In a business context, all communication can be divided into two categories namely, External Communication and Internal Communication. An organization, when it communicates with Governmental agencies, oth organizations, customers, clients and Public it is called external communication The media employed may be written media like letters, reports, proposals or visual media like posters, advertisements video tapes or electronic media like faxes, telegrams, e-mails, telexes. External communication helps an organization to keep its outsourcing agencies like distributors, wholesalers, retailers and clientele well informed about the company’s products, services, progress and goals.
Every organization has the necessity to maintain appropriate communication with its branches, staff and employees. In the new millennium, particularly in the context of globalization, business has become highly competitive.
Downward communication means the flow of communication from the top echelon (level or rank) of an organisation to the lower levels of employees. Communication maintained from lower level of employees to higher-ups is called upward communication. Every business organization adopts some formal channels of communication which may be upward, downward, or horizontal or all the three. Large organizations, where there are a large number of people working closely, generate certain informal or unofficial channels of communication.
In yet another situation, one person communicates to a few chosen associates who in turn communicate the same to yet another group. Grapevine, is definitely dangerous to the health of an organization if allowed to grow without monitoring. When you shop for Hi-Fi equipment, remember the name that has become synonymous with quality Hi-Fi - Pioneer. The amount of feedback the post received, many people misunderstanding one of the key ideas and some reflection suggest a focused article is needed.One of the concepts underpinning the research for my doctoral thesis and the Stakeholder Circle® methodology is the concept that project success is determined by the attitudes of the key stakeholders around the project. The communication might also be through teleconferences, face-to-face meetings, panel discussions or presentations, exhibitions and such events. Upward communication gives scope for the employees to offer their suggestions, opinions, make complaints and seek redressal of their grievances.
They are usually in the form of notices, announcements, reports, official or demi-official letters, advertisements, etc. A transparent administration policy, employee-friendly attitude, fruitful peer group meetings, inter-action sessions, parties and outings where all those connected with the organisation participate are some of the strategies to monitor grapevine and use it to the advantage of the organization.
All of the matched models in our new Hi-Fi line-up give you functional, human engineering and stylish, eye-catching looks. Behind our logically laid out face plates you'll find the newest ideas from Pioneer's audio laboratories — innovations to make listening easier and more care free, and innovations to make your music sound better than ever. All files are provided under strict licence and reproduction without prior permission or for financial gain is strictly prohibited.If you have additional documentation please consider donating a copy to our free archive. To purchase Communication Components spares or accessories, please contact the company via their website or visit an authorised retailer. Delivering a project on time, on budget and to specification is not sufficient – if the project is not liked and the outputs are not used it is still a failure.

All organizations have to maintain cordial relationships with government agencies, licensing authorities, suppliers of raw materials, ancillary industries and financial institutions. Internal communication is an essential feature of an organization’s administrative structure. The central organization or corporate office should keep its branches well informed of new policies and policy changes.
Downward communication has its own shortcomings, if it is not complemented by other directional communications.
Upward communication helps an organization to receive and reset its objectives at realistic levels.
Sales department, production department, quality control department and the stores department have to constantly interact and coordinate among themselves. It gives mental satisfaction to the participants and gradually reduces emotional outbursts and reactions.
Business houses and industries adopt one or several of these strategies to keep grapevine under reasonable control so that it does not degenerate into a rumour mill and promote unwanted gossip sessions among the employees.
Contrast the difference between the very low level of patronage for the Melbourne Star and the success of the London Eye.Certainly some projects are easier to attract support to than others but even intrinsically unpopular projects to implement a business change, upgrade systems and reduce head count need the support of the people involved in the change if the project’s intended benefits are to be fully realised.
Continual and updated information without any communication gap is essential for business houses. In modern times, the Human Resource Department plays an important role in maintaining internal communication. The growth in business, the future projections for business, increased specializations make a great demand on the central office to maintain an uninterrupted flow of internal communication. The shortcomings will be pronounced if an organization adopts only unidirectional communication namely downward communication. Horizontal communication leads to a better understanding among individuals and departments, cooperation and coordination. It promotes understanding, motivates employees and gives a sense of belonging and involvement to all people at all levels. In some other situation, an individual passes an information without any restriction to all those with whom he comes into contact.
And whilst change management and project management are distinctly different functions, in many respects project stakeholder management and change management are similar and both facets of an organisational change need to be working constructively together to achieve success (see more on Organisational Change Management).Even where no internal change is needed each project needs the support of key elements of its stakeholder community to achieve a successful outcome in the most efficient way.  And given the only ethical way to influence stakeholder attitudes is through effective communication, this means every project needs to communicate effectively to achieve optimum success!However, reporting is not enough! Employees need to be motivated and exposed to the business objectives and ethical ideas of a company so that they get an involvement in the work they do. Business and industry continued the age old tradition of the feudal system even after the industrial revolution. But such communication should not be allowed to degenerate to a meaningless criss-cross communication which will lead to chaos and confusion.
Grapevine communication is an informal, unofficial, horizontal channel of communication because generally peer groups participate in it. Employees on production line should be aware of the targets so that they overcome obstacles.

