerce and Industries (MoCI) is not favor of the economy of Afghanistan as the country is going through a sensitive moment. Haqjo appeared in a press conference after President Ghani issued a decree to merge AISA with the Ministry of Commerce and Industries.
He said President Ghani has issued the decree during a high meeting of the economic council where proposals regarding the legal identity of AISA were discussed. According to Haqjo, AISA has been facing the issue of legal identity since its formation and for this reason AISA, Ministry of Commerce and Industries and The World Bank prepared separate proposal forms. Haqjo further added that MoCI proposed to merge AISA with the ministry but AISA’s proposal was change it to a corporation or an independent government directorate. The World Bank had a similar proposal as AISA but with a difference in its proposal which included issuance of licenses from the Ministry of Commerce and Industries but the process work of the license should done in AISA, Haqjo added. He said President Ghani chose the proposal of MoCI without listening to his views during the economic council meeting, insisting that AISA’s proposal was the most practical proposal.
Haqjo said the decision by President Ghani and not allowing him to offer his views were surprising for him, emphasizing that he has brought more reforms since has taken charge of AISA in the past 8 months and has reduce the cost by a large extent besides creating a professional working team. He also criticized President Ghani for remaining reckless towards his proposals in the past 8 months, saying that the president did not give him an appointment despite various attempts. Meanwhile, Haqjo said AISA remains committed to cooperate in merging the organization with the Ministry of Commerce and Industries as per the decree of President Ghani.
The Ministry of Finance of Afghanistan announced Tuesday that two companies have been identified as eligible buyers of the New Kabul Bank which was once the country’s largest private bank.
According to the officials, a Pakistani firm is among the two companies which are interested to purchase the bank. Director of treasury at the Ministry of Finance, Mohammad Aqa Kohistani, told reporters that the two firms were identified as eligible buyers after receiving bids for the privatization of the bank. A firm to qualify for the purchase of the bank was supposed to have $20 million in account, banking license, and a professional team of employees as well as technical proposals.
Kabul Bank was seized by the government in 2010 after the exposure of a staggering $900 million fraud, which led the International Monetary Fund to temporarily halt its hundreds of millions of dollars of loans to the country.
Kabul Bank was one of Afghanistan’s largest private financial institutions founded in 2004 by Sherkhan Farnood, who was an international prominent poker player. President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani ordered to reopen the scandal case of Kabul Bank shortly after taking office as the new President of country. More or less, 30 – 40 percent of trade transactions are taking place online world wide in developed economies. Data from global economic mirror and different business research institutes show that, those economies enhancing and developing online businesses are performing good compared to those which are not even thinking of it. Data from trading economics suggest that, Asian countries such as; Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines earn more than USD 5 billion and add this amount to their GDP. After the international community’s interference in Afghanistan’s socio-economic development and the commencement of nation building process with direct aids of United States of America, technology have become an indispensable matter of livelihood for Afghans.
According to Doing Business Report of World Bank 2015, Afghanistan scored 183 in terms of ease of doing business.
Among the more encouraging trends shown by Doing Business data of World Bank, over the past decade is the gradual improvement in Afghan Economy’s performance in the areas tracked by some macroeconomic indicators. Afghan government still has not been able to draft and develop cyber Law which will directly provide insight to doing online business in Afghanistan.
According doing business report of the World Bank, there are opportunities and obstacles to start and exit any business in Afghanistan at the same time while an investor decides to heavily invest keeping in mind the short-run profit. President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani has said that government is ready to launch infrastructure projects in the country. In a meeting with representatives of Paktia, Paktika, Khost, Ghazni, Logar provinces and nomads at Presidential Palace, President Ghani said that funds have been arranged to start the construction of 29 dams this year.
He added that last year was the year of Afghanistan’s survival but this year would be the year of stimulation. The President further said that starting late May ‘beginning of Jawza’, Afghanistan would be exporting 600 tons of fruits to other countries. While talking about security, The President said that Afghanistan went through seven chapters of fighting last year. Presidential Palace says the High Economic Council (HEC) will receive draft of a comprehensive plan for the production of quality medicines in two months.

