1Van Gogh was the son of Theodorus van Gogh (1822-85), a pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church, and Anna Cornelia Carbentus (1819-1907). In 1869 Vincent van Gogh joined the firm Goupil & Cie., a firm of art dealers in The Hague.
The relationship between Vincent and Goupil's became more strained as the years passed and in May of 1875 he was transferred to the Paris branch of the firm. Undeterred, Vincent van Gogh chose to remain in The Netherlands after visiting his family over Christmas.
In January, 1879 Vincent began his duties preaching to the coal miners and their families in the mining village of Wasmes. It was then that Vincent began to draw the miners and their families, chronicling their harsh conditions.
In autumn of 1880, after more than a year living as a pauper in the Borinage, Vincent left for Brussels to begin his art studies. Despite emotional setbacks with Kee and personal tensions with his father, Vincent found some encouragement from Anton Mauve (1838-88), his cousin by marriage. Vincent van Gogh met Clasina Maria Hoornik (1850-1904) in late February 1882, in The Hague.
1883 was another year of transition for Van Gogh: both in his personal life and in his role as an artist. All the years of hard work, of continually refining his technique and learning to work in new media--all served as stepping stones toward the production of Vincent van Gogh's first great painting: The Potato Eaters.
Van Gogh continued to work throughout 1885, but once again became restless and in need of new stimulation. Vincent van Gogh had written to his brother, Theo, throughout early 1886 in an effort to convince Theo that Paris was where he belonged. Van Gogh's Paris period is fascinating in terms of its role in transforming him as an artist. 1887 in Paris marked another year in which Vincent evolved as an artist, but it also took its toll on him, both emotionally and physically. As was often the case throughout his life, poor weather during the winter months left Vincent irritable and depressed. Vincent worked diligently throughout the spring and summer and began to send Theo shipments of his works.
Despite the improved state of Theo's financial affairs, Vincent nevertheless remained true to form and spent a disproportionate amount of his money on art supplies instead of the basic necessities of life. The next two months would be pivotal, and disastrous, for both Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.
Vincent was quite productive in terms of his art throughout January and early February, producing some of his best known works such as La Berceuse and Sunflowers.
By this time, however, some of the citizens of Arles had become alarmed by Vincent's behaviour and signed a petition detailing their concerns. As the weeks passed, Vincent's mental well-being remained stable and he was allowed to resume painting.
Van Gogh's relatively tranquil state of mind didn't last, however, and he was incapacitated by another attack in mid-July. Van Gogh's mental and physical health remained fairly stable throughout the remainder of 1889. On 23 December 1889, a year to the day after the ear slashing incident, Vincent suffered another attack: an "aberration" as he called it (Letter 620).
After making some inquiries, Theo felt that the best course of action would be for Vincent to return to Paris and then enter the care of Dr.
Over the course of the next two weeks, Van Gogh's opinion about Gachet softened somewhat and he became completely absorbed in his painting. Throughout June, Vincent remained in good spirits and was remarkably productive, painting some of his best known works (Portrait of Doctor Gachet and The Church at Auvers, for example). During the next three weeks Vincent resumed his painting and, as his letters suggest, was reasonably happy. Although details chronicled within the various reports conflict, the basic facts of 27 July 1890 remain clear. Van Gogh's birth came one year to the day after his mother gave birth to a first, stillborn child--also named Vincent. The Van Gogh family had long been associated with the art world--Vincent's uncles, Cornelis ("Uncle Cor") and Vincent ("Uncle Cent"), were art dealers. During that time he visited the many art galleries and museums and became a great admirer of British writers such as George Eliot and Charles Dickens.
It became clear as the year wore on that Vincent was no longer happy dealing in paintings that had little appeal for him in terms of his own personal tastes. After working briefly in a bookshop in Dordrecht in early 1877, Vincent left for Amsterdam on 9 May to prepare himself for the admission examination to the university where he was to study theology.
