The amount of authority shared between the top management and the workforce helps in determining the type of leadership style that is being used. As the name suggests the manager or leader using this style of leadership will function like a dictator.  The manager would take supreme power in decision making concerning what, when, where and how things are done and who will carryout them.
Consultative leadership is basically task oriented and always focuses on the end result by using the skills of others in formulating plans and taking decisions.
In this type of leadership style all the members of the team are involved to identify the vital goals and develop procedures and strategies to reach those goals.  Analysing from this perspective, participative team leadership can be viewed as a style that depends on the leader functioning as a facilitator and not a dictator to issue orders and get things done. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leadersa€™ communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leadera€™s consideration), task-oriented leadership (leadera€™s initiating structure), and leadership outcomes.
In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leadera€™s supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates.
Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership. Communication styles are more strongly related to charismatic and human-oriented leadership than to task-oriented leadership. We do expect, however, the determinants of charismatic leadership and human-oriented leadership to be different.
Note that we expect charismatic and human-oriented leadership to be positively related to these outcomes. MethodParticipantsA survey was distributed to the employees of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. We measured the following leadership outcomes: knowledge donating and collecting, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinatea€™s team commitment. 2a€™s, which can be interpreted as the incremental variance of each of the communication style variables separately. There is a vast amount of literature addressing leadership issues from multiple points of view, including philosophical, psychological, and emotional considerations (Yukl 2013).
Characteristics that result in effective leadership of systems engineering activities include behavioral attributes, leadership style, and communication style. Behavioral attributes are habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion that remain stable over time (Yukl 2013). Initiative - This is exhibited by enthusiastically starting and following through on every leadership activity. Enthusiasm - This is exhibited by expressing and communicating a positive, yet realistic attitude concerning the project, product, and stakeholders. Communication Skills - These are exhibited by expressing concepts, thoughts, and ideas in a clear and concise manner, in oral and written forms, while interacting with colleagues, team members, managers, project stakeholders, and others. Team Participation - This is exhibited by working enthusiastically with team members and others when collaborating on shared work activities. Negotiation - This is the ability to reconcile differing points of view and achieve consensus decisions that are satisfactory to the involved stakeholders.
Goal Orientation – This involves setting challenging but not impossible goals for oneself, team members, and teams.
Trustworthiness - This is demonstrated over time by exhibiting ethical behavior, honesty, integrity, and dependability in taking actions and making decisions that affect others.
Weakness, on the other hand, is one example of a behavioral attribute that may limit the effectiveness of a systems engineering team leader.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), developed by Katherine Briggs and her daughter Isabel Myers, includes Jung’s three continuums, plus a forth continuum of judging-perceiving. MBTI profiles are widely used by job counselors to match an individual’s personality type to job categories in which the individual would be "most comfortable and effective”.
There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to leadership styles and there are many models of leadership.
Driver leadership style - This is exhibited when a leader focuses on the work to be accomplished and on specifying how others must do their jobs. Analytical-style leadership - This emphasizes collecting, analyzing, and sharing data and information. Amiable leadership style – This is characterized by emphasis on personal interactions and on asking others for their opinions and recommendations.
Expressive leadership style – Like the amiable style, this also focuses on personal relationships, but an expressive leader tells others rather than asking for opinions and recommendations. By focusing too intently on the work, "drivers" can provide too much or too little guidance and direction. Analytical leaders may provide too much information or may fail to provide information that is obvious to them, but not their team members. While these characterizations are gross oversimplifications, they serve to illustrate leadership styles that may be exhibited by systems engineering team leaders. An additional characterization of the Wilson model is the preferred style of communication for different leadership styles, which is illustrated by the dimensions of assertiveness and responsiveness. Task-oriented assertiveness is exhibited in a communication style that emphasizes the work to be done rather than on the people who will do the work, while the people-oriented communication style addresses personnel issues first and tasks secondly. An individual’s communication style may fall anywhere within the continuums of assertiveness and responsiveness, from extremes to more moderate styles and may vary considering the situation. Driver communication style exhibits task-oriented responsiveness and tell-oriented assertiveness. Expressive communication style shares tell-oriented assertiveness with the driver style, but favors people-oriented responsiveness.
Amiable communication style involves asking rather than telling (as does the analytical style) and emphasizes people relationships over task orientation (as does the expressive style). Analytical communication style exhibits task-oriented responsiveness and ask-oriented assertiveness.