But soon areas of conflict got promoted by sectarian interests (of homogenous groups) within an organization.
Moreover, it may get delayed or distorted as it goes down through the various levels of the hierarchical set up as all decisions are taken without any proper feedback. But on the whole, modern management recognises the need for healthy upward communication to make the organization responsive to suggestions and ideas.
Jon Whitty has described reports and bar charts as essential ‘clothing’ for a project manager (and as Mark Twain said “Clothes make the man. Even the shifting of the canteen and a re-adjustment of the lunch-breaks and tea-breaks have to be informed well in advance to the employees. But it helps in creating an awareness among employees of the objectives, targets and goals. In turn, employees should be able to tell people at higher levels their grievances, expectations and difficulties. It has been discovered that a multidirectional communication system demolishes the barriers and removes friction.
Effective internal communication forges a strong bond between the employees and management, promotes co-operation among different sections in an establishment. Business depends on such anew communication paradigm (pattern or model) to ensure the success of business and the realization of even difficult objectives.
At ordinary times, they exist for their own sake without any objective, as a formality and routine. It remove’s misunderstanding and aids the growth of the organization at a desirable and optimum level. Internal communication in short, ensures involvement of all the people without alienating any section.
The project team members and their personal networks are one of your greatest assets – make them proud to ‘show off’ the project (this helps with team building too).Developing an effective PR campaign is a skilled communications process designed to build buy-in and enthusiasm for the project and the deliverables.
It is far easier to create a good first impression than to try to change an already formed bad impression among your stakeholders, and is particularly important if your project is going to change how people do their jobs – your project will experience far lower levels of opposition and the change manager will thank you.Purposeful communication is hard work and needs to be focused on the important stakeholders (both positive and negative) with whom you need to cause a specific effect. This includes providing direction to your team members and suppliers and influencing the attitude or expectations of other key stakeholders.Purposeful communication needs to be planned, which means you need to know precisely what effect you are seeking and then work out how to achieve the effect. This means leaning how the person operates and what is normal for them – you need to communicate within their paradigm.Building this type of communication environment designed to support project success requires a strategic approach, the pay-back is less time spent fire fighting and dealing with ad hoc enquiries.
2014-06-23Lynda Bourne Share Facebook Twitter Google + Stumbleupon LinkedIn Pinterest About Lynda Bourne Lynda is Director of Training with Mosaic Project Services focusing on the delivery of CAPM, PMP, Stakeholder Circle® and other project related workshops, training and mentoring services. She was the first student to gain a Doctorate in Project Management from the RMIT University and has extensive experience as a Senior Project Manager and Project Director specialising in delivery of IT and other business-related projects within the telecomms sector.

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