This is a€?Memorandums and Lettersa€?, section 9.2 from the book Communication for Business Success (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
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A memoAn abbreviation for memorandum; normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization. A memoa€™s purpose is often to inform, but it occasionally includes an element of persuasion or a call to action. One effective way to address informal, unofficial speculation is to spell out clearly for all employees what is going on with a particular issue. While memos do not normally include a call to action that requires personal spending, they often represent the business or organizationa€™s interests. A memo has a header that clearly indicates who sent it and who the intended recipients are. In a standard writing format, we might expect to see an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Memos are often announcements, and the person sending the memo speaks for a part or all of the organization.
Some written business communication allows for a choice between direct and indirect formats, but memorandums are always direct.
Memos are a place for just the facts, and should have an objective tone without personal bias, preference, or interest on display. While e-mail and text messages may be used more frequently today, the effective business letter remains a common form of written communication. Letters may serve to introduce your skills and qualifications to prospective employers, deliver important or specific information, or serve as documentation of an event or decision.
The date should be placed at the top, right or left justified, five lines from the top of the page or letterhead logo. Like a subject line in an e-mail, this is where you indicate what the letter is in reference to, the subject or purpose of the document.
This is your opening paragraph, and may include an attention statement, a reference to the purpose of the document, or an introduction of the person or topic depending on the type of letter.
If you have a list of points, a series of facts, or a number of questions, they belong in the body of your letter. An emphatic closing mirrors your introduction with the added element of tying the main points together, clearly demonstrating their relationship.
Five lines after the close, you should type your name (required) and, on the line below it, your title (optional). If the letter was prepared, or word-processed, by someone other than the signatory (you), then inclusion of initials is common, as in MJD or abc.
Just like an e-mail with an attachment, the letter sometimes has additional documents that are delivered with it. A formal business letter normally includes a logo or contact information for the organization in the header (top of page) or footer (bottom of page).
Memos are brief business documents usually used internally to inform or persuade employees concerning business decisions on policy, procedure, or actions. Letters are brief, print messages often used externally to inform or persuade customers, vendors, or the public.
Find a business letter (for example, an offer you received from a credit card company or a solicitation for a donation) and share it with your classmates.
Now that you have reviewed a sample letter, and learned about the five areas and fifteen basic parts of any business letter, write a business letter that informs a prospective client or customer of a new product or service. Please enter at least one email addressYou are trying to send out more invites than you have remaining. This why body language becomes a vital part of communication and it is important to ensure that you are displaying the right signals. The greatest benefit of being aware of your own body language is that it allows you to read the body language of others. This is a€?Communicating for Employmenta€?, chapter 20 from the book Communication for Business Success (Canadian Edition) (v. Conduct an online search for job descriptions associated with your chosen career and think about what tasks are accomplished in a typical day or week. The employment market and job-seeking techniques have changed significantly over the past ten years and will continue to change; it is not as easy as it once was to map out a clear career path.
The growth of job posting sites online has created a glut of applicants for most posted positions. These factors combine to create a job environment that is different from what most people might expect. As you reflect on the list above, you will find that you have at least some experience in many of them, but you probably havena€™t thought that much about them because you use them in so many ways that you take them for granted. Volunteering is especially good for students looking to work in social and artistic occupations, but students looking for work in other occupation types should not shy away from this option.
This written agreement may seem like overkill, but it is critical to ensure that the internship experience doesna€™t degrade into unsatisfying tasks such as photocopying and filing.
Remember that a key objective of your internship is to develop relationships you can use for mentoring and networking during your career. If you are lucky enough to have a job in your field of study already and are using your college experience to enhance your career opportunities, be sure to link what you are learning to what you do on the joba€”and what you do on the job to what you are learning. Be sure you can identify and show mastery in transferable skills as well as work-related skills. Experience through volunteering, internships, and part-time jobs will illustrate to potential employers that you can work in your chosen field, but it is also instrumental to help create a network of colleagues to enhance your career development. In the list of forty transferable skills that follows, underline five skills you believe you have mastered and then describe specific ways in which you have used each skill successfully. There is some wisdom in the saying that ita€™s who you know that brings success in getting a job. The first phase involves identifying whom you should be speaking to and pinpointing the people who can introduce you to them.
