This project management database template produced with microsoft® Access 2007 can be utilized freely by commercial companies for their interior use only. This template offers the obedience of planning, managing, and organizing resources to bring-about the successful conclusion of specific project-goals and objectives.
Microsoft Access Templates is a template used to manage multiple database types such as tables (numbers, text, or other variables), reports, queries, macros (if any) and other various objects with specific connecting relationships based on user needs. Database management involves the monitoring, administration, and maintenance of the databases and database groups in your enterprise. Enterprise Manager provides two separate consoles that you can use to monitor your database: Database Control and Grid Control.
Database Control is the Enterprise Manager Web-based application for managing Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and later. Grid Control is the Enterprise Manager console you use to centrally manage your entire Oracle environment.
Starting from the Database Home page, you can access additional details and management functions by drilling down through the user interface. Comprehensive database monitoring enables you to identify the problem areas in your database environment that are degrading performance. Enterprise Manager uses data from the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) to display performance information and initiate database alerts.
The basic work flow in monitoring performance is to first go to the Database Performance page, which provides a high-level, comprehensive overview of important performance indicators, then diagnose problems either interactively or automatically.
For more information about monitoring databases not covered in the following sections, see the Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide and the Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide.
Database tuning is much easier and more effective when all the information for an in-depth performance diagnosis is available on a single screen. The most direct method for investigating and diagnosing performance problems from this page consists of accessing the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM). Another method for investigating and diagnosing performance problems consists of observing which of the wait classes beside the Average Active Sessions chart appears to be consuming an excessive amount of time, shown as a spike above the Maximum CPU line, then drilling down for more information.
The charts on the Database Performance page display current and recent metric information on a common time axis that enables visual correlation of metrics.
For information about the associated checkboxes that enhance the chart, see the online help for this page. This chart is the centerpiece of Oracle performance monitoring, and shows potential problems inside the database. These charts show any contention that appears in the Average Active Sessions chart, and show how much work the database is performing for the user.
Most systems are performing satisfactorily if this chart shows that the latency is less than 10 msec. Shows the top services waiting for the corresponding wait event during the time period shown.
You can manually diagnose problems using an interactive method by first investigating a wait class that you think may be problematic, then drilling down from there for either SQL details or session details. Wait class drill-downs enable you to investigate a specific wait class where it appears that time is accumulating. Select a wait class link beside the Average Active Sessions chart to obtain detailed information for the wait class. View the list of currently open cursors in the selected session, including their hash value and SQL text. The real-time SQL monitoring feature of Oracle Database enables you to monitor the performance of SQL statements while they are executing.
For more information, see "Real-time SQL Monitoring" in the Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide. As mentioned in Assessing Database Performance, you can use the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) to automatically investigate and diagnose performance problems from either the Database Home page or the Database Performance page.
You can view ADDM findings over a predetermined period of recent time or at the present time. Besides the primary diagnostic pages discussed above, other important secondary pages can assist you in diagnosing and correcting performance problems.
The Top Consumers link provides global summary information for the top database consumers of system resources. The Historical SQL (AWR) link displays statements stored in the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) for a 24-hour period.
The table at the bottom of the page shows an analysis of all SQL statements for performance and resource consumption. Enterprise Manager offers several tools that provide additional assistance ranging from viewing the relationships between system components to collecting system statistics when database performance is degraded. When the database server experiences performance issues, diagnostic queries could further impact the system. Instead of relying on the normal SQL engine, the data is retrieved by accessing tables directly from the Shared Global Area (SGA). You can disable the standard SQL Access Mode and switch to Memory Access Mode by clicking the Monitor in Memory Access Mode link in the Related Links section. Hang Analysis enables you to diagnose locking issues that might either slow down a system or cause hanging. The Hang Analysis page shows a visual map of the sessions that are either blocking or are blocked. You can access the Hang Analysis page by clicking the Hang Analysis link in the Additional Monitoring Links section.
Oracle Enterprise Manager effectively keeps your Oracle Databases available and running efficiently.
