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Surname 2new environments or to influence the environment in their favor at a higher rate than before.Following the development of speech, advancements in cooperation and coordination facilitatedthe establishment of abstract and complex concepts, such as religion, and this developmentenhanced human control over the entire planet (Katz).
Surname 3behind the event and hence allow for the sequencing of events in chronological order (Noll 43).Having been used by various cultures, pictograms came to be used in communication in about9000 BC, with farm produce being marked with simple picture-marked tokens. Surname 4writing for numbers, syllables and logograms in Hittite, Old Persian and Ugarithic, and this alsoincluded Chinese script.
Surname 5Baird developed the system that could transmit moving pictures utilizing halftone shades.
ISOC has run several customised media relations and writing training sessions for UPS, the world’s largest package delivery company. This course opens up a toolbox of proven techniques for gaining advantage in all forms of negotiations, whether with suppliers, customers, regulators, colleagues or employees. You will learn to define entry, exit and negotiating positions, manage relationships and negotiating dynamics, and secure a fair deal that optimises your interests. This is an advanced-level course designed for learners in senior roles, aspiring to mastery and innovation.
This course is recommended for all managers and professionals in all roles and levels who are called upon to plan, manage or conduct negotiations of any kind, whether suppliers, customers, regulators, colleagues or employees. You will not have to sit through long lectures or presentations – this course uses active learning to help you internalise the topic and apply it in the real world. Within each module, best practice and key concepts are covered off in a concise briefing, followed by stimulating learning activities like workshops, discussions, case studies and role-play exercises. This module is a 100% practical series of negotiation simulation exercises and role-plays in which you will apply and refine your newly-learned negotiation approaches and techniques. Training consists of concise briefings on best practice, backed up by interactive learning activities like workshops, role-plays, case study analysis, coaching, brainstorms and structured group discussions. This course is interesting, intellectually stimulating and delivered in a relaxed and professional style. All ISOC trainers are hands-on communication professionals with at least 15 years of experience. This course is delivered in an executive boardroom format, not classroom-style, and in a small group no larger than eight people. Pinnacle is also accredited by the British Accreditation Council, a UK Government-mandated training standards body. In essence,communication refers to full conversations, mass communication and very delicate exchangeprocesses (Crowley and Paul 35). However, imperfections in speech, such asthose caused by distance, and the reliance on human memory, such as limitations in the extent ofinformation recalled or the death of a person with certain information became a challenge andprompted the development of symbols. Pictogramsbecame even more popular between 6000 and 5000 BC when they became the basis forhieroglyphs and cuneiforms and were developed into logographic writing systems in around5000 BC (Crowley and Paul 36). Around 2000 BC, the first alphabet was developed in Egypt (Crowleyand Paul 79), the first pure alphabet used to represent single symbols which in return representsingle phonemes.
UsingNipkow disks, Baird produced the first mechanical television, used in the British BroadcastingCorporation’s experiments in 1929 (Katz 79).
Learning is pitched at a level to help you to synthesise best practice and direct strategic implementation.