Your success in this phase of networking will be driven by the quality of the candidates (those who can directly influence your ability to reach your objectives) as well as the quantity (those who will lead you to the most contacts). Building a network requires consistent work, and a strong network will take time to achieve. When you capture your contact data, use relevant keywords to help you search your database and shape your contact activity. Being in the right place at the right time has much less to do with luck than with the art of personal contact. What you say in your networking calls or e-mails will depend largely on the objective of your networking effort.
Much of the success of your networking efforts depends on what you do after youa€™ve hung up after a call or received an e-mail reply. Networking is an ongoing process that involves identifying and managing prospects, making contact, and following up. Describe two things you can do to overcome shyness and network effectively in a person-to-person setting. You dona€™t want to be represented by spelling or grammatical errors, as they may raise questions about your education and attention to detail. You need to list your education in reverse chronological order, with your most recent degree first. You may want to add your overall grade point average (GPA) if you are proud of that number.
In general, follow the five-year rule when considering the addition of your high school education.
List in reverse chronological order your employment history, including the positions, companies, locations, and dates.
Ensure you emphasize quantifiable accomplishments and responsibilities that match your strengths to the requirements of the job. Custom documents take additional time, preparation, analysis of the job announcement, and may not fit the established guidelines. Consider a brief section that lists common words associated with the position as a skills summary: customer service, business communication, sales, or terms and acronyms common to the business or industry. When you are happy with your opening paragraph, add one or two paragraphs that illustrate your proposition from the opening paragraph.
Find a job announcement with specific duties that represents a job that you will be prepared for upon graduation. Conduct an online search for job advertisements that detail positions you would be interested in, and note the key job duties and position requirements. Employment interviews come in all shapes and sizes, and may not be limited to only one exchange but one interaction. In the process of exploring occupations and landing a job, you will likely participate in a variety of interviews. The invitation to interview means you have been identified as a candidate who meets the minimum qualifications and demonstrate potential as a viable candidate. If we assume that you would like to be successful in your employment interviewing, then it makes sense to use the communication skills gained to date with the knowledge of interpersonal communication to maximize your performance.
The right frame of mind is an essential element for success in communication, oral or written. On the content side, if you have been invited for an interview, you can rest assured that you have met the basic qualifications the employer is looking for. Businesses hire people to solve problems, so you will want to focus on how your talents, expertise, and experience can contribute to the organizationa€™s need to solve those problems.
Will it be a behavioural interview, where the employer watches what you do in a given situation?
Office attire varies by industry, so stop by the workplace and observe what workers are wearing if you can. Carefully read the ad you answered that got you the interview, and memorize what it says about the job and the qualifications the employer is seeking. You may want to know how to prepare for an employment interview, and wea€™re going to take it for granted that you have researched the company, market, and even individuals in your effort to learn more about the opportunity.
Employment interviews, especially screening interviews, do not stray far from a standard list of questions.
Use your list of transferable skills like communication, leadership, organization, attention to detail, and work ethic.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
If budget cuts are a concern, then it may be wise to send a memo explaining the changes that are imminent. They may also include statements that align business and employee interest, and underscore common ground and benefit. An acronym or abbreviation that is known to management may not be known by all the employees of the organization, and if the memo is to be posted and distributed within the organization, the goal is clear and concise communication at all levels with no ambiguity.
While it may contain a request for feedback, the announcement itself is linear, from the organization to the employees. It can serve to introduce you to a potential employer, announce a product or service, or even serve to communicate feelings and emotions.
The audience or reader may have their own idea of what constitutes a specific type of letter, and your organization may have its own format and requirements.
Regardless of the type of letter you need to write, it can contain up to fifteen elements in five areas.
If your letter includes a letterhead with this information, either in the header (across the top of the page) or the footer (along the bottom of the page), you do not need to include it before the date. This can make it clear to a third party that the letter was delivered via a specific method, such as certified mail (a legal requirement for some types of documents).

An emphatic opening involves using the most significant or important element of the letter in the introduction.
