According to Jung, archetypes are patterns of behavior or symbolic imagery present in the minds of all individuals. These Jungian concepts were attractive to artists, including a€?abstract expressionistsa€? like Jackson Pollock (1912a€“1956), who referenced myth and primal symbols in their work. Other examples of Junga€™s continuing influence are the Jungian archetypes that appear in popular media, such as the films of George Lucas (b. Among the numerous other artists with whom Martha Graham collaborated was Pulitzer Prize-winning American composer William Schuman (1910-1992), who wrote an orchestral score for her Night Journey (1947). Dancer and choreographer Martha Graham, one of the foremost pioneers of modern dance, was influenced by Jung's concept of the collective unconscious. Photograph of Martha Graham (Jocasta), Bertram Ross (Oedipus), and Robert Cohan (Tiresias) in Night Journey, 1947. About 1945, Martha Graham began Jungian analysis with Frances Wickes, a former Jung student then practicing in New York City. Myths in which a hero slays a dragon to rescue a princess and then marries her occur in many cultures. Joseph Campbell (1904-1987) became a celebrity thanks to televised interviews with journalist Bill Moyers, which aired in 1988.
The Star Wars films follow the archetypal journey of Luke Skywalker, who battles villains, rescues a princess, and is mentored by wise old man Obi Wan Kenobi. Printmaker Michael Ponce de Leon (1922-2006) became known for his metal collage intaglios, prints with an embossed quality that he achieved by pressing incised lines or shapes into paper or metal along with paint. Italian film director Federico Fellini (1920-1993), winner of four Best Foreign Film Oscars, first read Jung in 1961. Argentinean author Jorge Luis Borges acknowledged, "I"ve always been a great reader of Jung. In this influential work published while he was working on the Red Book, Jung differentiated people into two groups, extraverts (outward-looking) and introverts (inward-looking). Born on July 26, 1875, in Kesswil, Switzerland, Carl Jung came from a long line of Protestant ministers and scholars. Jung entered the University of Basel in 1895 to study medicine, receiving his diploma in 1900. Jung charged Freud with dogmatism in reducing all mental problems to sexual issues; Freud accused Jung of succumbing to the a€?black tidea€? of occultism, or mysticism. Jung made handwritten revisions on this page of a draft of the English language translation of his autobiographical Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1963). When Jung was studying medicine at the University of Basel (1895-1899), he attended seances with a cousin who appeared to be taken over by deceased personalities who communicated through her details of their previous lives. In 1907 Jung published his study of the devastating, baffling, mental illness schizophrenia, or, as it was known at the time, dementia praecox.
After exchanging publications and letters, Jung and Freud met for the first time in Vienna on March 3, 1907.
Vacationing in the Austrian Alps, Freud thanks Jung for defending his ideas at a conference in Amsterdam. In 1909, to observe the twentieth anniversary of Clark University's founding, its president, G. Photograph of Jung, Freud, and others at a 1909 celebration of the founding of Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. Jung's hard-hitting criticism of Freud in this letter, including an accusation that he mistreated both his patients and his pupils, indicates that the relationship between the two men had soured to a point that a split between them was imminent. This letter from Freud to Jung effectively severed the relationship between the two men, although Jung referred a patient to Freud ten years later.
Jung described the process that led to the creation of the Red Book as a€?my most difficult experiment.a€? He was referring to his sustained response to a series of a€?assaultsa€? from his unconscious that he feared might overwhelm him.
As he recalled in the autobiographical Memories, Dreams, Reflections: a€?An incessant stream of fantasies had been released . The material in the Red Book came from Junga€™s exploration of his unconscious and his encounters with the works of many cultural figures, including the pioneering American philosopher and psychologist William James (1842a€“1910).
Experts have noted similarities between the way Jung integrated texts and illustrations in the Red Book and the work of British poet, painter, and printmaker William Blake (1757-1827).
This eighth-century Chinese book, which Jung described as a Taoist-alchemical tract, had a major influence on his mature thinking. Rather than interpreting alchemy as literally concerned with changing lesser metals into gold, Jung considered it a symbolic representation of the individuation process.