The most comfortable communication occurs when individuals share the same communication styles or share adjacent quadrants in Figure 1. Leading a systems engineering team involves communicating, coordinating, providing guidance, and maintaining progress and morale. Good engineering managers are not necessarily good technical leaders and good technical leaders are not necessarily good engineering managers; the expression of different personality traits and skill sets is required. Relationships between systems engineering and project management are addressed in the Part 6 Knowledge Area (KA) of the SEBoK, Systems Engineering and Project Management. The System Engineering Plan (SEP) is, or should be, the highest-level plan for managing the Systems Engineering effort and the technical aspects of a project or program. In United States DoD acquisition programs, the System Engineering Plan (SEP) is a Government produced document which assists in the development, communication, and management of the overall systems engineering (SE) approach that guides all technical activities of the program.


SEP templates are often tailored to meet the needs of individual projects or programs by adding needed elements and modifying or deleting other elements. If you would like to provide edits on this article, recommend new content, or make comments on the SEBoK as a whole, please see the SEBoK Sandbox.
Leadership style encourages and promotes employee involvement planning, problem-solving and decision making.
But then the final decision making power is always retained with the leader.  But still, that final decision is not arrived at without looking for inputs from the members who will be affected by the decision.
Participative leadership in its most effective form will let the talents and potential skills of the team members to be made the best use of particularly when arriving at decisions and taking the right course of action. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinatea€™s team commitment. Again, as noted in hypothesis 1, we expect the effects of a supportive communication style to resemble the effects of human-oriented leadership. Although studies have shown that personality traits are related to leadership (De Hoogh et al.
The Ministry was in the process of assessing the organizational culture, and investigating the leadership and communication styles of leaders was part of the overall research. To measure knowledge donating and collecting behaviors the questionnaire of Van den Hooff and Hendrix (2004; see also De Vries et al. Charismatic leadership was significantly related to five of the six communication style variables. This article is concerned with the pragmatic aspects of the leading team members involved in a systems engineering project.
Positive behavioral attributes enable a systems engineering leader to communicate effectively and to make sound decisions, while also taking into consideration the concerns of all stakeholders. These four dimensions characterize 16 personality styles for individuals designated by letters, such as ISTP (Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Perceiving). Too little guidance occurs when the individual is preoccupied with her or his personal work, while too much guidance results in micromanagement, which limits the personal discretion for team members. They do not like to discuss things they already know or that are irrelevant to the task at hand.
It defines how a project will be organized and conducted in terms of both performing and controlling the Systems Engineering activities needed to address a project's system requirements and technical content. It varies when the leader is able to extract work either using people’s muscles or their minds.  There are four widely accepted leadership styles. This leadership style can be used at its best in situations when there is very little time for group decision making or when the leader is the only knowledgeable member of the group.
The consultative leadership stands out through its attempt to involve people who have problems in seeking ideas for the solution. The final decision will always be taken by the leader but then this sharing of functions within the team will supply the perfect atmosphere for every member in the team to provide inputs that are worth enough to make the final decision, which would be ultimately profitable for the organization as a whole. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. The question is whether communication styles of a leader are similarly related to outcome variables as the traditional leadership styles. However, because we expect charismatic leadership to be characterized by a profile of high scores on expressiveness, preciseness, supportiveness, assuredness, and argumentativeness, and low scores on verbal aggressiveness, these communication styles will tend to correlate with the outcome variables which are related to charismatic leadership.The last hypothesis concerns the direction of the effects we propose for this study. Somewhat surprisingly, leadera€™s expressiveness did not explain any incremental variance in charismatic leadership, while all other communication style variables did. Like driver-style leaders, they may be insensitive to interpersonal relationships with other individuals. It can have a number of secondary technical plans that provide details on specific technical areas and supporting processes, procedures, tools.
The developer uses the SEP as guidance for producing the System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP), which is a separate document and usually a contract deliverable that aligns with the SEP. They are: Adapting to change, Decision making, Maintaining open lines of communication and leading others to the completion of goals. However, leadera€™s preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables.