You may choose organizational devices to draw attention, such as a bullet list, or simply number them. This line indicates what the reader can look for in terms of documents included with the letter, such as brochures, reports, or related business documents. Just like a a€?CCa€? option in an e-mail, it indicates the relevant parties that will also receive a copy of the document. Share it with your classmates, observing confidentiality by blocking out identifying details such as the name of the sender, recipient, and company. Generally speaking, the way a person feels at a certain time is likely to be reflected in the gestures, posture and expressions they use. I have a good understanding of the work-related skills I will need in my chosen career and a plan to get them. However, a clear direction can still provide enough flexibility to respond to the changing needs of todaya€™s job market. As new technology accelerates and national and global priorities (such as going green or national security) take on a new sense of urgency, new needs are identified and new jobs will be created to fill those needs. Other than jobs that require you to serve customers in a specific location or region or jobs that require specialized equipment (as in manufacturing facilities), companies increasingly have off-site employees who stay connected via the Internet.
You have access to millions of job opportunities via the Web, but so do hundreds or thousands of other job seekers. These include knowing how to use equipment that is specific to your career and mastering processes that are used in your field. The second set of skills you must have are called transferable skillsSkills that can be used in almost all occupations. It is important to think about all your activities and consider the skills you have applied successfully; your transferable skills inventory is larger than you may think. Yes, employers look at your previous experience, and this often stumps students who are in the early stages of their careers.
Interns work for an organization or company for a reduced wage or stipend or volunteer in exchange for practical experience.
Befriend people, ask questions, go the extra mile in terms of what is expected of you, and generally participate in the enterprise. Ask your supervisor and employer about ideas you have picked up in class, and ask your instructors about the practices you apply at work. Then circle five skills you think are important to your career that you have not mastered yet.
In its simplest terms, it is the process of engaging others in helping you reach an objective.
In the first case, you might want to start with people you met at an industry conference; in the job-specific case, youa€™ll want to think about whom you know in that company or who might know someone in that company. Your computer, PDA, or smartphone probably has features for capturing contact information and retrieving it based on keywords, and most will even connect with your calendar for scheduling and reminders.
That is why we recommend you start building your professional network nowa€”even early in your college career. One of the most overlooked pieces of information that you should be sure to capture is the source of the contact. If you are going to a conference, a party, or even a class, know ahead of time which people or kinds of people you want to meet.
Have a good supply of personal cards to give out to contacts; that will prompt them to give you their contact information, too. If someone you know comes up to you while you are speaking with a contact, introduce them; if you see that the contact is getting antsy, tell them you enjoyed meeting them and then move on. Set yourself up for networking success by discreetly writing a word or two on the back of their card to jog your memory in the future. It is a great vehicle for learning about new trends in the industry, for launching a€?trial balloonsa€? for ideas or concepts you are developing, and for seeking advice on practical aspects of your occupation. Now give yourself another twenty minutes to write one or two words next to each name to describe how he or she could help you network. People network, link, and connect in new ways via online profiles or professional sites like LinkedIn. This section presents your best qualities as they align with the requirements of the job ad. If you insist on doing so, your objective should reflect the audiencea€™s need to quickly understand how you will help the organization achieve its goals. You may also want to list grades in your major courses to demonstrate your success in your chosen field. Often this involves communication, budgets, teamwork, supervision, and customer service when applying for positions in business and industry, but dona€™t let emphasis become exaggeration. And while many people are tempted to include a a€?references upon requesta€? line, even that statement is considered redundant.
You know that when given a class assignment, you are expected to follow directions; similarly, the employer is looking for specific skills and experience. Inkjet printers can have some a€?bleeda€? between characters that may make them overlap, and therefore be misunderstood. Please post one link and a brief review of the Web site, noting what features you found useful and at least one recommendation for improvement.
Reaching the interview stage means that you are in serious consideration for the position, and the pressure feels cranked up.
Generally conducted by a representative of the companya€™s human resources department or a recruiter, a screening interview is used to determine whether you are qualified or overqualified to do the job. In a one-on-one interview, the interviewer asks a set of questions to learn if you have the knowledge and skills to handle the job for which you have applied. There is no one right or wrong way to prepare and present at your interview, just as each audience is unique, but we can prepare and anticipate several common elements. For many if not most, the employment interview is surrounded with mystery and a degree of fear and trepidation.
In almost every interview situation, youa€™ll be asked, a€?What can you do for this company?a€? Practice your answer. If this isna€™t possible, call and ask the human resources office what to weara€”they will appreciate your wish to be prepared.
If it doesna€™t have one, look for business listings in the community online and in the phone directory.