Discussions were held on supply of medicines and medical products to Kabul and provinces in the latest meeting of the National Procurement Commission (NPC) on Saturday. President Ghani who was charring the meeting assigned the ministries of public health, finance, justice, economy, defense, interior and other related institutions to also make necessary recommendations to HEC for attracting more investments in health sector.
The commission reviewed 900 contracts in the year 1394 out of which it approved 725 worth of 136 billion Afghanis.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB), one of the largest donors to Kabul, has vowed to assist Afghanistan in key infrastructure projects. The promise was made during a meeting between Minister of Finance and a delegation of ADB led by the banks Director General for Central and West Asia Department. The two sides also talked about ADB’s role in key national projects such as the Kabul Ring Road, TAPI Gas Pipeline, Energy Transmission and Generation as well as design and implementation of key Railway projects, regional connectivity, trade and transit. The delegation assured Hakimi that ADB will be playing an important role in the implementation of key infrastructure projects in Afghanistan. The Russian authorities are mulling to supply up to one and half million tons of fuel to Afghanistan annually in a bid to help the country with its fuel consumption demand.
According to the Russian officials, the contribution by Russia will help Afghanistan with its demand of 6 million tons of oil on annual basis. Sentyurin said Afghanistan consumes more than 3 million tons of petroleum products for its own personal needs and uses another 3 million for the coalition forces, according to the local media reports.
Insisting that Russia does not intend to supply Afghanistan with all of the 6 million tons of oil products, Sentyurin said “I do not think that we need to monopolize the market.
Russia has also offered to carry out further exploration work in northern Afghanistan, according to a report by the state-run news agency Sputnik. The report further added that this feat could be undertaken by the company, ‘Zarubezhgeologiya’.
Russia has stepped up efforts to expand trade, economic and social relations with Afghanistan and recently agreed to turn a long-standing debt payable by Afghanistan into a non-refundable aid. Meanwhile, the Afghan officials are keen on resumption of activities by Russian companies in the country, mainly the housing industry, considering the expertise of the Russian companies that could play a vital role in improving the economy of the country. A commercial airline has started direct flights between Kabul and the central Bamyan province, the local officials said Wednesday. The first flight by Kam Air carried passengers from capital Kabul to Bamyan province using Saab 340 aircraft, a Swedish twin-engine turboprop aircraft that can carry up to 40 passengers.
Deputy provincial governor Mohammad Asif Mubaligh welcomed the opening of the new route to Bamyan province by Kam Air, saying the local authorities are hopeful that the move will encourage other airlines to start services in this province. Speaking during a ceremony for the launch of the flights by Kam Air, Mubaligh said the start of the flight will also help reduce the ticket fares.
Bamyan is located in central parts of the country and is among the relatively peaceful provinces where terrorist related incidents are rarely reported. However, the main route connecting Kabul to Bamyan province has been at all time volatile during the recent months where numerous kidnapping cases have been reported. The anti-government armed militants are often stopping passenger cars in the route through Maidan Wardak province and kidnap the travellers.
Scores of passengers have been abducted during the recent months by anti-government armed militants amid deteriorating security situation and several of them have been killed by the militant. Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock announced on Monday an increase of 17 percent in the outcome of Saffron cultivation in the country. 4,000 kilograms of Saffron was produced in Afghanistan last year but the figure jumped to 4,675 KGs this year with majority of this being produced in western Herat province. Distribution of Saffron crocus bulbs, equipment and training 335 students on how to plant and collect Saffron, and as well the expert advisory have been identified as the main reasons for the increase, the ministry said. The Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock also says that they have been able to extend the Saffron cultivation program to 23 provinces with the assistance of aiding NGOs. The International Taste & Quality Institute in the Belgian capital of Brussels named Afghanistan’s saffron the best in the world for the third consecutive year in mid 2015.
The award, in the form of a three star certificate, was given to Afghanistan saffron after testing some 300 samples. Roshan, Afghanistan’s leading communications company, opened its newly redesigned customer service and sales center in Kabul’s main business hub in the city’s 10th district.
The revamped store offers a unique customer experience and a new shopping lifestyle, something which has had no precedent in Afghanistan.