Just as Enterprise Manager monitoring identifies problem areas in your database and database groups, you can administer your database using the Enterprise Manager administration tools. As an administrator, you can use the administration tools in Oracle Enterprise Manager to optimize database performance. Oracle Enterprise Manager incorporates many features that help you to manage your database configuration. You can create or edit initialization parameters for the current database, setting these parameters to specific values to initialize many of the memory and process settings of an Oracle Database instance. Databases can use Automatic Storage Management (ASM) for automation and layout simplification of datafiles, control files, and log files. Automatic Storage Management (ASM) simplifies database administration by managing disk groups instead of thousands of individual database files using disk groups. Automatic Storage Management files can be configured for use as general storage containers or volume devices. Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) provides a high-availability database environment spanning multiple hosts. An added feature allows you to convert a dictionary-managed tablespace to a locally-managed tablespace, thereby simplifying space allocation, improving performance, and reducing reliance on the data dictionary. The Database Resource Manager controls the distribution of resources among various sessions by controlling the execution schedule inside the database. Resource plans specify the resource consumer groups belonging to the plan and contain directives for how resources are to be allocated among these groups. The Workload Repository provides you with a mechanism for gathering database statistics for specific time intervals.
Oracle Scheduler enables database administrators and application developers to control when and where various tasks occur in the database environment. With Enterprise Manager, you can enable and disable Scheduler jobs, alter the settings for existing jobs, start or stop current jobs, and view Scheduler information.
A schema is a collection of database objects comprised of logical structures that directly refer to the data in the database. Oracle Enterprise Manager provides a comprehensive set of tools that allows you to manage all aspects of database directory objects such as tables, indexes, and views. Indexes are optional structures associated with tables that can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval.
In general, use the Action menu on the Search page or Property page of any database object to see a list of the available functions you can perform on that object. Enterprise Manager allows you to manage program structures, such as packages, package bodies, functions, and triggers in the same way.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is the standard way to identify and describe data on the Web. Search, create, edit, and undelete Oracle XML DB Repository resources and their associated access control lists (ACLs). Users, usually administrators, can create a role to group together privileges and other roles. Materialized views are schema objects that can be used to summarize, compute, replicate, and distribute data. Oracle maintains the data in materialized views by refreshing them after changes are made to their master tables. A dictionary baseline is an object containing a set of database definitions captured at a certain time. A dictionary synchronization synchronizes differences in database object definitions between two databases or a database and a baseline.
Dictionary synchronizations synchronize differences in any attribute value between objects of any type. Advisors are procedures that you can invoke, or Enterprise Manager can invoke internally, that designate a specific object for analysis. You can invoke an advisor from the Advisor Central Home page that is displayed when you click the Advisor Central link under the Related Links heading on the Database Home page, or on other pages where it is listed. For other topics not discussed in the following sections, see Overview of Database Security in Oracle Database Concepts.
Oracle Advanced Security provides transparent data encryption to support your compliance efforts.
Oracle Advanced Security transparent data encryption enables you to encrypt individual table columns or a tablespace.
Transparent data encryption includes industry-standard encryption algorithms such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as well as built-in key management. The Enterprise Manager interface facilitates your usage of Transparent Data Encryption, enabling you to manage Wallet and Master Key. Oracle Label Security (OLS) is a security option that enables you to assign data classification and control access using security labels, addressing privacy and regulatory compliance requirements. Control access based on data classification, adding a powerful dimension to the access control decision process. Enforce traditional multi-level security (MLS) policies for government and defense applications.
The Enterprise Manager interface enables you to manage OLS Policies, assign policies to tables or schemas, and assign labels to users. When a user attempts to access data, OLS compares the user label with the data label and determines whether access should be granted. Virtual Private Database (VPD) enables you to enforce security at the row and column level. VPD is useful when security protections such as privileges and roles are not sufficiently fine-grained.
Essentially, the database adds a dynamic WHERE clause to a SQL statement issued against the table, view, or synonym to which an Oracle VPD security policy was applied. Application contexts enable you to write applications that draw upon certain aspects of a user's session information. You can store Globally Initialized Application Context attributes in Oracle Internet Directory and assign them to one or more enterprise users. Enterprise User Security, an Oracle Database Enterprise Edition feature, combined with Oracle Identity Management, enables you to centrally manage database users and authorizations in one location.