Find a quiet one to two hours to review the interview study guide provided here, prepare your answers, and actually practice them. Have you won awards or received positive feedback from others in the organization or from a happy customer? You may also download a PDF copy of this book (6 MB) or just this chapter (934 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
It is often written from a one-to-all perspective (like mass communication), broadcasting a message to an audience, rather than a one-on-one, interpersonal communication. The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization is often called the grapevineThe unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo., and it is often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo. Date and subject lines are also present, followed by a message that contains a declaration, a discussion, and a summary. The memo may have legal standing as it often reflects policies or procedures, and may reference an existing or new policy in the employee manual, for example. Wea€™ll examine the basic outline of a letter and then focus on specific products or writing assignments. This chapter outlines common elements across letters, and attention should be directed to the expectations associated with your particular writing assignment. While you may not use all the elements in every case or context, they are listed in Table 9.1 "Elements of a Business Letter". A comma after the salutation is correct for personal letters, but a colon should be used in business. Readers tend to pay attention to openings, and it makes sense to outline the expectations for the reader up front.
Readers may skip over information in the body of your letter, so make sure you emphasize the key points clearly. If the listener isn't responding one must try and change the topic without losing the listeners focus.
This involves speaking with open palms, maintaining eye contact and pointing your body towards the speaker. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (10 MB) or just this chapter (2 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). In fact, building flexibility into your career plans is a requirement for achieving a successful career.
In fact, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada reports that people will have on average approximately three careers and eight jobs over a lifetime.
Think about this: five years ago, a search engine optimization (SEO) specialist was a job in only a handful of Web-centric companies. This means that students and job hunters should be able to demonstrate the ability to work independently and produce results without consistent, direct personal supervision. While some of these skills are learned and perfected on the job, you may be in a vocational track program (such as for computer programmers, nurses aides, or paralegals) where you are learning your work-based skills. For example, if you volunteer as a big brother or big sister, you have skills in active listening, mentoring, time management, and probably coaching. That will be a valuable tool for you as you work with your career development and ultimately with job applications. Relevant experience is not only important as a job qualification; it can also provide you with a means to explore or test out occupational options and build a contact list that will be valuable when networking for your career. Certainly it is easy to understand that if you want to be in an artistic field, volunteering at a museum or performance centre can provide you with relevant experience. A successful internship program should create a win-win situation: the intern should add value to the companya€™s efforts, and the company should provide a structured program in which the student can learn or practice work-related skills. Ask your instructors and the career guidance or placement office to help you generate job leads, even if they are not specifically in the area you want to be working in. This cross-linking will make you a much stronger candidate for future opportunities and a much better student in the short term. If you dona€™t have any contacts who fit that description, whom do you know who lives in the town in which the company is based or in a nearby town? Dona€™t be caught wishing you could call someone you met three weeks agoa€¦if you could only remember what you did with their business card!
Your network should include anyone who might have a connection that will help: family, friends, neighbours, past and present coworkers, bosses, people you met through associations and clubs (especially business associations), alumni from your college, and acquaintances you have met via online networking. Thata€™s what turns a a€?cold calla€? into a a€?warm calla€?a€”and it helps engage the prospect. You may feel a little awkward following these tips at first, but with practice you will become quite adept at meeting new people and adding them to your network.
Be prepared with topics you can steer your contact toward so you dona€™t spend two minutes awkwardly talking about the weather and then slink away. Be factual, dona€™t brag, and give enough information about yourself to prompt your contact to ask questions.
Be willing to offer your assistance whenever you can; the fact that you are still in college doesna€™t mean you cana€™t be of value. Do this right away; any thank you after twenty-four hours of your contact can be considered late.
If your education is still in progress, say so, perhaps including an anticipated graduation date. Once you've graduated college or university then you should consider removing the high school information; hiring managers will assume you graduated high school once your college or university degree is listed. This document represents you in your absence, and if information is false, at a minimum you could lose your job. By mirroring the employera€™s language and submitting your application documents in accord with their instructions, you convey a spirit of cooperation and an understanding of how to follow instructions. Choose a sans serif (without serif, or decorative end) font like Arial or Tahoma that wona€™t be misread.
There is no better way to entice someone to read further than to demonstrate that you fit his or her needs.

Businesses and organizations are communities consisting of teams and groups, and if we decide to switch teams or communities, or if that decision is made for us with a reduction in force layoff, for example, wea€™ll be back on the job market. The screening process may include formal tests that include personality tests, background investigations, and consultations with previous employers.