Your trainer will introduce the concepts clearly, then focus on real-world skills that connect the big picture to your job. Edexcel has audited Pinnacle’s systems for the design, delivery and management of training and inspects us regularly to assure quality control of all aspects of training and assessment. Also the coaching through the challenges I have really helped, the added value tips provided by David was great. The content was great but what was even better was the flexability to adapt to each participant's requirements. The evolution of communication, through human speech, tookplace as early as 200,000 years ago, with the development of symbols taking place in the last30,000 years.
Symbols were developed to make up for the limitation in speech and to facilitate easierbroadcast of information.
With the increased need for specialization and efficiency incommunication, ideograms developed to replace pictograms.
By 2700 BC, Egyptian writing included a set of close to twenty-twohieroglyphs representing syllables that began with a single consonant in the Egyptian language.These were later used as guides in pronunciation.
Karl Braun developed the cathode ray tube thatremained in use in televisions throughout the 20th century. Courses are updated regularly and trainers are active in the industry so your knowledge will be fresh and relevant.
ISOC is owned and managed by Pinnacle International, the world’s largest specialist communications and PR training company. Edexcel awards two million qualifications every year around the world and has 5,500 education partners in 110 countries. Such developments have been enhanced by the devolution of ideas from the humanbrain passed on from generation to generation, which has long since been critical in thedevelopment and mastery of speech, distinguishing human beings from other creatures. Symbols thus improved both the long life at which information couldbe passed on and the range of communication improved. Ideograms, such as the Indus orVinca script, were basically an evolution of earlier pictograms and are generally graphicalsymbols representing an idea; hence, they were the basis for the logographic writing technologywhich included systems such as Chinese characters and Egyptian hieroglyphs (Noll 59).
The need to communicate more efficiently, more rapidly and to secure information fromloss or interruptions encouraged the need for the development of telecommunications. Later, the development of televisionnetworks and microwave radio relay saw huge improvements in audio-visual broadcasting(Crowley 112). As well as public courses, we provide private and customised programmes including media interview training, presentation training, and multi-year multi-competency postgraduate programmes.
Speechhas thus been paramount in facilitating the transmission of knowledge and information tosuccessive generations. Thisbegan in the 1770s with the introduction of the first semaphore system in Europe followed in the1830s by the invention of electrical communication. In 1940, George Stibitz pioneered the development of the mainframe computerfollowing his experimentation with teletype (Noll 102). In prehistoric times, people used to paint on cave walls as a way of communicating viewsand recording information about their culture, society and events. The development ofwriting was encouraged by the need for early communities to preserve records, contracts,calendars and land deeds and the need for a storage means that would be permanent,transportable, readily made and cheap to store, and fixed to avoid adjustments. In 1772, the world’s first telegraph service,between Lille and Paris, was developed by Claude Chappe (Katz 67).


The mainframe (centralized computer)dominated in the 1950s, when researchers developed packet switching technology to allow datacommunication without the need for a mainframe computer.
The urge to send and relayinformation to distant communities and tribes drove people to adopt drums to convey thesemessages (Noll 12). Abraham Edelcrantzdeveloped a slightly different system that relied on shutters and was thus much faster, though histelegraph faced the challenge of expensive towers and a lack of skilled operators. The ARPANET later emerged in1981 following extensive research and consisted of 213 nodes (Katz 123). Other means of communicating through symbolsinvolved the use of tattoos, ropes that were Quipu-like and the use of stone and wood to carvesymbols (Katz 17). Resulting from clay tokens, writingbecame more advanced around the end of the 4th millennium BC following the development ofthe stylus (round shaped) system which was usually impressed at varying angles into soft clayand used for recording numerals. Germany’s Samuel Thomas developed the electrochemical telegraph, utilizing multiplewires to visually represent every Latin numeral and letter. The ARPANET later merged with other similar networks, establishing the Internet,whose numerous procedures are in use today and became specified in this merger process. Pictograms were later invented as an even more efficient means of communicatingconcepts through illustration.
Later, pictographic writing was invented, and this inspired cuneiform (wedge-shapedstylus the new writing which was adopted) which was employed to represent the Sumerianspoken language (Noll 68).
Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir DavidBrewster built the earliest commercial electrical telegraph in the 1830s and, unlike theelectrochemical one; it could be used to communicate over long distances (Noll 89). TheTransmission Control Protocol (TCP), and the V4 Internet protocol were developed in 1981, andmuch of the internet nowadays relies on this innovation (Noll 137). According to Noll (27), a pictogram refers to the idea ofrepresenting an event, concept, activity or object through the use of illustration and thus is a typeof proto-writing. Thedevelopment of the register enhanced the development of the first Atlantic telegraph systemcable. The SMTP email protocolwas developed in 1982 by Request for Comment (RFC) 821 while the protocol thatrevolutionalized the ability for a hyperlinked internet was developed in 1996 by RFC 1945 (Noll147). In 1876, Alexander Graham invented the first telephone, based on the idea of telegraph.This was followed by the wireless telephone utilizing modulated light beams from photo phones(Crowley and Paul 103).
However, the 1970’s Local Area Network (LAN), 1976’s Ethernet and 1974’s Token Ringprotocol were developed separately from the RFC processes (Noll 149). Utilizing the principles of wireless telegraphy, Reginald Fessenden was able to transmitthe human voice in a wireless media, and this led to the invention of the radio. Communication hascontinued to evolve over time with the changing needs of the human race and the nature ofevents.
This has been because of the changing trends of human being and the growing demandfor new development in technology triggered by competition among major producers ofcommunication appliances.




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