Some of Jung's Red Book illustrations resemble this reproduction of a nineteenth-century Tibetan mandala"a symbolic, circular form, usually with symmetrical divisions and figures of deities in the center.
At Bolligen Jung created a "monument out of stone to express what the Tower means to me." On one side, Jung carved in Latin "In remembrance of his seventy-fifth birthday, C.
After his first visit in 1909, Jung returned to the United States periodically to deliver lectures, lead seminars, counsel individuals, and conduct anthropological research on the Southwestern Native American tribes. In this letter to Smith Ely Jelliffe (1866-1945), an American physician, teacher, medical editor, and pioneering psychotherapist, Jung discusses schizophrenic patients and includes examples of drawings they produced. In this postcard, Jung declines an invitation to submit articles to a journal Smith Ely Jelliffe edited because American medical colleagues find his writing hard to understand and consider him a "mystic." The charge that Jung's work was compromised by mysticism stemmed from the value he placed on mythology and symbols as well as his statements questioning the all-sufficiency of reason and science.
In 1937, the Guild of Pastoral Psychology was established in London to encourage the study of psychology among clergy and other spiritual leaders, with particular reference to Jung's work.
Archetypes inform cultural themes and images that express significant human concernsa€”such as birth, love, death, family, and survival.
Junga€™s concepts also inspired numerous writers, musicians, filmmakers, theologians, and mythologists, including those featured in this section: dancer and choerographer Martha Graham (1894a€“1991), filmmaker Federico Fellini (1920a€“1993), author Jorge Luis Borges (1899a€“1986), and mythologist Joseph Campbell (1904a€“1987). Wickes (1875-1967) received this letter from Jung offering advice about the treatment of a difficult patient.


Jung believed the story represents a struggle to establish control of unconscious forces, saying "only one who has risked the fight with the dragon and is not overcome by it wins the hoard, the 'treasure hard to attain'. Having read The Hero with a Thousand Faces in college, George Lucas rediscovered it and said he "began to realize that my first draft of Star Wars was following classic motifs. This work's title and Ponce de Leon's comments on his philosophy of art suggest familiarity with Jung's ideas: "Every creative artist is a unique individual who has his feet firmly planted in mid-air. These terms have become so common that most people do not realize that Jung formalized them into a diagnostic tool for understanding the different ways people psychologically process their experiences.
Although as an adult he was not a member of a congregation, Jung did not lose interest in what he called a€?the religious problems of modern man.a€? The Red Book teems with Junga€™s meditations on the nature of religion and science, the god image in different times and cultures, and the relation of humans to imagination. From his earliest years, he strove to comprehend his active dream life and sought to understand things he considered invisible and inexplicable.
He decided to specialize in psychiatry, which was, he later said, a€?quite generally held in contempta€? at the time.
Between 1907 and 1912, Jung was Freud's close collaborator and was widely thought to be his most likely successor as leader of the psychoanalytic movement.
After his split with Freud, Jung continued to develop his own distinctive system of analytical psychology, the theories of which he elaborated through the experimental experiences he describes in the Red Book.
He complains about the inadequacies of his religious teachers, including his father and his uncles, all Swiss Reformed Church pastors, and regrets that what he was taught as a child in church did not match his inner experiences. In his dissertation, submitted to the medical faculty of the University of Zurich and published in 1902, Jung attempted to treat these seances in a scientific manner as furnishing an explanation of the as yet extremely controversial psychology of the unconscious. Based on his work with patients at the Burghözli Mental Hospital, Jung's book was ground breaking because he treated delusional material as worthy of interpretation rather than as unintelligible raving. As soon as Jung reached Freud's home, the two retired to Freud's study for a thirteen-hour conversation in which they exchanged ideas about psychology and related subjects.
Stanley Hall (1844-1924), invited twenty-nine thinkers of international standing in the physical, biological, and social sciences to attend a conference there. They had a fundamental disagreement about the role of sexuality in creating neuroses as well as other theoretical differences.