This is an interview that you have requested to learn about a particular job, company, or industry and how best to present yourself to potential hiring managers. The hiring manager conducting the one-on-one interview also wants to get a sense of what it would be like working with you and how you would fit in the organization. Just as giving a speech may produce a certain measure of anxiety, you can expect that a job interview will make you nervous.
Research press releases, stories in the Globe and Mail, annual reports, blogs, Web sites, the news, and so on. You need to be prepared for standard questions about your education and background, but also see the opening in the conversation to discuss the job duties, the challenges inherent in the job, and the ways in which you believe you can meet these challenges. Or will you be interviewed over lunch or coffee, where your table manners and social skills will be assessed?
Make a written list of the job tasks and annotate the list with your skills, knowledge, and other attributes that will enable you to perform the job tasks with excellence. In addition, look for any advertisements the company has placed, as these can give a good indication of the companya€™s goals. If you prepare answers for them ahead of time, you will not be caught off guard during an interview. By elaborating on your strengths, ita€™s easier for the employer to see where and how you excel.
It may also be used to update a team on activities for a given project, or to inform a specific group within a company of an event, action, or observance. On the grapevine, one person may hear that someone else is going to be laid off and start passing the news around. For example, on February 13, 2009, upper management at the Panasonic Corporation issued a declaration that all employees should buy at least $1,600 worth of Panasonic products. The discussion elaborates or lists major points associated with the topic, and the conclusion serves as a summary.
There are many types of letters, and many adaptations in terms of form and content, but in this chapter, we discuss the fifteen elements of a traditional block-style letter. The salutation a€?To whom it may concerna€? is appropriate for letters of recommendation or other letters that are intended to be read by any and all individuals.
Just as you would preview your topic in a speech, the clear opening in your introductions establishes context and facilitates comprehension. If your letter requests or implies action, the conclusion needs to make clear what you expect to happen. By displaying these behaviors, it allows others to feel comfortable when speaking to you and also suggests that you are open to hearing new ideas. Even though you arena€™t yet graduating from college, there are many benefits to starting now. This trend means todaya€™s graduates need to be very flexible in their career plans and that they should make an effort to identify and develop transferable skills in order to navigate the changing employment market.
With the meteoric growth of Google, SEO is now a common role in just about any marketing departmenta€”and a job in relatively high demand.
These include thinking skills, communication skills, listening skillsa€”in fact, most of the skills we have been stressing throughout this book are transferable skills because they are also key to success in life.
If you have written a college paper, you have skills in time management, researching, communicating, and writing. Internships are typically held during summers or school vacation periods, though on occasion they can be scheduled for a set block of time each week during the course of a regular school term. It is valuable and relevant to hold a job designing Web sites for an advertising agency, for example, if your specific job objective is to produce event marketing. There are countless ways to keep track of contacts, from writing names in an address book, to keeping a Rolodex, to using a computer-based contact management system os simply an Excel spreadsheet. Whatever your choices, invest the time to learn to use them well; youa€™ll be very glad you did. Is there something unique about them, the way they are dressed, or perhaps what you may have overheard that you can ask about?
You may be able to get an introduction to an instructor for a person in the industry or help that persona€™s daughter learn about your college. Your Twitter account and Facebook page are also often accessible to the public, so never post anything you wouldna€™t want your employer (current or future) to read, see, or hear.
There will plenty of time later to clarify what you prefer to be called, but all your application documents, including those that relate to payroll, your social security number, drug screenings, background checks, fingerprint records, transcripts, certificates or degrees, should feature your legal name. But if it looks like you've chopped so much out just to get it to one page and the hiring manager can't see your skills and accomplishments, then that's not so good. Simple, clear fonts that demonstrate no points at which letters may appear to overlap will increase the probability of the computer getting it right the first time. A successful cover letter should emphasize how your knowledge, skills, or experiences make you an ideal candidate. In order to make the transition from a outsider to an insider, youa€™ll have to pass a series of tests, both informal and formal. Depending on the type of job you are seeking, you can anticipate answering questions, often more than once, to a series of people as you progress through a formal interview process.
As the name implies, the objective of this interview is to find reasons to remove, not include, people in a candidate pool. It is also used to learn how you behaved in past situations as a predictor of how you are likely to behave in the future.