The Payment Card Industry (PCI), Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX), EU Privacy Directive, and the Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) all require strong internal controls on access, disclosure or modification of sensitive information that could lead to fraud, identity theft, financial irregularities and financial penalties.
Providing controls over who, when, where, and how applications, data, and databases can be accessed. When you enable a Database Vault in your database, Enterprise Manager provides an interface you can use to monitor Database Vault policies, and also propagate policies to multiple databases.
Data masking (also known as data scrambling and data anonymization,) is the process of replacing sensitive information copied from production databases to test or non-production databases with realistic, but scrubbed, data based on masking rules. Data masking allows organizations to generate realistic and fully functional data with similar characteristics as the original data to replace sensitive or confidential information. Names, addresses, phone numbers, and credit card details are examples of data that require protection of the information content from inappropriate visibility.
Masked data is a sensible precaution from a business security standpoint, because masked test information can help prevent accidental data escapes. The legal requirements vary from country to country, but most countries now have regulations of some form to protect the confidentiality and integrity of personal consumer information. This user defines information security policies, enforces security best practices, and also recommends the data to be hidden and protected. As a matter of best practice, organizations should create masking formats for all common regulated information so that they can be applied to the sensitive data regardless of which database the sensitive data resides in. A masking definition defines a data masking operation to be implemented on one or more tables in a database.
You can create a new masking definition or use an existing definition for a masking operation. Data masking is an iterative and evolving process handled by the security administrator and orchestrated by the database administrator. Figure 6-15 shows that the production database is cloned to a staging region and then masked there.
After the masking process is complete, you can distribute the database for wide availability. The task sequence in this section demonstrates the data masking workflow and refers you to additional information elsewhere in this chapter for some of the tasks in the sequence. You can clone the production database to a mask staging area, then make the staging area the new test region. Optionally declare dependent columns not defined in the database but enforced by the applications. Clone the production database to a staging area, selecting the masking definition to be used after cloning. After cloning, be sure to change the passwords as well as update or disable any database links, streams, or references to external data sources. After masking, test all of your applications, reports, and business processes to ensure they are functional.
After masking the staging site, make sure to drop any tables named MGMT_DM_TT before cloning to a test region. During masking, Enterprise Manager automatically drops these temporary tables for you with the default "Drop temporary tables created during masking" option.
After masking is complete, ensure that all tables loaded for use by the substitute column format or table column format will be dropped. Provide the masking definition to the application database administrator to use in masking the database as part of cloning production for testing.
A masking definition requires one or more masking formats for any columns included in the masking definition.
Provide a required name for the new format, select a format entry type from the Add drop-down list, then click Go. When done, provide an optional user-defined or post-processing function (see "Providing User-defined and Post-processing Functions"), then click OK to save the masking format.
The Format Library page reappears with your newly created format displayed in the Format Library table. For information on page user controls, see the online help for the Format Library and Create Format pages.
If desired, you can provide user-defined and post-processing functions on the Create Format page. To provide a user-defined function, select User Defined Function from the Add drop-down, then click Go to access the input fields. After you have created at least one format, you can use the format definition as a template in the Create Format page, where you can implement most of the format under a different name and change the entries as needed, rather than having to create a new format from scratch.
To create a new format that is similar to an existing format, select a format on the Format Library page and click Create Like. See "Using Oracle-supplied Predefined Masking Formats" for instructional details about the various Oracle-supplied predefined masking format definitions and how to modify them to suit your needs.


The following sections discuss the various Oracle-supplied format definitions and how to modify them to suit your needs. Using a post-processing function, transform the values above to a proper credit card number by adding well known card type prefixes and computing the last digit. Copy these scripts to a directory in your target database installation and execute them using SQL*Plus, connected as a user that can create packages in the DBSNMP schema. After you have done this, you can use the predefined masking formats in your masking definition.