He identified its theme as the heros struggle for freedom, the hero being one of his principal archetypal figures. The format of the Red Book resembles the work of the British poet and painter William Blake (1757a€“1827), who also recorded dreams and visions in combined text and images and with whose work Jung had some familiarity. In 1928 he received a German translation from Richard Wilhelm (1873-1930), a distinguished German sinologist.
Images in Medieval and Renaissance alchemy texts provided him with further validation of his theories regarding the universality of symbols. Urtriusque cosmi maioris scilicet et minoris metaphysica, physica atque technica historia, in duo volumnia secundum cosmi differntiam diuisa.
Mandalas are used in Buddhism and other religions as a representation of the universe and an aid to meditation. Jung married Emma Rauschenbach (1882-1955), a member of an old Swiss-German family of wealthy industrialists. In Memories, Dreams, Reflections, he spoke about his life at the Tower: "In my retiring room I am by myself. A Lecture Delivered before the Analytical Psychology Club of New York City, October 2, 1936.
In this draft, Frances Wickes (1875-1967), a Jung student who became an analyst in New York City, termed individuation the goal of Jungian analysis. The images contain what Jung termed "Bruchlinien," breaking lines that split the pictures, apparently indicative of the patients" mental states. Jung defended himself by observing that "if you call me an occultist because I am seriously investigating religious, mythological, and philosophical fantasies. During the 1940s and 1950s, Americans in the fields of depth psychology, the arts, and comparative religions embraced Junga€™s ideas. They create a psychological registry of universal experience that Jung named the a€?collective unconscious,a€? which forms a treasury of powerful, shared images and symbols that are expressed in dreams, art, fairy tales, stories, myths, and religious motifs from across widely different times and cultures. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (1962), based on Junga€™s description of introversion and extroversion and personality types, is commonly used in education, business, and industry. Fictional examples include Merlin (King Arthur legends), Gandulf (Lord of the Rings trilogy), and Dumbledore (Harry Potter series). The ropes represent their joint fate as well as the umbilical cord that once joined Oedipus and Jocasta, who hangs herself with the ropes at the end of the ballet. Originally a settlement house worker, Wickes studied with Jung in Zurich in the 1920s and subsequently established a successful practice in New York. Campbell's wife, Jean Erdman, danced with Martha Graham's company, and he was a Graham friend.
Using Jung's theories, Katharine Cook Briggs (1875-1968) and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers (1897-1980) developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), published in 1962. Jung described his own uncompromising probing of the unconscious in vivid detail in the Red Book.
In 1900, Jung began working at the BurghA¶lzli Mental Hospital a part of the University of Zurich, from which he received his medical degree in 1902. However, they became estranged when it became clear that they disagreed about the nature of the psyche and the unconscious. Although his views were unorthodox in terms of his Christian upbringing, Jung had a life-long interest in religious experience, which is evident in the Red Book. Jung retained a life-long interested in parapsychology, the discipline concerned with investigating events and knowledge that cannot be accounted for by scientific evidence.
Jung's visit to Vienna lasted five or six days, after which he and his wife, Emma, vacationed in Abbazia (now Opatija, Croatia), a fashionable Austrian resort on the Adriatic Sea.


Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud were among the eight invited to represent psychology and pedagogy. Thought to have been lost when Freud left Vienna to escape the Nazis in 1938, Jung's letters were discovered in London in 1954.
In his autobiographical Memories, Dreams, Reflections Jung saluted Freud as "an Old Testament prophet [who] undertook to overthrow false gods, to rip the veils away from the mass of dishonesties and hypocrisies, mercilessly exposing the rottenness of the contemporary psyche… he demonstrated empirically the presence of an unconscious psyche which had hitherto existed only as a philosophical postulate.
Jung asserted that another purpose of the book was to conduct a scientific analysis of myths and their role in the human psyche.
Jung recorded them in a series of notebooks that he later used as the basis for the Red Book.