In comparison with the communication styles literature, there has been an abundance of studies associating outcomes with charismatic, human-oriented, and task-oriented leadership. Several authors have noted that attributional processes play a key role in leadership ratings. 1986), it is doubtful whether the questions used in standard personality research, such as pertaining to eating, movie watching, or holiday habits (all taken from the NEO-PI-R, Costa and McCrae 1992), are able to capture the behaviors exhibited in leader-subordinate interactions. Also, see the Planning article in Part 3, which includes a section on Systems Engineering Planning Process Overview. Arlington, VA: Office Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (ODASD) Systems Engineering (SE) Division.
Simply type your comment in the text field below and DISQUS will guide you through the login or registration steps. Even fewer have attempted to find out what the relations are of these communication styles with general leadership styles and outcome variables.
To combine these studies, several meta-analyses have been conducted to investigate the relations between leadership styles and both organizational and individual outcomes (DeGroot et al.
Although communicative behaviors can be regarded as a subset of personality, what exactly constitutes this subset has not been properly investigated until recently (De Vries et al. It is commonly defined by management theorists as “the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts towards goal achievement in a given situation”. This is somewhat surprising, given that one of the core elements of leadership is a leadera€™s interpersonal communication style. 79) note, for instance, that a€?charismatic leadership is an attribution based on followera€™s perceptions of their leadera€™s behavior.a€? One of the most important attributional processes is a recognition-based process (Lord and Maher 1993). In this study, we will consider leadership from this communicative perspective, and we will define a leadera€™s communication style as a distinctive set of interpersonal communicative behaviors geared toward the optimization of hierarchical relationships in order to reach certain group or individual goals. Recognition-based processes involve the perception of leadership behaviors on the one hand and the matching of these behaviors with relevant implicit leadership theories on the other hand. By relying on a measure derived from lexical research, this study will be able to more adequately capture somebodya€™s communication style in general and a leadera€™s communication style in particular, and to explore the links with several important outcomes.
To measure subordinatea€™s perception of leader performance and their satisfaction with the leader two scales were constructed, each consisting of four items. Note that verbal aggressiveness had a strong negative correlation with human-oriented leadership and a medium-sized negative one with charismatic leadership, but a small (but not significant) positive correlation with task-oriented leadership.


The first column of the outcome variables in the tables pertains to the relations of the communication styles to the outcome variables, the second one involves the leadership styles, and the third column contains all of the variables together. Implicit leadership theories seem to be to a large extent culturally universal (Den Hartog et al. For measuring task- and human-oriented leadership styles, the short version of Syroita€™s (1979; De Vries et al. The goal of this paper is to operationalize a leadera€™s interpersonal communication style, to uncover the relations between common leadership style measures and our measure of a leadera€™s communication style, and to find out about the differential and incremental prediction of several important leadership outcomes using both common leadership style measures and our leadera€™s communication style measure.The Nature of Communication StylesAlthough there are a great number of instruments to measure somebodya€™s interpersonal communication style, several authors have noted the lack of parsimony and integration in the burgeoning area of communication style studies (McCroskey et al.
For instance, the meta-analysis of Judge and Piccolo (2004) revealed positive relations between both transformational and charismatic leadership and subordinatesa€™ job satisfaction, satisfaction with the leader, motivation, leader effectiveness, and group performance.
2002) Dutch translation of the Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire (SBDQ; Fleishman 1953) was used. Later comments are addressed and changes are summarized in the Letter from the Editor and Acknowledgements and Release History. Judge and Piccolo (2004) did not find any significant differences in results between charismatic and transformational leadership, which shows that these constructs are by-and-large interchangeable. Use of speech imagery, which links to sensory experiences, was positively associated with ratings of charismatic leadership. For measuring the charismatic leadership style a short Dutch version of Bassa€™ (1985) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (De Hoogh et al. To measure employee commitment the short version of the Dutch translation of Allen and Meyera€™s (1990) questionnaire was used (De Gilder et al. Of the communication style variables, leadera€™s supportiveness was the strongest statistical predictor of knowledge donating behaviors.
In a similar vein, Awamleh and Gardner (1999) found both communication content and delivery style to be positively related to perceptions of charisma and perceived leader effectiveness. Of the leadership style variables, human-oriented leadership was the strongest statistical predictor of knowledge donating behaviors, but task-oriented leadership also explained incremental variance in knowledge donating behaviors. We calculated the within-person mean and standard deviation for all variables in the study. Most notable, leadera€™s consideration was more strongly related to subordinatesa€™ job satisfaction, satisfaction with the leader, and leader effectiveness than initiating structure.Lately, there has been an increased interest in the predictors of knowledge sharing.