It was during this pivotal time that Vincent van Gogh chose his next and final career: as an artist. Vincent was inspired to begin these studies as a result of financial help from his brother, Theo. Vincent applied for study at the Ecole des Beaux-Art in Brussels, although the biographers Hulsker and Tralbaut conflict with regards to the details.
Mauve had established himself as a successful artist, and from his home in The Hague, supplied Vincent with his first set of watercolours--thus giving Vincent his initial introduction to working in colours. Already pregnant with her second child when Van Gogh met her, this woman, known as "Sien", moved in with Vincent shortly afterward.
Vincent began to experiment with oil paints in 1882, but it wasn't until 1883 that he worked in this medium more and more frequently. Vincent viewed these as "studies", works which would continue to refine his craft in preparation for his most ambitious work to date. He enrolled briefly in the Academy in Antwerp in early 1886, but left it about four weeks later feeling stifled by the narrow and rigid approach of the instructors.
Unfortunately, Vincent's two years in Paris is also one of the least documented periods of his life--namely because biographers are so dependent on the letters between Vincent and Theo to supply the facts, and these letters stopped while the brothers lived together in Theo's apartment at 54 rue Lepic in Paris's Montmartre district.
Theo, as an art dealer, had many contacts and Vincent would become familar with the ground-breaking artists in Paris at that time. His palette began to move away from the darker, traditional colours of his Dutch homeland and would incorporate the more vibrant hues of the Impressionists.
Never was Vincent more happy then when he was outdoors communing with nature when the weather was at its finest.
Weary of the frenetic energy of Paris and the long months of winter, Van Gogh sought the warm sun of Provence.
Note the two complimentary works: the drawing Landscape with Path and Pollard Trees and the painting Path through a Field with Willows. Vincent took a room at the Cafe de la Gare at 10 Place Lamartine in early May and rented his famous "Yellow House" (2 Place Lamartine) as a studio and storage area.
Malnourished and overworked, Van Gogh's health declined early October, but he was heartened upon receiving confirmation that Gauguin would join him in the south.
Initially Van Gogh and Gauguin got on well together, painting on the outskirts of Arles, discussing their art and differing techniques. Their heated arguments became more and more frequent--"electric" as Vincent would describe them.
On 7 February, however, Vincent suffered another attack in which he imagined himself being poisoned. The petition was submitted to the mayor of Arles and eventually to the superintendent of police who ordered Van Gogh readmitted to the Hotel-Dieu hospital. The staff was encouraged by Van Gogh's progress (or, at least, at his not suffering any additional attacks) and in mid-June Van Gogh produced his best known work: Starry Night. During this attack Vincent tried to ingest his own paints and for that reason he was confined and not given access to his materials.
Theo's health had recovered for the most part and, in the midst of preparing a home with his new wife, Theo was also organizing an exhibition, Les XX, in Brussels in which six of Vincent's paintings would be displayed. The attack was serious and lasted about a week, but Vincent recovered reasonably quickly and resumed painting--this time mainly copies of other artists' works, due to being confined inside, both because of his mental health and also because of the weather. Vincent remained with Theo, Theo's wife Johanna and their newborn son, Vincent Willem (named after Vincent) for three pleasant days. Vincent was pleased with Auvers-sur-Oise, which afforded him the freedom denied him in Saint-Remy, while at the same time provided him with ample subjects for his painting and drawing.
The initial tranquility of the first month in Auvers was interrupted, however, when Vincent received news that his nephew was seriously ill. On that Sunday evening Vincent van Gogh set out, with his easel and painting materials, into the fields. I arrived too late to see the man again who had left me four years ago so full of expectations of all kinds . He was buried in Utrecht, but in 1914 Theo's wife, Johanna, such a dedicated and tireless supporter of Vincent's works, had Theo's body reburied in the Auvers cemetery next to Vincent. There has been much speculation about Vincent van Gogh suffering later psychological trauma as a result of being a "replacement child" and having a deceased brother with the same name and same birth date.