The store includes a spacious modern coffee shop operated by the Afghan-owned company Breads and Butter Catering Services, free Wifi connection and a new counter from Cartridge World, a U.S. It has a new mobile handset retail chain store from the Afghan company United Mobile where customers can choose from a wide range of affordable and high quality phones. Roshan’s Chief Operating Officer (COO) Altaf Ladak said in a statement: “This is the first time in Afghanistan where our customers get to experience more than just shopping for new products and services.
More importantly, the opening of the redesigned store brings in half a dozen new jobs and creates new opportunities for our customers and the people of Afghanistan. Roshan has 9 flagship stores, 4600 points of sale, 400 sale booths and 120 customer service centers across all 34 provinces of Afghanistan to serve over its 6.5m customers. Roshan is a true Afghanistan success story, serving as a catalyst for economic growth and actively contributing to the country’s long-term development. Roshan directly employs 900 people, 19 percent of whom are women, and provides indirect employment to more than 35,000 people. Da Afghanistan Breshna Shirkat (DABS) which operates and manages electric power generation, import, transmission, and distribution throughout the country on commercial basis says it lost $2.5 million because of power cut to Kabul. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of DABS said the company used 100,000 liters of fuel every night for 28 consecutive days to provide electricity to Kabul residents since the power cables supplying Uzbekistan’s electricity to the capital had been damaged. On the top of it, the company used thermal power and received 50 megawatt additional electricity from Uzbekistan, Qudratullah Dilawari added.
According to Dilawar, other companies and factories also suffered millions of dollars loses due to the blackout.
The electricity of capital Kabul was restored late on Monday evening after weeks of blackout following the destruction of electricity pylons in gun battle between government forces and Taliban militants in northern Baghlan province. The National Procurement Commission (NPC) on Saturday approved 25 contracts worth of 636 million Afghanis.
NPC meeting chaired by President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani reviewed 36 contracts of 11 ministries and government entities but the remaining were either rejected or recommended for technical rectification. The commission saved AFG290 million in 21 contracts on maintenance of facilities of the Army Corps. The meeting was also attended by second Vice-President Mohammad Sarwar Danish, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Abdullah Abdullah, Minister of Finance Eklil Ahmad Hakimi and Minister of Justice Abdul Basir Anwar. This was 41st weekly meeting of NPC which has so far approved around 600 contracts worth of 96 billion Afghanis. Nangarhar’s provincial administration has gotten a new three-storey building with modern facilities. The building has offices, conference room, kitchen and bathrooms, installed with power system, water supply and sewage. Minister of Urban Development Affairs and Housing Syed Sadat Mansoor Naderi and Governor of Nangarhar province Saleem Khan Kundozi inaugurated the building during a ribbon cutting ceremony on Thursday. Kundozi said that the building would be equipped with office supplies and officials of the provincial administration would pretty soon officially launch duties in their new offices. The project began on 9 April 2013 by Gurbat Aitbar Construction Company with a development fund of AFG 26,593,970 of the government and ended on 20 January this year.
Its implementing partner was the Afghanistan Stabilisation Program (ASP) which is a national program for improving security and governance.
For the urban development of Nangarhar, Minister Naderi said during the ceremony that he has prepared three strategic development plans for this province. The Urban Development Minister further said that development plans for seven big cities including one for Nangarhar have been forwarded to the President for approval after which they would be implemented.
He also said that issues with municipalities have been resolved and mayors would be provided further facilities in accordance with new rules. A report published by the Voice of America (VOA) reveals that the loyalists of the Islamic State (IS) who have named Afghanistan and Pakistan region as the province of Khorasan are involved in timber smuggling. Local officials and tribal elders in the eastern region of the country have told VOA that the terrorist group has imported tree-cutting machines to their areas. Armed men associating themselves with IS-Khorasan or Daesh have been seen in Achin, Naziyan and Dehbala districts of eastern Nangarhar province cutting trees with the imported machines for smuggling to Pakistan. Local residents have been cited by VOA as saying that timber-loaded trucks are sent to Pakistan daily.
A spokesman for the provincial government said the cutting of trees has not been raised with local government.