A database management system (DBMS) is system software for creating and managing databases. An unbiased look at real-life analytics success stories, including a Time Warner Cable case study, and tips on how to evaluate big data tools.
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You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy. A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified -- and the database schema, which defines the databasea€™s logical structure. The DBMS is perhaps most useful for providing a centralized view of data that can be accessed by multiple users, from multiple locations, in a controlled manner. With relational DBMSs (RDBMSs), this API is SQL, a standard programming language for defining, protecting and accessing data in a RDBMS.
Relational database management system (RDMS)  - adaptable to most use cases, but RDBMS Tier-1 products can be quite expensive. In-memory database management system (IMDBMS) - provides faster response times and better performance. Columnar database management system (CDBMS) - well-suited for data warehouses that have a large number of similar data items. Cloud-based data management system - the cloud service provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the DBMS.
Another advantage of a DBMS is that it can be used to impose a logical, structured organization on the data.
Of course, a DBMS must perform additional work to provide these advantages, thereby bringing with it the overhead. Different types of DBMSes require different levels of system resources, so it's important to understand the types and categories of DBMSes. Find in-depth information to help you decide if a Relational DBMS, NoSQL DBMS or in-memory DBMS is the right fit for your organization. As storage and network technology advances, a server upgrade can be a more effective approach than a complete replacement. Our enterprise has been wary of licensing issues, but we'd like to move Microsoft-based workloads to AWS. Even though AWS has a rich portfolio of database services, it's not perfect for every enterprise.
Moving to Oracle Fusion Financials has been a mixed blessing for the Evangelical Christian Credit Union.
The financial industry needs tools that offer security, mobility and productivity features. PowerShell DSC allows administrators to define and manage the configurations of operating systems and applications. It is very implausible that any common template could be used in a single business without being modified to those organizations processes.
Without setting up assessable goals and tracking of various resources and efforts, projects do not stand a probability of seeing a booming completion. Within Grid Control, you access the multiple database targets using the Targets tab, then Databases.
After you have identified the areas to improve, you can tune your database's performance using the Enterprise Manager administration capabilities. The user interface provides several real-time performance charts and drill-downs for the targets you manage.
On the Database Performance page (Figure 6-2), which is accessible from the Database Home page, you can quickly view performance data for the instance and its underlying host.
After you start your Oracle database, the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) begins taking snapshots of database activity once every hour by default, and ADDM executes when the snapshots are collected.
This provides a way for you to visualize the data for which ADDM has made its recommendations. The first automated method produces textual findings, whereas the second interactive method produces graphical findings. These charts provide context-sensitive drill-downs where you can find additional details for rapid problem diagnosis. It displays a profile of the amount of time sessions are either working or waiting to work in the database instance.
These charts show parallel queries that were waiting for a particular wait event that accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity. You can alternatively investigate all wait classes in one location and then drill down from there. You can then determine whether the problem is caused by one or several SQL statements that are accumulating an unusual amount of time, or whether the problem is caused by one or several sessions. The pages are sourced from the Active Session History (ASH), which samples session activity every second. The interface format is the same as the Active Sessions Waiting page, but rather than showing the average active sessions for a particular wait class, the Top Activity page shows the average active sessions for all wait classes.
This table only shows the last few monitored executions, because the database server reclaims the space occupied by old monitoring data to store the monitoring data for new executions (that is, monitoring data is recycled). You can click the View Report button to generate an active SQL Monitoring Report that provides the SQL text, detailed global information, and global statistics. Using regularly scheduled snapshots of the database activity, ADDM identifies the most resource-intensive components or operations, and determines whether or not these components or operations are acting as performance bottlenecks.
You can view ADDM findings for the most recent time interval by clicking the ADDM Findings link in the Diagnostic Summary section of the Database Home page. You can use the Automatic Workload Repository to change the snapshot interval, ranging from 10 minutes to 2 hours. You can access detailed metrics data for a specific top consumer, such as sessions, services, modules, and clients.
