Definitions of communication range widely, depending upon the source, some definitions appear more communicator-centered, others more message-centered, and still others more medium-centered. When interpreting communication as a social process, it involves people who come to an interaction with various intentions, motivations and abilities (West and Turner, 2007, p. A model is a simplified representation of complex interrelationship among elements of communications processes that allow people to visually understand a sometimes complex process. The linear model also introduces the concept of noise – which is anything not intended by the informational source. Although this view of communication process was highly respected many years ago, the approach is very limited for several reasons. Wilbur Schramm (see, for example, Schramm & Roberts, 1972 [23]) proposed the interactional model of communication which emphasizes the two-way communication process between communicators. One essential element to the interactional model is feedback, which is the response to a message.
The interactional view assumes two people speaking and listening, but not at the same time. Barnlund’s (1970b [4]) transactional model of communication reflects the fact that we usually send and receive messages simultaneously (DeVito, 1986, pp.
In the transactional model, personnal fields of experience still exist but they overlap with each other (West & Turner, 2007, p. Intrapersonal communication has focused on the role of the self in the communication process that individuals communicate with themselves. Interpersonal communication refers to face-to-face communication between people (Dainton & Stafford, 2000 [7]).
Small groups are commonly composed of a number of people who work together to achieve some common purposes. Organizational communication pertains to communication within and among large, extended environments. Mass communication consists of messages that are transmitted to large audiences via broadcast and print media, such as newspaper, radio television and so on. Intercultural communication refers to the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimize antagonism (Gonzalez, Houston & Chen, 2004, p. Building a Context of Understanding (via relationship messages that are a subtext of many “content” messages). Communication in aviation is considered as one of the critical elements as contact between pilots and air traffic controllers is an essential part of flying. Similarly, in another research carried out by De Voogt and Van Doorn (2006 [12]) found that communication between tower and pilots is a dominant factor in mid-air collisions.
The amount of feedback the post received, many people misunderstanding one of the key ideas and some reflection suggest a focused article is needed.One of the concepts underpinning the research for my doctoral thesis and the Stakeholder Circle® methodology is the concept that project success is determined by the attitudes of the key stakeholders around the project. It is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way by both sender and receiver (Rubin, 1988 [19]).
In the communication process, messages can have more than one meaning and even multiple layers of meaning.


The environment includes time, place, historical period, relationship and speaker’s and listener’s cultural background.
They were concerned with radio and telephone technology and wanted to develop a model that could explain how information passed through channels.
It represents that communication goes in two directions: from sender to receiver and from receiver to sender. In a small group context, many more people have the potential to contribute to the group’s goals (Schultz, 1997 [22]). This communication is extremely diverse in that organizational communication necessarily entails interpersonal encounters, public speaking opportunities, small group situations, and mediated experiences.
Hart (2005 [15]) comments of a major characteristic of public communication: the unequal amount of speaking, as one person or several people deliver remarks to the remaining members. There has been a large number of accidents reported as a result of miscommunication or loss of communication. Delivering a project on time, on budget and to specification is not sufficient – if the project is not liked and the outputs are not used it is still a failure. Frank Dance (1967 [8]) believes that communication experiences are cumulative and are influenced by the past, which means present experiences inevitably influence a person’s future.
The environment can also be mediated, which means that communication can take place with technological assistance.
This approach to human communication comprises several key elements, as the figure demonstrates. It helps communicators to know whether or not their message is received and the extent to which meaning is achieved (Senge, 1990, p. This is an important addition to the understanding of the communication process because it demonstrates the existence of an active process.
For example, in problem-solving groups, the multiple perspectives provided by the different members may prove advantageous.
Organizations, then, comprise groups that are goal directed (Daniels, Spiker & Papa, 1997, p. For this purposes, culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and norms of behaviors.
The results showed that in 14 cases there was no communication (loss of communication) between aircraft and ground or another aircraft. Predicting maintenance behaviors: a comparison of relationship type, partner similarity, and sex differences. Pragmatics of human communication: a study of international patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes. Contrast the difference between the very low level of patronage for the Melbourne Star and the success of the London Eye.Certainly some projects are easier to attract support to than others but even intrinsically unpopular projects to implement a business change, upgrade systems and reduce head count need the support of the people involved in the change if the project’s intended benefits are to be fully realised.
This view differs from that of Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson’s (1967 [26]), who sustain that meanings are in people’s interpretation of the content and relationship dimension of the message.
Therefore, communication can be considered as a process that changes over time and among interactants.


The mediated environment is an important term in communication, which influences the communication process directly and indirectly (West and Turner, 2007, pp. A source, or a transmitter of a message, sends a message to a receiver, the recipient of the message.
Thirdly, the model suggests that communication is simply one person speaking to another, a feature that oversimplifies the complex communication process (Anderson & Ross, 2001 [2]).
The sender and receiver are mutually responsible for the effect and the effectiveness of communication. It refers to coherent group of people whether resident wholly or partly within state territories, or existing without residence in any particular territory.
19 cases were identified as having communication medium, however, failed to properly communicate with tower. And whilst change management and project management are distinctly different functions, in many respects project stakeholder management and change management are similar and both facets of an organisational change need to be working constructively together to achieve success (see more on Organisational Change Management).Even where no internal change is needed each project needs the support of key elements of its stakeholder community to achieve a successful outcome in the most efficient way.  And given the only ethical way to influence stakeholder attitudes is through effective communication, this means every project needs to communicate effectively to achieve optimum success!However, reporting is not enough!
Furthermore, both viewpoints differ from Verderber’s (1978 [25]) stance that meaning exists in the source that picks the words to create the message that is then decoded by the receiver. Further, a more obvious problem of the linear model is its suggestion that communication flows in one direction only: from sender to receiver. It was found that 56 mishaps were a result of miscommunication, loss of communication, or communication error. The transactional model takes the meaning-making process one step further: it assumes that people build shared meaning in their communication.
Jon Whitty has described reports and bar charts as essential ‘clothing’ for a project manager (and as Mark Twain said “Clothes make the man.
This suggests that the communication medium was available, however, miscommunication resulted them into desaster. The project team members and their personal networks are one of your greatest assets – make them proud to ‘show off’ the project (this helps with team building too).Developing an effective PR campaign is a skilled communications process designed to build buy-in and enthusiasm for the project and the deliverables.
It is far easier to create a good first impression than to try to change an already formed bad impression among your stakeholders, and is particularly important if your project is going to change how people do their jobs – your project will experience far lower levels of opposition and the change manager will thank you.Purposeful communication is hard work and needs to be focused on the important stakeholders (both positive and negative) with whom you need to cause a specific effect. This includes providing direction to your team members and suppliers and influencing the attitude or expectations of other key stakeholders.Purposeful communication needs to be planned, which means you need to know precisely what effect you are seeking and then work out how to achieve the effect.
This means leaning how the person operates and what is normal for them – you need to communicate within their paradigm.Building this type of communication environment designed to support project success requires a strategic approach, the pay-back is less time spent fire fighting and dealing with ad hoc enquiries. She was the first student to gain a Doctorate in Project Management from the RMIT University and has extensive experience as a Senior Project Manager and Project Director specialising in delivery of IT and other business-related projects within the telecomms sector.



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