Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The schism generated by two fundamentally different theoretical approaches on each side on the Iron Curtain – i.e. Continental historical archaeology – persisted in the aftermath of the fall of the Eastern bloc in 1989. In this context, for the past 10 years, a series of projects have been set forth in Transylvania (Romania) under the banner of ArchaeoTek, with the scope of generating a platform where a complementary integration of ideas could develop through cooperation and respect of the other’s knowledge and expertise, independent of respective theoretical boundaries. Successful collaborative archaeological enterprises are then evaluated not in terms of actual results and project completion, but in long term collaboration within internationally and theoretically diverse teams, striving to achieve common negotiated scientific goals. Means need to set forth in order to provide correct information to the public (especially young people) on the Dacian fortresses in the Orastie Mountains and history of Dacia.          A workshop has been built at the school camp at Costesti (near one of the Dacian Fortresses, in the Orastie Mountains - a UNESCO site).
This combines experimental archaeology, with the need for education and protection of the historical monuments. With the help of volunteers and students, a pottery kiln, a forge and a potter's wheel have been built, where replicas of various artifacts belonging to the Dacian and Roman civilizations are created. Civilian and military life didn’t seem to be altered at the thought of the Roman impending arrival. In a protohistorical context such as the Geto-Dacian world, this dynamic is further complicated by the scarcity of the preserved records. Since the first mention of the Getae by Herodotus, historical records, both Greek and Roman, have recorded aspects of Geto-Dacian civilization. However disperse and trivial these sources might be, they point to a highly elaborate system of exchange, and social, cultural, and political relations between the Roman Republic and Empire, the Hellenistic world and the Geto-Dacian tribes and kingdoms.Being in close proximity to the Greek and Greco-Hellenistic civilization, having several powerful Greek colonies in their own territory, the Getae have been strongly influenced by the Greco-Mediterranean world, showing a more intense historical development that the Dacians.
In the present paper, we are going to critically discuss historical sources in terms of degree of separation from the actual information, factual and material reality, and accuracy in light of recent archaeological excavation and discoveries in south-east Transylvania, with emphasis on the powerful pandacic center in the Olt River Canyons of the Persani Moutains, with its center on the Tipia Ormenisului Mountain. In a short visual essay by Dan and Nicholas Dimancescu, two unique aspects of the Romania physical and cultural landscape are featured, expressing the inevitable dynamic interaction between the power of nature and the power of the human drive.         The first one features the enormous inventory of caves, 12,000 or more at last count and most in Transylvania. These sheltered the now extinct Cave Bear species and ice-age man as well as many subsequent human groups. These caves became the subject of an informal study by Nicholas Dimancescu, entitled "Caves of Consciousness", completed in collaboration with photographer Dragos Lumpan.          A second aspect is the legacy of the Dacian Kingdoms that existed for several hundred years until conquered and destroyed by Emperor Trajan in 106AD.
A unique feature of these Kingdoms was a center-of-power and spiritual sanctuary located in a mountainous Transylvanian region, protected by a sophisticated network of fortresses guarding key access valleys to the core site.
The method of establishing a differential diagnosis in order to narrow a pathogen or specific condition’s skeletal involvement has helped to breed insight in to not only the disseminations of the pathologies and conditions themselves, but also cultures as a whole.
This study aims at employing this method in order to possibly ascertain a diagnosis focusing on the visible bowing deformities in the lower limbs of a sample of the Noua populations in Bronze Age Transylvania.
Fifty-three individuals from the Polus Floresti cemetery site of Cluj-Napoca, Romania were available; of which only twenty-two had lower limbs available or adequate for analysis. At present, the differential diagnosis indicates the bowing deformities may have been due to residual rickets; a metabolic condition developed during childhood caused by a lack of vitamin D absorption.