For instance, the Cursors metric group displays information about opened and session cursors along with authentications and parse counts. You can select a statement link to see SQL details (statistics, activity, SQL plan, and tuning information) for the statement.You can also run the SQL Tuning Advisor to receive recommendations for one or more statements. The Topology Viewer allows you to view the relationships between components, nodes, or objects within different Oracle applications.
The Topology Viewer provides a graphical representation of your SQL steps as modeled in Enterprise Manager. Memory Access Mode assists you in diagnosing performance-related problems by collecting system statistics even when the database is either slow or hung. Normally, if a system is slow or in a hung state, the diagnostic queries are also either extremely slow or never return a result.
A tree view of the sessions is displayed, and the problem session that is blocking other sessions is located at the root of the tree. The administration tools allow you to manage database objects and initiate database operations inside an Oracle Database.
Using these tools, you can manage storage structures such as control files, tablespaces, datafiles, and archive logs. For example, you can use Enterprise Manager to manage the memory size of the system global area and program global area of your system. You can also display a list of database features, showing how often the features are used in the operation of the database.
Database files are automatically distributed across all available disks, and database storage is rebalanced whenever the storage configuration changes. Oracle File System is a general-purpose file system that supports all customer application data files, both database and non-database including those associated with an Oracle home. Each cluster can be comprised of multiple cluster databases, each of which consists of multiple cluster database instances. By controlling which sessions use more or less CPU, the Database Resource Manager can ensure that resource distribution matches the plan directive and hence, the business objectives. Resource consumer groups are different from user roles; one database user can have different sessions assigned to different resource consumer groups.
You can use the Optimizer Statistics feature of Enterprise Manager to simplify the management of Optimizer Statistics operations such as gathering, restoring, deleting, locking, and unlocking statistics. Using the Oracle Scheduler in Enterprise Manager helps to improve the management and planning of these tasks. You can use the tools available in Enterprise Manager for fundamental tasks such as creating, editing, and viewing object properties, but you can also use Enterprise Manager for more comprehensive tasks such as running the Segment Advisor to evaluate a table for block and space usage and to determine whether space can be saved by shrinking highly fragmented segments. When you manage indexes in Enterprise Manager, you can perform functions such as shrinking segments to compact segments and free the recovered space to the current tablespace. In addition to creating, deleting, and managing views, you can also view the objects that are dependencies of the view.
In addition to creating and viewing these elements, you can compile Java Sources, for example, or generate the data definition language (DDL) code for a specified object such as package. Privileges and roles control user access to data and the types of SQL statements that can be executed. It can be based on individual actions, such as the type of SQL statement run, or on combinations of factors that can include name, application, time, and so on. They are suitable in various computing environments such as data warehousing, decision support, and distributed or mobile computing.
Baselines are stored internally in the Enterprise Manager repository, and are in a form that other Change Management applications can use. With Enterprise Manager, you can compare, view, and track differences between two sets of database object definitions at different points in time.
For synchronizations, the scope specification does not include the names of individual objects. An advisor can report on a variety of database aspects, and describe a recommended action for each condition worthy of user intervention. For example, the Undo Advisor provides an analysis of the impact of changing the retention period for undo records on the size of the undo tablespace. Applications do not have to be modified, and existing applications continue to work seamlessly as before.
When a user inserts data into an encrypted column, the database automatically encrypts the data. OLS provides multi-level security, row-level access control out of the box, and provides elements to be used inside Oracle Database Vault. Unlike VPD, OLS provides an out-of-the-box security policy and the metadata repository for defining and storing labels. A security policy establishes methods for protecting a database from accidental or malicious destruction of data or damage to the database infrastructure. For example, you can allow all users to access the employees table, but create security policies to restrict access to employees in the same department as the user. The WHERE clause allows only users whose credentials pass the security policy to access the protected data. It provides a method of defining, setting, and accessing attributes that an application can use.