Briefly, the employment interview is a conversational exchange (even if it is in writing at first) where the participants try to learn more about each other. Know the companya€™s philosophies, goals, plans, new products, targeted customers, new executives, and major directional changes. Take the opportunity to demonstrate the fact that you have a€?done your homeworka€? in researching the company. Luckily for you, employment interviews involve a degree of uniformity across their many representations. Include years of experience, education, special training, technical skills, inside knowledge of a product or market, and so on. Use this information to write a brief a€?sales pitcha€? that describes your qualifications for the job. Rumors change and transform as they are passed from person to person, and before you know it, the word is that they are shutting down your entire department. The company president noted that if everyone supported the company with purchases, it would benefit all.Lewis, L. If this is not the case with your letter, but you are unsure of how to address your recipient, make every effort to find out to whom the letter should be specifically addressed. It is usually courteous to conclude by thanking the recipient for his or her attention, and to invite them to contact you if you can be of help or if they have questions. As a student, you are likely to be applying for part-time jobs, internships, and even volunteer positions.
In the same way, the aging population has created new opportunities in elder care, and new discoveries and approaches in science have created fields like biotechnology and nanotechnology. This skill set is very broad, and your extent of mastery will vary from skill to skill; therefore, you should identify those skills that are most important to your career objective and develop and master them. The understanding of how an advertising agency works and the contacts you make will make the experience worthwhile.
If you are trying to learn about an occupation, it can be just about anyone involved with that field. Other necessary information includes your address, your primary phone number (cell or landline), and e-mail address.
In order for the computer to do this, you have to consider your audiencea€”a computer program that will not be able to interpret your unusual font or odd word choice. Just as you have the advantage of preparing for a speech with anticipation, you can apply the same research and public speaking skills to the employment interview. Do not consider it lightly just because someone other than the hiring manager is conducting it.
Expect to be asked a€?Tell me about a time whena€¦a€? or a€?Give me an examplea€¦a€? questions.
Both conversational partners will have goals in terms of content, and explicitly or implicitly across the conversational exchange will be relational messages. Some companies take weeks to start calling people in for interviews, and by then the job description may have been removed from the site where you saw it. Table 20.2 "Interview Preparation Checklist" presents a checklist of what you should try to know before you consider yourself prepared for an interview.
Here are eleven common questions you are likely to be asked in an employment interview:McLean, S. Structure the information in a logical fashion and then practice saying it aloud until your delivery is smooth, natural, and confident. They are often printed on letterhead paper, and represent the business or organization in one or two pages.
For many, there is no sweeter sound than that of their name, and to spell it incorrectly runs the risk of alienating the reader before your letter has even been read.
This paragraph reiterates the main points and their relationship to each other, reinforcing the main point or purpose. Networking is a process of building relationships, and the strongest relationships are built over time.
It is OK to include high school accomplishments if you've graduated within the last 3-5 years, and you can replace them with college accomplishments as you gain them. Todaya€™s students and job hunters must become lifetime learners to keep up with new trends.
With a little brainstorming and an understanding of your career field, you should be able to come up with relevant volunteer experiences for just about any career. If you are in the process of trying to land an internship or a job, you want to reach the person who will make the hiring decision.
A sophisticated system that has all the bells and whistles is no good to you if you cana€™t use it. If you run across a problem one of your contacts might help you with, dona€™t be shya€”give him or her a call to ask for help.
You should also consider including an up-to-date LinkedIn account or personal Web page if those online sources highlight your accomplishments and represent you professionally.
A font size of eleven or twelve is easier to read for most people, and while the computer doesna€™t care about font size, the smaller your font, the more likely the computer is to make the error of combining adjacent letters.
Deliver the document in a nine-by-twelve-inch envelope, stiffened with a sheet of cardstock (heavy paper or cardboard) to help prevent damage to the document. Next, be sure to state what job you are applying for and how you found out about the position. Read the document; look for mistakes your spellchecker wona€™t catch (like the word a€?youa€? instead of a€?youra€?). Shorter messages may include e-mails or memos, either hard copy or electronic, while reports tend to be three or more pages in length.
Avoid the use of impersonal salutations like a€?Dear Prospective Customer,a€? as the lack of personalization can alienate a future client. It is also OK to include your GPA if you're proud of it, because among other things a good GPA can help show that you are disciplined and organized.
It is a formal process with several consistent elements that you can use to guide your preparation. Poor grammar, misspelled words, lengthy listings of irrelevant experience, and messy formatting motivate hiring managers to move quickly to the next candidate.

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