If the Noua population indeed suffered from rickets, it stands to reason that the mobility of the group would be impaired, or at the least slightly prohibitive, rather than extensive as previously speculated.
The development of a desire for metal objects seems to have preceded the need for metal, either from a utilitarian, economic or prestige perspective.
The use of metal in the region north of the Danube, in present day Romania, seems to point towards that conclusion. Significantly preceding the exploitation of any utilitarian metal such as cooper, we find gold objects, albeit very rare, from the Neolithic onwards.In this presentation, we are addressing the earliest use of metal, in our case gold, in Romania, with an emphasis on Transylvania. Although Transylvania has the richest gold, copper and tin ore deposits in Eastern-Southeastern Europe, gold metallurgy didn’t appear in that region until the later Eneolithic, although it is found in the territories occupied by the Boian and the earliest Gumelnita and Cucuteni archaeological cultures, outside of the Carpathian Arc.Our focus in this case is the earliest presence of gold in Transylvania, examined through its archaeological and socio-cultural contexts.
The fact that the earliest gold pieces from this area are made from metal that originates south of the Danube, points to a possible differential evolution in regional proto-metallurgical technical development At the same time, it could indicate a significant difference in mentalities between the various areas reducing the desirability of gold objects among Neo-Eneolithic Transylvania inhabitants. The question of when the horse went from food to transport has not been resolved, but what is clear is that riding was a very important step in this process. Individuals within a horse riding culture will exhibit certain indicators in the form of biomechanical bone changes and evidence for more trauma of the type associated with horseback riding than individuals from a culture where horses were not present or not used for riding. Using skeletal remains from a known Noua cemetery, we tried to determine the degree to which, or indeed if at all, this specific population engaged in equestrian activities. Taken together the pathological indicators seem to indicate that habitual riding was not practiced by the individuals in this sample.
Although the overall indicators for horseback riding did not correlate in this sample, there was a correlation between three biomechanical markers. These were: the formation of a third trochanter on the proximal shaft of the femur, the development of the hypotrochanteric fossa on the proximal shaft of the femur, and a coxa valga angle between the head and neck, and shaft of the femur. As Parvan initially constructed the science and further enforced by the Communist regime, Romanian archaeological thought is authority driven.
As a field of study, it is incorporated into history and is constructed methodologically around extensive typologies and elaborate vertical stratigraphies correlated in space and time.
The strong empirical, descriptive, ideographic perspectives dictated by a Marxist approach were eventually incorporated. Evolutionary and ecological principles were (and are still used) as dogmatic lines of evidence, which result in a sustained effort of systematization of all archaeological date, manifest by the boom in archaeological repertoires since the 1980s. As a result, personal experience and intellectual qualities of individual archaeologists are still considered the fundamental basis for analytical validation.Nevertheless, changes in Romanian archaeology are inevitable and often triggered by international collaborative projects. It hosts the largest deposits of copper, tin, iron and gold in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Since the EBA, the region was integrated locally and internationally in complex networks of socio-cultural and economic exchange, as attested by the presence of Transylvanian bronzes and artifacts in Homeric Troy, and Minoans and Mycenaean symbols cast into Transylvanian bronzes locally.The focus of present paper is the impact of metallurgical practices during the Transylvanian Bronze Age on dynamics of ore exploitation. Based upon the economy I am evaluating the degree to which technological advances in metallurgy were responsible for the development of social stratification and the emergence of an elite class.  A Usable History. In Romania, historical illustration has been traditionally limited to nationalistic cliches and stereotypes.

Although an artist is always very sensible to the esthetic quality of his work, for a historical illustrator accuracy is paramount.
I use several media in order to finalize the graphic research, from aerial photography to GIS projections, 3D computer programs to manipulate view angles, site and object photography.
Although not necessarily reliable, historical movies and reenactment events can provide some practical insights to how clothing, armor and various objects can and can’t be used.
At the same time, experimental archaeology offers, to the artist, a very interesting perspective on the interactions between individual and material object at the physical level. Palmyra, an oasis in the Syrian Desert became one of the great cities of the Roman Orient as a result of the intense economic and commercial activity along the Silk Road.
Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana is the first city founded after the Roman conquest of Dacia constituted a model for all the other urban communities in the new province.            Our paper analyses the context in which Palmyrene communities evolved in the first and most important town of the Roman province.
During the first years of the Dacian province, for strategic reasons, a few contingents of Palmyrene archers have been relocated on the Western frontier. The soldiers of these contingents, together with merchants and priests served as the nucleus for the implantation of a Palmyrene community in Dacia.            We explore the various processes of acculturation and adaptation of this community through a thorough synthesis of all epigraphic and archaeological evidence available, focusing in particular on the newly discovered temple of the Palmyrene gods in Sarmizegetusa.
The first and oldest sector (MBA) is represented by a Wietenberg III dwelling, on the eastern part of the terrace whose traces can be seen, albeit very poorly, in the central area (but not the western part), right underneath the Late Bronze Age habitation.
The second sector, found in the central and western area, is represented by a late Bronze Age habitation (Br. Since no traces of a permanent occupation were found, it is reasonable to assume that it was a seasonal habitation, most likely an annual camp for production and sale of goods.
The third one belongs to the bronze workshop, where several artifacts of immense archaeological value were found: an anvil, an ox hide type bronze ingot, a meteorite.
Finally, the fourth sector is the religious area (the altar and a large sacred complex, most likely for metallurgical ritual activity). Also, the author presents the main characteristics of this ritual metallurgical universe, from a large, interdisciplinary perspective, mostly based on the directions set by the work of M. I explore the potential common ground between Anglo-American notions of social space and the extensive Romanian culture history resources published on the Neolithic over the last century.
In emphasizing overlap, I found the focus of my study shifting from the singular and exceptional, exemplified by the power of place studies addressing monumentality, to the ever-present and mundane details in the structure of space within buildings and buildings within sites.
With the help of volunteers and students, a pottery kiln, a forge and a potter's wheel have been built, where replicas of various artifacts belonging to the Dacian and Roman civilizations are created.

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