An enterprise user can retrieve the attributes automatically upon login and then use them to initialize an application context. Data masking is ideal for virtually any situation when confidential or regulated data needs to be shared with other non-production users; for instance, internal users such as application developers, or external business partners, like offshore testing companies or suppliers and customers. This contrasts with encryption or Virtual Private Database, which simply hides data, and the original data can be retrieved with the appropriate access or key. Live production database environments contain valuable and confidential data — access to this information is tightly controlled. For example, in the United States, The Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 creates statutory Fourth Amendment protection for financial records, and a host of individual state laws require this.
This user may add additional custom database objects or extensions to packaged applications, such as the Oracle E-Business suite.
This ensures that all sensitive data is consistently masked across the entire organization.
To create a masking definition, you specify the column of the table for which the data should be masked and the format of masked data.
This is important when the test and production sites reside on different Oracle Management Systems or reside on entirely different sites. When you first configure data masking, try out the masking definition on a test system, then add a greater number of columns to the masking definition and test it to make sure it functions correctly and does not break any application constraints.
During the masking process, the staging and test areas are tightly controlled like a production site.
If you need to ship the database to another third-party site, you are required to use the Data Pump Export utility, and then ship the dump file to the remote site.
The mask formats may be simple or complex depending on the information security needs of the organization.
Data masking determines the database foreign key relationships and adds foreign key columns to the mask.
Consult the application documentation to identify the relationship between the tables and the columns containing sensitive data to ensure complete coverage of your application data. Note that you can perform cloning using Enterprise Manager, which enables you to add masking to the Enterprise Manager clone workflow. Otherwise, refine the masking definition, restore the altered tables, and reapply the masking definition until the optimal set of masking definitions has been identified. These temporary tables contain a mapping between the original sensitive column value and the mask values and are therefore sensitive in nature. When cloning the database to an external or unsecured site, you should use Export or Import, and only supply the data in the database rather than the database files themselves. When adding columns to a masking definition, you can either create masking formats manually or import them from the format library. The Format Library appears with predefined formats that Oracle Enterprise Manager provides.
For instance, if you select Array List, the subsequent page enables you to enter a list of values, such as New York, New Jersey, and New Hampshire.
A user-defined choice is available in the Add drop-down, and post-processing function field is available at the bottom of the page.
The data type and uniqueness of the output values must be compatible with the original output values. For instance, a user-defined function to mask a number could receive 100 as input, the string representation of the number 100, and return 99, the string representation of the number 99. The masking format you select can either be one you have previously defined yourself, or one from the list of out-of-box masking formats. That is, the last digit of any credit card number is a checksum digit, which is always computed.
By default, these mask formats are also available in different format styles, such as a hyphen ( - ) format.
The credit card numbers generated by these format pass the standard credit card validation tests by the applications, thereby making them appear like valid credit card numbers.
For example, if you set this variable to '-', the typical social security number would appear as '123-45-6789'. This package is automatically installed in the DBSNMP schema of your Enterprise Manager repository database. The DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data. This guide will benefit BI and analytics pros, data scientists, business execs and project managers. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs, ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.


These three foundational elements help provide concurrency, security, data integrity and uniform administration procedures. A DBMS can limit what data the end user sees, as well as how that end user can view the data, providing many views of a single database schema.
That means it can protect users and applications from needing to know where data is stored or having to be concerned about changes to the physical structure of data (storage and hardware).
One of the biggest advantages of using a DBMS is that it lets end users and application programmers access and use the same data while managing data integrity.
A DBMS delivers economy of scale for processing large amounts of data because it is optimized for such operations.
Mullins reviews the top RDBMS products on the market to help with your decision-making process.
If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. From Database Control, you can monitor and administer a single Oracle Database instance or a clustered database. From these links, you can perform activities such as editing metric thresholds, analyzing job activity and metric collection errors, and accessing a number of advisors to help you improve the performance of your database.
Both aggregate and instance-specific performance statistics are displayed using color-coded charts for easier viewing.
