Communication is effective if it flows freely in a communication loop between the sender(s) and receiver(s). The barriers to communication that you have identified are much more elaborated compared to the ones I came across in another source. I would like to adapt this for a chapter on communication (as part of handbook for pharmacists). Effective Communication in the organisation is necessary for goal setting of and the development of plans towards their realisation, human and other resources management in the most triumphant and proper way, the choice, the progress and the performance evaluation of the organisation members, the management, guiding, motivating and creating a climate in which people want to contribute, the control over realisation (Weihrich & Koontz; 1994).
The process of communication involves several elements: There are three major elements in communication process that include the sender, the message, the medium, and the recipient.
Communication happen in upward communication, downward communication and sideward communication.
Upward communication: This communication goes up the official hierarchy, from the lower to the higher level in the organisation.
Downward communication: This type of communication flows from the higher to the lower levels in the organisation. Three-way communication that is downward, upward, and lateral are a characteristic of project organizations in which people are motivated to cross barriers to get the information they need to do the job. Communication can develop into several different forms such as oral, written and nonverbal form.
Oral communication: In this type of communication, the spoken word is the main code of the communication. Written communication: When comparing with the oral communication it is concrete whereby it is much easier to confirm the data. Nonverbal communication: non-verbal communication includes facial expression, gesturing, tone of the voice, look and appearance. Eye Contact: Looking a person in the eyes while they are talking is often considered the ultimate form of respect. Body language: How many of us have ever held a meeting to find the other team members slouching in their chairs with their arms folded? Time: Respecting the time of co-workers could be the most important aspect of nonverbal communication in the workplace.
Face-to-face communication is highly information rich because it utilizes multiple channels such as words, facial gestures, body language to reinforce a message.
Communications planning with the good investment of time, resources, and teamwork becomes both a problem solving process and a learning process.
Communication has huge function in organization as it serves as the groundwork of every face of a business. The barriers to effective communication can range from a noisy environment, a distracted coworker to a preoccupied mind; our lives are full of communication deterrents. Scrutiny of the elements of organizational behaviour facilitates a better understanding; predicting and control of organizational behaviour therefore better understanding of communication effectiveness is the key to the overall organizational achievement.
Understanding exists when all parties involved have a common agreement as to not only the information, but also the meaning of the information. Major disadvantage is that it takes up more time compared to the oral communication and there is not a direct feedback. Non-verbal communication includes all intentional and accidental information which have no form of written or spoken word (Rouse and Rouse, 2005). Eye contact, or lack thereof, is the first telltale sign of whether you think a person is worthy of your attention. This communicates that the recipients are uninterested and may not be paying attention - even if that is untrue.
Through pitch, volume, and inflection, tone of voice provides powerful clues into your true feelings.
Formal communications are official, organization-sanctioned episodes of information transmission. Perhaps the greatest payoff that comes from successful use of communication planning which is the basis for future cooperation within the project community.
Roger (1982) argues that the major obstacle to common interpersonal communication is the human tendency to judge and evaluate statements made by other people or groups.
Effective Communication is important for managers in the organizations so as to perform the essential functions of management such as Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling.
How we manage to pass on the message intact, without letting it undergo a sort of corruption, is crucial. Misunderstanding, Irrelevant response and undesirable reactions are the consequences of a failed communication exercise.
Communication is the process to convey the message from one person to the other (Weick and Browing, 1986). Communication can be recognized from the theoretical perspective known as symbolic interaction.
Effective communication occurs when the intended message of the sender and the interpreted message of the receiver are one and the same. This kind of communication is mainly used for sending information associated with the proposals system, employeesa€™ opinion, work insight, attitudes and problems of the employees. It takes up a lot of time, but its most common problem is the loss or denying of information on the path through the chain of command. The written form of the communication is attached to some sort of technology which enables people to transmit the information such as PC, paper, pen. There are four elements of nonverbal communication that, in the workplace, can be seen as the most important to understand.

By looking someone in the eyes, you are telling them that what they are saying is important and understood. The folding of arms says that you are not open to what others have to say, and slouching says that you are bored or discouraged. For example, tone of voice is a quick indicator of sarcasm, confidence, frustration or agreement.
They can move upward, downward, or horizontally and often are predetermined and necessary to do some task.
Written communication is lower in information richness because it lacks the support of multiple, meaning-confirming channels, and feedback is slower. Rogers raise concern that some time people do not listen to the message, but rather formulate their own opinion on what they think might be being said.
