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In the case of excessive authority layers, information reaches to its final destination passing through several hierarchical levels. Perceptual differences: Perception is the unique way in which people respond or interpret an object.
It for example, a subscriber of BTTB’s land phone in Bangladesh may positively react to the government’s move to privatize BTTB expecting a better service. But an employee of BTTB might view this as step to cut jobs and retrench existing employees. Stereotyping: Stereotyping is generalizing about a class of people or events that is widely held by a given culture.


In case of stereotyping, people develop communication statements and mindsets about others.
For example, “All used car salesmen are dishonest,” or “All foreign recruiting agents are liars.” Such all inclusive perceptions not only are seldom correct but they also block mental activity that is necessary for successful communication. Halo Effect: The halo effect is the tendency to use a general impression based on one or a few characteristics to judge other characteristics of that same individual. For example, a manger might identify one trait of an employee, such as an excellent attendance record, and perceive that the employee’s productivity and quality of work must also be outstanding. Inattention: Sometimes communication does not reach due to the inattention of the receiver. Semantic problem arises when words and symbols have different meanings for different people that lead to a misunderstanding. For examples, an advertisement states, “we sell for less.” It is ambiguous and raises the question: less than what? In another case, during meeting, a male colleague said to one of his female colleague, “Why don’t you dye it?” meaning her hair.
The female colleague thought he said, “Why don’t you diet?” she did not speak to him for a month. Information overload is the situation when a person is given too much information at a time.


Faulty expression: Faulty expression of message fails to convey exact meaning to the receiver. It happens due to lack of clarity, use of vague terms, badly expressed information, improper organization of ideas etc. Status or power difference: Communication problem may arise when people of different power or status try to communicate with each other. For example, the manger of a company may neglect suggestion from his subordinates simply because of difference in their status.
Negative attitudes to change: Some people always resist any kind of change in the organization. Therefore, they create problems in communication through inattention, false interpretation, rumor, resistance and non-cooperation.



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