Additionally, you can analyze trends for all critical performance metrics and compare the trends to those of other database instances. ADDM uses these snapshots to perform a top-down analysis of your database activity and then provide tuning recommendations. If an excessive accumulation of activity appears to originate from an SQL source, you can click its associated SQL ID to go to the SQL Details page, which shows the SQL statement and activity. If one or more problems have occurred, ADDM diagnoses these potential problems and provides advice, which may recommend that you run an advisor or change your database configuration. You can also view ADDM findings for this interval by clicking the small ADDM icon below the Average Active Sessions chart in the Database Performance page. This enables you to pinpoint the most problematic areas on which to focus your database tuning efforts.
The legend links below the chart in the graphic view, or the name links in the table view, enable you to access the Top Sessions page for more detailed information. You can zoom, pan, see selection details and summary information, and evaluate aggregate components.
AWR supports the capture of baseline data by enabling you to specify and preserve a pair of snapshots as a baseline.
Potentially, this allows for sub-second sampling of performance metrics without causing any additional load on a system. This utility bypasses the typical query engine instead, and leverages the Oraclebug API to return results quickly even on systems that might be seemingly in a hung state. Specifically, it provides a graphical user interface for managing database storage structures and schemas. The following sections provide an overview of the database administrative features available to you in Enterprise Manager. In addition to viewing, editing, and deleting these structures, you can also perform other functions such as making tablespaces locally managed, displaying the dependencies of a datafile, or backing up a control file to a trace.
You can also use the Undo Management feature to provide a means of explicitly specifying the amount of undo information to retain and ensure that undo information is not overwritten. Usage information can be utilized by support groups and other organizations to gain knowledge about how the system is being used, and to help apportion resources as necessary.
If the database is already using ASM, you can use Enterprise Manager to create data files on disk groups. ASM internally creates, deletes and manages files as and when needed using the storage space from the disk groups. On a single node, there is typically a single ASM instance on the node which manages all disk groups.
You can use the Database Resource Manager to automatically assign sessions to specific consumer groups by setting up mappings between session attributes and consumer groups. You can then use a resource plan to specify how the resources are to be distributed among various resource consumer groups. By separating a task into its component parts such as time, location, and database object, the Oracle Scheduler provides an easier way to manage your database environment.
These schema objects can be created and managed using the tools available in Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Alternatively, you can also eliminate space problems by reorganizing space usage while changing the storage settings and location of the index. The Dependencies table shows you the Object Name and the Object Type that is dependent on the current view.
For more information about the various functions available for a specific object, you can refer to the online Help. Oracle also includes a set of utilities, available in Java and C++, to simplify the task of creating XML documents.
You can also expire passwords and lock or unlock users by applying those actions against one or more users.
Security policies can cause auditing when specified elements in an Oracle Database are accessed or altered, including content. Enterprise Manager lets you create and manage materialized views and provides a set of additional tools that allows you to perform specific actions against the view. For materialized views that use the fast refresh method, a materialized view log keeps a record of changes to the master tables. Query rewrite transforms a SQL statement expressed in terms of tables or views into a statement accessing one or more materialized views that are defined on the detail tables. You can use Enterprise Manager to capture the database object definitions at a particular point in time and create reusable baseline scope specifications. The advisor might report that the condition can be corrected by an automated task that it provides. Additionally, the Memory Advisor graphically displays the impact on performance of changing the size of a component of the SGA. Data is automatically encrypted when it is written to disk and automatically decrypted when the application accesses it.
When assigned to data, the label can be attached as a hidden column to existing tables, providing transparency to existing SQL. The Enterprise Manager interface enables you to manage VPD policies and various operations associated with it. This feature should be considered for new application development and existing applications as well. These non-production users need to access some of the original data, but do not need to see every column of every table, especially when the information is protected by government regulations. However, each production system usually has replicated development copies, and the controls on such test environments are less stringent.
The Enterprise Manager Data Masking Pack can help organizations fulfill legal obligations and comply with global regulatory requirements, such as Sarbanes-Oxley, the California Database Security Breach Notification Act (CA Senate Bill 1386), and the European Union Data Protection Directive. A masking format can either be one that you create, or one from the list of Oracle-supplied default masking formats. They also maintain the relationship between columns that are not formally declared in the database using related columns.
If the columns being masked are involved in unique, primary key, or foreign key constraints, data masking generates the values so that the constraints are not violated.