Van Gogh attended a boarding school in Zevenbergen for two years and then went on to attend the King Willem II secondary school in Tilburg for two more. His younger brother, Theo, spent his adult life working as an art dealer and, as a result, had a tremendous influence on Vincent's later career as an artist.
In 1873 he was transferred to the London branch of the company and quickly became enamoured with the cultural climate of England. Van Gogh was also a great admirer of the British engravers whose works illustrated such magazines as The Graphic. Vincent left Goupil's in late March, 1876 and decided to return to England where his two years there had been, for the most part, very happy and rewarding. Jones agreed and Vincent began to speak at prayer meetings held within the parish of Turnham Green.
Vincent received lessons in Greek, Latin and mathematics, but his lack of proficiency ultimately compelled him to abandon his studies after fifteen months. He sympathized with their dreadful working conditions and did his best, as their spiritual leader, to ease the burden of their lives.
Vincent and Theo had always been close as children and throughout most of their adult lives maintained an ongoing and poignantly revealing correspondence. Tralbaut suggests a short and unremarkable tenure with the school, whereas Hulsker maintains that Vincent's application for admission was never accepted.
Vincent was a great admirer of Mauve's works and was deeply grateful for any instruction that Mauve was able to provide.
As his drawing and painting skills advanced, his relationship with Sien deteriorated and they parted ways in September. He produced dozens of paintings and drawings during this period: weavers, spinners and other portraits.
Vincent laboured throughout March and April on these studies, briefly distracted from his work by the death of his father on 26 March. The Potato Eaters is acknowledged to be Vincent van Gogh's first true masterpiece and he was encouraged by the outcome. As he demonstrated frequently throughout his life, Vincent felt that formal study was a poor substitute for practical work. Van Gogh's two years in Paris were spent visiting some of the early exhibitions of the Impressionists (displaying works by Degas, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Seurat and Sisley).
To add further to the complex tapestry of Van Gogh's style, it was at this point in Paris that Vincent became interested in Japanese art. When Vincent insisted on moving in with Theo, he did so with the hopes that they could better manage their expenses and that Vincent could more easily devote himself to his art. Another motivation was Vincent's dream of establishing a kind of artists' commune in Arles where his comrades in Paris would seek refuge and where they would work together and support each other toward a common goal.
This must have been discouraging to Vincent who had left everyone he knew behind in order to seek warmth and restoration in the south. The drawing was produced in March and the trees and landscape appear somewhat bleak after winter. But he really did enjoy the company of people and did his best during these months to make friends--both for companionship and also to pose as much valued models. As the weeks passed, however, the weather deteriorated and the pair found themselves compelled to stay indoors more and more frequently. The week following the ear mutilation was critical for Van Gogh--both mentally and physically. Vincent remained in the hospital for the next six weeks, but was allowed to leave on supervised outings--in order to paint and to put his possessions into storage.
Although he recovered fairly quickly from the incident, Van Gogh was discouraged at being deprived of the one thing that gave him pleasure and distraction: his art. Vincent seemed enthusiastic about the venture and remained quite productive throughout this time.
Never one to enjoy the hustle and bustle of city life, however, Vincent felt some stress returning and opted to leave Paris for the more quiet destination, Auvers-sur-Oise. Although initially impressed by Gachet, Vincent would later express grave doubts about his competence, going so far as to comment that Gachet appeared to be "sicker than I am, I think, or shall we say just as much" (Letter 648). Theo had been going through a most difficult time throughout the previous few months: uncertainty about his own career and future, ongoing health problems and finally his own son's illness. For Vincent life had appeared to settle into a productive and--if not happy--at least stable pattern. The Catholic church of Auvers refused to allow Vincent's burial in its cemetery because Vincent had committed suicide.