Jung wrote that he found "Blake a tantalizing study, since he compiled a lot of half or undigested knowledge in his fantasies.
Jung believed the mandala was one of the oldest human religious symbols, found all over the world. Jung made and placed this here as a thanks offering in the year 1950." On the side shown in this photograph, Jung created a mandala centered on Telesphorus, the Greek demi-god of healing, surrounded by a Greek inscription, part of which says, "This is Telesphorus, who roams through the dark regions of this cosmos and glows like a star out of the depths. I keep the key with me all the time; no one else is allowed in there except with my permission. The opposites meet in all their variety and fecundity and are contained until they transform. His concepts of the a€?archetypea€? and the a€?collective unconsciousa€?a€”ideas that grew out of Junga€™s experiences during his creation of the Red Booka€”had particular power.
And Junga€™s explorations of non-Christian sources of spirituality, such as gnosticism, alchemy, and Eastern contemplative traditions inform various a€?New Agea€? philosophies. In the Red Book Jung depicts a wise character he calls "Philemon" as a bearded old man with wings.
Created during a difficult period after Graham's dance partner and husband, Erick Hawkins (1909-1994), left her, the work was not considered a success. From 1960 through 1990, Fellini recorded and illustrated his dreams every morning after waking, referring to it as his "night work." After Fellini's death, the book was locked in a bank vault for fourteen years until his heirs agreed to publish it. The MBTI is widely used in business and education to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.
Under the tutelage of its director, Eugen Bleuler (1857a€“1939), a notable Swiss psychiatrist, Jung formulated theories of schizophrenia (a term coined by Bleuler) and psychological complexes.
Zur Psychologie und Pathologie sogenannter occulter Phänomene (On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena). In his postcard to Martha Freud, Sigmund's wife, Jung reminisces about the "splendid Vienna days" just spent with the Freuds. Freud delivered five lectures on psychoanalysis, and Jung delivered three lectures on the psychology of childhood, a topic he broadened considerably.
Finally, Jung wanted to broaden the meaning of the term libido to include all expressions of psychic energy not just the sexual drive as defined by Freud. The Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolism of the Libido. According to my ideas they are an artistic production rather than an authentic representation of unconscious processes." Blake illustrated this edition of Night Thoughts (1742-1745 ), a popular poem by Edward Young (1681-1765). Some of his patients drew mandala-like images, as did Jung himself even before learning about the Asian tradition.
In 1909 the Jung family, which eventually included five children, moved to a house they built at Küsnacht, near Zurich.
The Symbolic Life: A Seminar Talk Given on 5th April, 1939, transcript from shorthand notes of Derek Kitchin.
A specialist in child psychology, Wickes was the author of the influential The Inner World of Childhood (1927).
I read it as a kind of mythology, or as a kind of museum or encyclopedia of curious lores." Borges contributed significantly to "magical realism," a genre of Latin American fiction in which fantastic elements are blended into a realistic atmosphere. Pictured at Clark are, seated (left to right), Freud, Hall and Jung, and, standing (left to right), three of Freuds followers, A.A. The originals eventually went to the Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule (ETH, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) in Zurich. Jung subsequently claimed that this book marked the discovery of the collective unconscious, though the term came at a later date. Jung remarked that "The "squaring of the circle" is one of the many archetypal motifs which form the basic patterns of our dreams and fantasies. From the earliest days of their marriage, Emma took a strong interest in her husband's work. She also treated numerous writers and other creative men and women, including the dancer and choreographer Martha Graham. Borges's short story La biblioteca de Babel describes a universe in the form of a vast library composed of endless interlocking hexagonal rooms that contain all possible books of a certain format.
She became a noted analyst in her own right and spent thirty years studying the legends of the Holy Grail.
An example of Brazilian popular culture, such inexpensive pamphlets are sold at fairs and markets. Tom Jung (unrelated to Carl) also designed posters for The Empire Strikes Back, The Return of the Jedi, and numerous other well-known films. Described as "arguably the finest French printmaker of his generation," Erik Desmazières (b.



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