However, the acting director of Nangarhar’s agriculture directorate said he has heard the reports, but says the tree cutting continues only in one district. China would soon ink an agreement with Afghanistan for starting work on the railway to connect the two countries.

These comments were expressed by Chinese Ambassador Yao Jing in a meeting with President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani at the Presidential Palace “ARG” on Friday. Jing said after the visit of China’s vice President to Afghanistan, the impression of his country’s leadership positively changed. President Ghani praised China for its support to Afghanistan and underscored the importance of its role in peace-talks as part of the Quadrilateral Coordination Group mechanism for finding a solution to the Afghan conflict. The President said he is confident that relationship and friendship between Afghanistan and China would unprecedentedly strengthen which is in the best interest of both nations.
The National Procurement Commission (NPC) in its recent meeting approved 12 new contracts worth of 1.6 billion Afghanis. The projects involve asphalting of a 15 km long road in Sheberghan, extension of 120 kilometers power transmission line in Farah, provision of preventive health services in Balkh, Kandahar, Herat, Badakhshan, Ghazni, Kabul and Kundoz provinces. The NPC meeting which was chaired by President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani and attended by second-Vice President Mohammad Sarwar Danish, ministers of finance, economy and justice rejected four contracts and sent back nine others for further review or technical modification. Security forces have been stationed in Dand Shahab-ud-Din area of Baghlan province in order to pave the way for the repair of power cables damaged during the recent clashes. Local officials say Dand Shahab-ud-Din is a larger area and that security forces would clear it so that engineers can go and repair the damaged wires.
Abdul Sattar Bariz, governor of Baghlan province said that the system would be repaired in two days. The power cables delivering electricity from Tajikistan to capital Kabul were damaged during severe clashes between security forces and Taliban militants last week. Although, officials said the cables were damaged by Taliban but the group rejected the claim in a statement saying that they won’t harm public utility projects. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Abdullah Abdullah during his official visit to India has invited Indian businessmen for investment in Afghanistan, The Himalayan Times reports. CEO Abdullah also talked to Indian investors about the Chabahar port and said that it would act as a key route to India-Afghanistan trade. It will also cut transport costs and freight time for India to Central Asia and the Gulf by about a third. The acquisition process can easily create significant financial benefit for shareholders as well as top management decision makers. This was the worst banking experience when the nearly collapse news was spread caused by widespread corruption and fraud at Kabul Bank. This mother of banks functioning as an apex in the banking industry of Afghanistan was established in 1939, but in 2001 the formal Afghan banking and financial system was near to nonexistent and its one and only function was to print Afghani currency.
They were presented to court where some of them are now being sentenced with different periods in jail.
Privatization of New Kabul Bank will create a mass of unemployed individuals within Afghan society because privatization of a public company emphasizes on performance which indirectly result in work pressure that is resulted from application of buyer private company. It will increase the overall efficiency of private sector and reduces the bureaucracy which is the main culprit because typically in government organizations and public companies as New Kabul Bank work and services happens at its own leisurely pace which results in delay in decision making and therefore reduces the effectiveness and competence of public sector enterprise. This is because; this very important method of buying and selling products and services are much convenient compared to 19th century.
Technological evolutions throughout history, especially in 20th century have broadened the horizon of doing business in its extremely convenient ways possible. With 36 percent of its population living below the poverty line, Afghanistan is only second to Bangladesh as Asia’s poorest country. It has rapidly expanded during the Karzai administration that took over in late 2001, and has embarked on wireless companies, internet, radio stations and television channels.
As of 2010, there are at least 46 internet service providers (ISPs) in the country. Internet in Afghanistan is also at the peak with 1 million users as of 2009. For any country to ease and attract domestic and foreign direct investment, it is mandatory to develop rules and regulations, apply technology and relax some of the traditional methods of doing business.
Moreover, Afghan economy with the weakest regulatory institutions and the most complex and costly regulatory processes tend to focus on the areas where their regulatory performance is worse, slowly but steadily beginning to adopt some of the better practices seen among the best performers.