This theory remains unsubstantiated, however, and there is no actual historical evidence to support it. In late August, Vincent moved to 87 Hackford Road and boarded with Ursula Loyer and her daughter Eugenie. These talks served as a means of preparing Vincent for the task which he had long anticipated: his first Sunday sermon.
Unfortunately, this altruistic desire would reach somewhat fanatical proportions when Vincent began to give away most of his food and clothing to the poverty-stricken people under his care.
It is these letters, in total more than 700 extant, which form most of our knowledge of Van Gogh's perceptions about his own life and works. Whatever the case, Vincent continued drawings lessons on his own, taking examples from such books as Travaux des champs by Jean-Francois Millet and Cours de dessin by Charles Bargue.
Their relationship was a pleasant one, but would suffer due to tensions brought about when Vincent began living with a prostitute. Their relationship was a stormy one, partly due to both of their volatile personalities and also because of the strain of living in complete poverty.
As with his failure in The Borinage, Vincent would spend his time recovering from this failed relationship in isolation. The local peasants proved to be his favourite subjects--in part because Van Gogh felt a strong affinity toward the poor working labourers and partly because he was such an admirer of the painter Millet who himself produced sensitive and compassionate paintings of workers in the fields.
Vincent and his father had maintained a severely strained relationship over the last few years and, while certainly not happy about his father's death, Vincent was quite emotionally detached and continued his work. Although angered and upset by any criticism of the work (Vincent's friend and fellow artist, Anthon van Rappard, disliked the work and his comments would prompt Vincent to end their friendship), Vincent was pleased with the result and thus began a new, more confident and technically accomplished phase of his career. Vincent had worked for five difficult years to hone his talents as an artist and with the creation of The Potato Eaters he proved himself a first-rate painter.
There's no question that Van Gogh was influenced by the methods of the Impressionists, but he always remained faithful to his own unique style. Japan had only recently opened its ports to outsiders after centuries of a cultural blockade and, as a result of this long-held isolationism, the western world was fascinated with all things Japanese. Unfortunately, living with his brother also resulted in a great deal of tension between the two. Van Gogh took the train from Paris to Arles on 20 February 1888 heartened by his dreams for a prosperous future and amused by the passing landscape which he felt looked more and more Japanese the further south he travelled. Still, the harsh weather was short lived and Vincent began to paint some of the best loved works of his career.
The painting, however, executed a month later shows the very first spring buds on the trees. Although deeply lonely at times, Vincent did make friends with Paul-Eugene Milliet and another Zouave soldier and painted their portraits. Theo felt that Vincent would be happier and more stable in the company of Gauguin and also Theo had hopes that the paintings he would receive from Gauguin, in exchange for his support, would turn a profit. As always, Vincent's temperament (and most likely Gauguin's as well) fluctuated to match the weather. On 23 December Vincent van Gogh, in an irrational fit of madness, mutilated the lower portion of his left ear. He had suffered a great deal of blood loss and continued to suffer serious attacks in which he was incapacitated.
Vincent was encouraged by his progress after the breakdown, but his money problems continued and he felt particularly depressed when his close friend, Joseph Roulin (1841-1903), decided to accept a better paying position and move with his family to Marseilles. Peyron was convinced that his patient was suffering from a type of epilepsy--a diagnosis that remains among the most likely possibilities, even today. The ongoing correspondence between Vincent and Theo worked out many of the details surrounding Vincent's showing within the exhibit. These attacks came more frequently and left Vincent more incapacitated than any of those previously.
Despite his misgivings, however, Vincent managed to find himself a room in a small inn owned by Arthur Gustave Ravoux and immediately began painting the environs of Auvers-sur-Oise. On 8 June Theo, Jo and the baby came to Auvers to visit Vincent and Gachet and Vincent passed a very enjoyable day with his family. Following the baby's recovery, Vincent decided to visit Theo and his family on 6 July and caught an early train.