Apart from Pearsona€™s correlations, we used multiple regression analyses to inspect the relations between the leader communication styles, leadership styles, and leadership outcomes.
1986) and 62 additional items based on Halla€™s (1976) and Gudykunst and Ting Toomey (1988) conceptualization of low- and high-context communication, and arrived at eight factors: Inferring Meaning, Indirect Communication, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Dramatic Communication, Use of Feelings, Openness, Preciseness, Positive Perception of Silence.
Based on the multiple regression analysis, we checked whether, statistically,3 mediation occurred in the relation between the leader communication styles and leadership styles on the one hand and the leadership outcomes on the other using the procedure advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986).
Especially leadership may play a central role in inspiring and supporting knowledge sharing behaviors. Thus, we checked: (1) whether the communication styles were significantly related to the outcome variables, (2) whether the communication styles were significantly related to the proposed mediators (the leadership styles), and (3) whether the mediators were significantly related to the outcome variables. Consequently, both charismatic and human-oriented leadership are likely to have a positive effect on both knowledge collecting and donating behaviors. To measure these seven dimensions, 87 items, representing each of the poles of the seven dimensions, were written. A leadership style fully mediated the relation between the communication style and the outcome variables if the relation between the communication style and leadership outcome after controlling for the leadership style was no longer significant (Baron and Kenny 1986). The basis of a lexical study is the idea that anything which can be said about a construct, such as somebodya€™s communication style, will become encoded in language (Galton 1884; Goldberg 1990).
Based on the scree plot and the content of the items we identified six factors, which explained a total of 56.3% of the variance. If the relation between the communication style and leadership outcome was still significant, but less strong, partial mediation occurred. Factor-analysis of a sample of all dictionary words which pertain to communication should provide the best description of the nature, number, and size of the principal communication style dimensions. Encouragement of self-management, a concept akin to empowering leadership, has been found to be very strongly related to human-oriented and charismatic leadership (De Vries et al.
According to the literature on communication styles (see above), we may expect to find significant relations with satisfaction. Consequently, in general, we expect the communication styles to be significantly related to the outcomes in this study. Communication styles have been an especially welcome topic for scholars interested in doctora€“patient communication (Bultman and Svarstad 2000; Hailey et al. 2007), while a dominant style is associated with less satisfaction among patients and less favorable outcomes, such as malpractice claims (Ambady et al. Results of classroom studies suggest that a supportive communication style is associated with greater satisfaction among students (Prisbell 1994) and that a dominant (controlling) communication style is associated with less intrinsic motivation (Noels et al. In the family setting, however, children were found to be more attentive and task-oriented when parents used an unambiguous and dominant communication style (Bugental et al.
One important intermediate concept, which may be determined by communication styles on the one hand, and which determines team performance (Srivastava et al. Knowledge sharing has been defined as the process where individuals mutually exchange their (tacit and explicit) knowledge and jointly create new knowledge (Van den Hooff and De Ridder 2004).
Knowledge sharing may be an interesting variable in relation to communication styles, because the exchange process assumes a communication process. Even when people have ready access to the internet or a firma€™s intranet, people are more likely to turn to other people for information than to impersonal sources (Levin and Cross 2004). Consequently, the communication style of a team member is likely to have an effect on the willingness and eagerness of team members to share knowledge with each other. Consequently, not only satisfaction is likely to be affected by the communication style of a communication partner, but also the likelihood that one shares knowledge with a communication partner.Leadersa€™ Communication StylesThe question is: are the findings of the communication style literature replicable in the leadership context? For instance, with respect to communication styles, charismatic leadership training studies have looked at the effects of training inspirational delivery style on the trainees and their public (Frese et al. 2003; Towler 2003), showing positive effects of the training on the trainees and on the attitudes and performance of their public.
An experimental study by Awamleh and Gardner (1999) focused on the effects of vision content and delivery style on perceptions of charismatic leadership and effectiveness.
The study showed that an expressive (enthusiastic) delivery style had a much stronger effect than the content of the speech.
Because charismatic leadership has been found to be strongly related to human-oriented leadership (De Vries et al.



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