Online Business can sustain if the investor is patient enough and consider long run profits and benefits. O’Sullivan who is responsible for the ADB’s operations in 10 countries including Afghanistan discussed the bank’s ongoing projects and expected contributions in the sector of Transport, Energy and Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Since its inception in 2003, Roshan has invested over $600 million in Afghanistan and is the country’s single largest investor and taxpayer, contributing approximately five percent of the Afghan government’s overall domestic revenue.
The Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development (AKFED), part of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), is a major shareholder of Roshan and promotes private initiatives and building economically sound enterprises in the developing world. Republication or redistribution of PTI content, including by framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent.
There are merits and demerits for a public sector company to go private as well as short and long run issues to be considered before deciding to take such an important economic decision that ultimately affect government role in socio-economic decision makings, unemployment rate and will at the end of the day result to implement “Laissez-fair” policy. Kabul Bank was a good treasure for common people as well as civil servants and also military forces including Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police forces. Nearly half of the deposits were withdrawn that was almost half of the 300,000 Afghan military forces salaries provided by the bank. The collapse of Kabul Bank is majorly highlighted to the pathetic leadership and puny supervision and ineffective regulation practices with corrupt and politically dependent governors. In this part individuals who have been doing work for years without much pressure will find it much difficult to adjust to new sittings and may end up resigning or termination. Markets have become more intangible and are now spread across the web as virtual market place where consumers and sellers come from different societal segments and perform their business transactions to maximize their satisfactions and profits respectively. The simple formula for the business prosperity is (Regulations Practice + Technical Application + Information Technology = Business Prosperity). This is because online business culture shall be first adopted by the population then business growth will be ultimately witnessed by the investors and company share holders.
Also owned in part by Monaco Telecom International (MTI) and TeliaSonera, Roshan brings international expertise to the country and is committed to the highest standards of network quality and coverage for the people of Afghanistan.
Within the structure of Da Afghanistan Bank; the Central Bank to the country that hold the nerves of Afghan Economy, Financial Supervision Department that is still responsible for the assurance of healthy banking sector by controlling and regulating licenses for banks and other informal financial institutions as HAWALA dealers and money exchange services dealers, exist.
The privatization of New Kabul Bank is highly subject to the risk of decisions which result in short run benefits but may not end up for long run goals. While 90 percent of urban households have access to electricity, only 29 percent of rural households do. The project began to improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services throughout Afghanistan.
Kabul Bank used to provide various banking facilities to its customers across Afghanistan through its chain of operational branches. This extremely important department at Da Afghanistan bank then could not conduct regular background checks on banks and their operations as well as banks’ shareholders specifically of Kabul Bank due to known and unknown reason. As of 2014, about 9 percent of the country’s population has access to communication services.
Customers could open current, saving, deposit accounts in currencies such as; US dollar, Afghanis and Euros. Some reports by international investigation agencies suggest that, political pressure on this department as well lack of banking sector supervision expert. Buyers and sellers come from different segments and with significantly different expectations and fix the prices in accord with demand and supply forces.
Kabul Bank was proving Automatic Teller Machines in order to facilitate cash withdrawals for its customers throughout Afghanistan.
Kabul Bank was issued license in 2004, since its establishment Financial Supervision Department did not go to confirm consistency of Kabul Bank’s operations with the submitted licensure application. There is not fixed pricing structure in 90 percent of the Afghanistan local business deals.
The Bank prior turning as New Kabul Bank was fully under supervision of Da Afghanistan Bank (Afghanistan’s Central Bank). As per report on Kabul Bank scandal up to two and half years Financial Supervision Department of Da Afghanistan Bank did not at all conduct any on-site examination and did not at all supervised the operations of then Kabul Bank. The verification methods of Financial Supervision Department of Da Afghanistan Bank were very narrow and orthodox to filter the information and accounting records and data provided by Kabul Bank Officials. According to some of the world class report on Kabul Bank, FSD had then failed to ensure legal compliance of Kabul Bank’s expanded branches and could not ensure the required permits are legally OK in case a new branch was opened. FSD also failed to impose fine and whenever Kabul Bank was failing to maintain a Minimum Required Reserve MRR (The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world’s central banks, that sets the minimum fraction of customer deposits and notes that each commercial bank must hold as reserves).

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