Vincent managed to stagger back to the Ravoux Inn where he collapsed in bed and was then discovered by Ravoux. The nearby township of Mery, however, agreed to allow the burial and the funeral was held on 30 July.


Vincent is said to have been romantically interested in Eugenie, but many early biographers mistakenly misname Eugenie for her mother, Ursula. Although Vincent was enthusiastic about his prospects as a minister, his sermons were somewhat lackluster and lifeless. In November Vincent failed to qualify for the mission school in Laeken after a three month trial period. Despite Vincent's noble intentions, representatives of the Church strongly disapproved of Van Gogh's asceticism and dismissed him from his post in July.
In the summer Vincent was once again living with his parents, now situated in Etten, and during that time he met his cousin Cornelia Adriana Vos-Stricker (Kee). Vincent's letters to Theo show him to be devoted to Sien and especially her children, but his art was always his first passion--to the exclusion of all other concerns, including food. With much regret, particularly because of his feelings for Sien's children, Vincent left The Hague in mid-September to travel to Drenthe, a somewhat desolate district in The Netherlands. But Vincent continually sought to better himself, to acquire new ideas and explore new techniques as a means of becoming the artist he truly aspired to be.
Throughout the two years Van Gogh would incorporate some of the techniques of the Impressionists, but he never let their powerful influence overwhelm him. Van Gogh began to acquire a substantial collection of Japanese woodblock prints (now in the collection of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam) and his paintings during this time (The Portrait of Pere Tanguy, for example) would reflect both the vibrant use of colour favoured by the Impressionists, and distinct Japanese overtones. In addition, Paris itself was not without its temptations and much of Vincent's two years there was spent in unhealthy extremes: poor nutrition, and excessive drinking and smoking. Vincent never lost hope in the prospect of establishing the artists' commune and began a campaign to encourage Paul Gauguin to join him in the south.
Unlike Vincent, Paul Gauguin was beginning to see a small degree of success from his works. Forced to work indoors, Vincent's depression was assuaged, however, when he was encouraged and stimulated by a series of portraits he undertook. He severed the lobe with a razor, wrapped it in cloth and then took it to a brothel and presented it to one of the women there. Theo, who had rushed down from Paris, was sure that Vincent would die, but by the end of December and the early days of January, Vincent made a nearly full recovery. As was the case a year before, Van Gogh returned to painting the blossoming orchards around Arles.
The asylum was by no means a "snake pit," but Van Gogh was disheartened by the cries of the other residents and the bad food.
Ironically, during this time when Van Gogh was probably at his lowest and most mentally despondent state, his works were finally beginning to receive critical acclaim.
Very little is known about the visit, but Johanna, writing years later, would suggest that the day was strained and fairly tense.
To add to the decades-long confusion over the names, recent evidence suggests that Vincent wasn't in love with Eugenie at all, but rather a Dutch woman named Caroline Haanebeek. Like his father, Vincent had a passion for preaching, but lacked a gripping and passionate delivery. Never one to be swayed by adversity, Vincent van Gogh eventually made arrangements with the Church to begin a trial period preaching in one of the most inhospitable and impoverished regions in western Europe: the coal mining district of The Borinage, Belgium.
Refusing to leave the area, Van Gogh moved to an adjacent village, Cuesmes, and remained there in abject poverty.
Sien and her children posed for dozens of drawings for Vincent, and his talents as an artist grew considerably during this period. For the next six weeks Vincent lived a rather nomadic life, moving throughout the region and drawing and painting the remote landscape and its inhabitants. Margot Begemann, whose family lived next door to Vincent's parents, had been in love with Vincent, and the emotional upheaval of the relationship lead her to attempt suicide by poison.
Although Van Gogh only ever produced three copies of Japanese paintings, the Japanese influence on his art would be evident in subtle form throughout the rest of his life. Van Gogh's two years in Paris had a tremendous impact on his ongoing evolution as an artist. The prospect appeared unlikely, however, because Gauguin's relocation would require even more financial assistance from Theo who had reached his limit. But even as he was producing some of his best works, Vincent realized that his position was a precarious one and, after discussions with Theo, agreed to have himself voluntarily confined to the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole asylum in Saint-Remy-de-Provence.