The purpose of communication is to accomplish coordinated actions, to share information and express thoughts and feelings. Failure of effective communication results in loss of valuable time, resource, material and even life.
However, it is very important that the recipient of the information understands the content and the meaning of the message (Rouse & Rouse; 2005).
From this viewpoint, Casali (2006) recommended different principle of organizational communication and described communication as a€?a social process that triggers objective and subjective worlds in creating an atmosphere that is both stable and changing. When talking about the communication within the organisation, feature for the medium are dissimilar immediate conversations, memos, printouts and schemes depending on the content and the aim of the message which the sender wants to convey to the receiver.
The most professional communication occurs at a minimum cost in terms of resources expended.
It is important to secure the freedom of communicating since the main disadvantage of the upward communication is message filtering. Sometimes, there is misinterpretation of the directions; therefore a backward connection has to be established in order to confirm the transmission of correct and full information. There are some benefits of oral communication over other forms of communication, such as the speed of conveying the information and feedback. Within each phase, the participants will normally work through several tasks to accomplish the specific objectives. He gave solution to this situation that is the listener should only response to the initial speaker once they have fully understood the idea and feeling of the speaker, and same applies when listener becomes a speaker while giving a feedback. Let's take a closer look at the barriers of effective communication, and how it can cause trouble.We're constantly receiving an inflow of nonstop messages, whether at the office or an important event.
You know that in an authoritarian set up, be it a state or a business or even a family, communication is unidirectional and is so fragile that it would snap anytime leading to irreparable damage. Weihrich and Koontz stated that the function of communication in the organisation is to join the employees of that organisation in order to accomplish mutual goals. The organizational communication takes place in conversations, texts and translations which meets the objective definition that communication occurs in organizations and the subjective definition that communication produces organizations" (Casali, 2006, p. After that the receiver attempts to understand which message the sender wants to convey, although the communication process may sometimes be interrupted by a noise in the communication channel, which can hinder the communication.
Weihrich and Koontz term the horizontal and diagonal flow of information a sideward communication, because of their generic joint features. People gossip, employees complain about their boss, people talk about their favourite teams, they whisper secrets about their co-workers, and work teams tell newcomers about how they operate.
All the essential information must be communicated to the managers who must communicate the plans so as to implement them.
Organizationa€™s managers, directly involved in the communication process, have responsibility on the way information flows among people. People are throwing instructions at you from all directions, forcing your brain to grasp only a few at a time, while forgetting the rest. Though these may be indirect results of communication failure, an effective channel of communication could have reduced the damage. The problem which often appears within the organisation is getting information overload which leads to a burden, therefore it is important to select only the pertinent information.
When the communication of a single item of data conveys considerable new understanding, that communication is information rich. One major effect of communication barriers in businesses is that it causes workers to fail to deliver on requested directives. Making a list of things that need to be attended to, will ensure that the receiver isn't left dumbfounded with his ears buzzing.When emails, phone calls, or repetitive visits from coworkers crowd your day, filter only the most important information, before going back to the little details. When we say that some one has an open mind, we mean that he is transparent and receptive which in turn means that he is flexible and not rigid. Misinterpreted messages are also an effect of communication barriers in many big and small businesses.
Correspondingly leaders as managers must converse successfully with their subordinates so as to achieve the team goals. All these characteristics are related to the mental make-up and communication style of the individual.
Suruj Kumar Debnath, defined, “Barriers to communication mean obstacles to the process of communication.In the opinion of Louise E. Information richness is determined by such factors as the number of channels utilized in the communication medium and the opportunities for and speed of feedback.
Barriers to communications range from the simple distracting noises to the most complex psychological factors.
Boone and Others, “Communication barriers are the problems that arise at every stage of the communication process and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion.

They spend great time on face to face or telephonic communication with their superiors, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. A communication gap can be bridged but retrieval of a situation, damaged by miscommunication would be rather difficult. Managers also use Written Communication in form of letters, reports or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.
Mamoria, “Communication, when it is impeded and does not reach the receiver is often somewhat ineffective and the impediments are known as barriers.”What is a communication barriersBy considering the above discussion and definitions, it can be concluded that communication barriers are the factors that inhibit the effective flow of information that communication barriers are the factors that inhibit the effective flow of information in the process of communication. Others though, are at a loss and in most cases need to have either a great memory, or the presence of mind to ask for written and not verbal instructions, making it clear that it would be better if important details were conveyed accordingly. Communication barriers impede the flow of information or create problems in understanding and acceptance of information.Guideline to overcome communication barriersOvercome the communication barriers are essential to ensure effective communication. It helps the employer to know how a job is being performed and to improve performance if it is not up to the mark.