He found it depressing that the patients had nothing to do all day--no stimulation of any kind.
News of this, however, only served to depress Vincent further and renewed his hopes to leave the asylum and return to the north.
Vincent eventually felt overwhelmed and quickly returned to the more quiet sanctuary of Auvers. For the next year Vincent struggled to live from day to day and, though not able to help the village people in any official capacity as a clergyman, he nevertheless chose to remain a member of their community. His early, more primitive drawings of the coal miners in the Borinage made way for far more refined and emotion-laden works.
It was now time to explore new horizons and begin a journey which would further refine his craft. Part of Van Gogh's treatment included "hydro-therapy", a frequent immersion in a large tub of water. Vincent sent Theo letters detailing his precarious state of health; while at the same time Theo had similar issues to deal with.
One day Vincent felt compelled to visit the home of Jules Breton, a French painter he greatly admired, so with only ten francs in his pocket he walked the entire 70 kilometers to Courrieres, France, to see Breton. The unfortunate episode concluded with one of the most memorable incidents in Van Gogh's life. In the drawing Sien, Sitting on a Basket, with a Girl, for example, Vincent masterfully depicts quiet domesticity, as well as an underlying sense of despair--feelings which would truly define Van Gogh's 19 months living with Sien. Margot eventually recovered, but the episode upset Vincent a great deal and he referred to it in his letters on a number of occasions.
Never truly happy in large cities, Vincent decided to leave Paris and follow the sun, and his destiny, south.
After sending a telegram to Theo, Gauguin left immediately for Paris, choosing not to visit Van Gogh in the hospital.
While this "therapy" was certainly not cruel in any way, neither was it in the least beneficial in terms of helping to restore Vincent's mental health. During this time Vincent began to plan for his eventual departure from the asylum at Saint-Remy. It was decided not to attempt to remove the bullet in Vincent's chest and Gachet wrote an urgent letter to Theo.
In his spare time Van Gogh continued to visit galleries and admire the many great works of art he found there. Upon arriving, however, Vincent was too timid to knock and returned to Cuesmes utterly discouraged.
Van Gogh and Gauguin would later correspond from time to time, but would never meet in person again.
He expressed these thoughts to Theo who began to make inquiries of possible alternatives for Vincent's medical care--this time much closer to Paris.
He also devoted himself to his Bible study--spending many hours reading and rereading the Gospel. Kee's father refused to let Vincent see his daughter and Vincent, ever determined, put his hand over the funnel of an oil lamp, intentionally burning himself. Gachet didn't have Theo's home address and had to write to him care of the gallery where he worked. T m n t s w c w винни и я мин является , показанные на страницах каталога материалов, мини фильм все основного материала. Although raised in a religious family, it wasn't until this time that he seriously began to consider devoting his life to the Church. Kee's father quickly defused the situation by simply blowing out the lamp and Vincent left the house humiliated.
2 декабря 1997 года он был выменян с Tony Dums и Loren Meyer в Феникс-Санс взамен на Michael Finly, Green и Sam Cassel.
M красоты хакама ми умм мику m мисо ми-шем красоты m власть k o катастрофа ами кумико мицеллы m рука.
I looked at the studies; a very beautiful and sad one based on Delacroix's La vierge et Jesus.
Convicts walking in a circle surrounded by high prison walls, a canvas inspired by Dore of a terrifying ferocity and which is also symbolic of his end.
We climbed the hill outside Auvers talking about him, about the daring impulse he had given to art, of the great projects he was always thinking about, and about the good he had done to all of us. Theodore Van ghog [sic] was broken with grief; everyone who attended was very moved, some going off into the open country while others went back to the station.



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