Even when asking someone over the phone how to deal with a problem, be sure you are solving it on the spot as the solution is being offered. Although it is not possible to eliminate all the barriers, they can be minimized to a great extent. Communication acts as a source of information and assists in the decision making process and helps to explore the alternative course of action. Don't depend on your short-term memory bank to do the job for you later in the day, or week.Some people don't like communicating with others because they simply choose not to care, or aren't the interactive sort. So when you speak to such a person, they tend to ignore what is being said, making you take the fall for not being the one who communicated well enough. Even if we're in a bad mood, upset, angry, or distracted about something related to our personal lives, we tend to let our minds slip into a different realm.Snapping out of it and knowing how to separate one's professional life from personal, is key. Different forms of communication like magazines, journals and meetings will assist the employees to form different attitudes.
Whatever the situation, whether it is a close friend confiding in you while your mind wanders, or a person crossing the street while you zone out behind the steering wheel, your mind needs to stay alert at all times. Such a detached approach to everyday situations, will eventually backfire.It is important to have knowledge about a subject that requires you to be able to handle, interpret, and execute certain instructions related to it.
Without prior or acquired knowledge, the communication process can be crippled, causing the sender to be frustrated with your lack of efficiency.Therefore, it is better to stick to subjects and a work environment that allows you to put your best foot forward, since you have a rich knowledge bank.
If you are weak in a certain area, don't be afraid to voice this weakness with a higher-up or those around you.When a message has about five or more channels to pass through, it can be altered and then produced in a haphazard fashion upon being received.
Therefore, try to limit how many channels the message goes through by either contacting the source yourself, or relying on one person to do it for you.If it means using technology in place of human contact, then so be it. When there are too many communication channels, the message can be changed to such an extent, that it no longer makes any sense or contains actual facts. Brevity in this case, is what works best.Sometimes, the message can be distorted when the environment that the sender or receiver is in, lacks peace and quiet. Greenbaum, one way to improve communication in organization is to conduct a communication audit. If a place is hot, claustrophobic, cold, crowded, or has bad reception, the message won't survive such extreme conditions.Therefore, make sure that meetings, phone calls, and the like, are attended to in quite areas, where you have access to good reception and a quiet place. Communication audit means examining and evaluating communication networks, communication functions and communication principle.
Not all of us have super understanding abilities, where we as humans have the right to stop and ask questions when in doubt.
Especially at important meetings, seminars, and the like, asking questions should be encouraged and not trampled underfoot.Those on the sending end of the message, should also ask questions about any feedback or suggestions you may have, since this is the best way to know if everyone is on the same page. In a situation where you cannot understand what is being said, don't hesitate to confirm doubts and other details that will help you understand, or do what is being instructed.Some people can't help themselves - they speak in what we hear as gibberish, by not conveying a message in layman terms. Using a comprehensible vocabulary is important, so that the one on the receiving end has a good idea of what you are trying to say. Deadlines are given for a reason, where those who expect miracles in a short span of time, must be reminded of how limited it is. Without enough time for someone to do a certain task, the result is a halfhearted attempt at pleasing the overbearing sender.Be reasonable when it comes to those who need more time to do certain tasks, or designate the task to someone who is fast enough to have it done, without messing up the results.
Those who lack patience and expect results fast, will only be handed work that is inaccurate and missing important details.Ethnic DiversitySome people may not understand the language you speak in, therefore it is important to be sympathetic and speak in the dialect that both of you can communicate in. Some of us tend to switch languages when overly excited or distressed, forcing the recipient to listen to the barrage of odd sounds. While English is a predominant language, not everyone knows how to speak fluently in this dialect.Even when tourists go to places where they can't be understood, or where others cannot understand them, it's taxing to get around.
It is better to have someone close-by who knows the language better than you do, in case you need them to translate a message, being either the sender or receiver of the situation. In other cases where the leading dialect is say, English, then it would be impolite to speak to someone in a foreign dialect midway through a conversation, while conveying an important message.When one overcomes the barriers of effective communication in their own way, the efficacy of doing things increases.
Workplaces, schools, and people in general, should learn how to transmit their message(s) without succumbing to any of the mentioned communication barriers.

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