During this process, you should exercise care when removing all imbedded references to the real data while maintaining referential integrity.
However, if you performing cloning outside of Enterprise Manager, you must initiate masking from Enterprise Manager after cloning is complete. This will help you restore the original data if the masking definition needs to be refined further. In this case, you are responsible for deleting the temporary tables before cloning to the test region.
These are valid, realistic looking numbers than can pass standard phone number validation tests employed by applications.
To use the predefined masking formats on a target database (other than the repository database), you must manually install the DM_FMTLIB package on that database. If you have a version prior to 11.1, you can use it by implementing the following work-around. End users and software programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located or on what type of storage media it resides because the DBMS handles all requests. As long as programs use the application programming interface (API) for the database that is provided by the DBMS, developers won't have to modify programs just because changes have been made to the database.
Data is better protected and maintained when it can be shared using a DBMS instead of creating new iterations of the same data stored in new files for every new application. The DBMS provides a level of abstraction between the conceptual schema that defines the logical structure of the database and the physical schema that describes the files, indexes and other physical mechanisms used by the database. And, of course, different types of DBMSes will require different types and levels of system resources. To help you identify the source of a problem and resolve it, you can click a legend link next to a chart to display a detail page that provides comprehensive information. The Instance Foreground CPU value represents any active work, such as database queries, that is tuneable.
If excessive accumulation appears to originate from a session source, you can click its associated Session ID to go to the Session Details page, where you can abort the session if needed. As with the Active Sessions Waiting pages, look for skewed activity for either Top SQL or Top Sessions. Individually distinct icons are used for each object type, and standardized visual indicators are used across all applications. As with database monitoring, administration of the Oracle Database begins with the Oracle Database Home page. ASM also includes storage reliability features such as mirroring and parity protection commonly found in Logical Volume Managers. In a RAC environment, there is typically one ASM instance on each node which manages all disk groups for its node in a coordinated manner. You can use Enterprise Manager to asynchronously convert a single-instance database to an Oracle RAC database. You can also map consumer groups in specified categories to users, client programs, modules, or services.
Database administrators can schedule and monitor recurring database maintenance jobs, such as backups or nightly data warehousing loads and extracts, and they can schedule job execution based on time or events. Conversely, Enterprise Manager can also show you the objects on which the current view is dependent.
A system privilege is an Oracle-defined privilege that enables you to perform specific database operations, such as CREATE, ALTER, and so forth. When managing roles, you can display all users and roles assigned to the specified role by using the Show Grantees function.
The Explain Materialized View feature helps you to determine what is possible with a materialized view by indicating whether a materialized view is fast-refreshable, what types of query rewrites you can perform with this materialized view, and whether PCT refresh is possible. A complete refresh occurs when the materialized view is initially defined, unless it references a prebuilt table, and a complete refresh may be requested at any time during the life of the materialized view. By capturing a dictionary baseline, you can compare different database objects at different points in time and track changes applied to the database objects. You can additionally supply a prefix to limit the objects selected to those whose names start with that prefix. In general, advisors produce more comprehensive recommendations than alerts, since alert generation is intended to be low cost and have minimal impact on performance. Key management is built-in, eliminating the complex task of creating, managing, and securing encryption keys. This form of encryption is transparent, provides high performance, and is easy to implement. For example, rows that contain highly sensitive data can be labeled HIGHLY SENSITIVE, while rows that are less sensitive can be labeled SENSITIVE, and so on. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) created protection of personal medical information. After data masking is configured to your satisfaction, you can use the existing definition to repeatedly mask after cloning.
The cloned database should be controlled with the same privileges as the production system since it still contains sensitive production data.
Similar to other format definitions, you can affect the "style" of the ISBN format by setting values to DM_ISBN_FORMAT. Many database management systems are also responsible for automated rollbacks, restarts and recovery as well as the logging and auditing of activity. The DBMS provides a central store of data that can be accessed by multiple users in a controlled manner. When a DBMS is used, systems can be modified much more easily when business requirements change. To determine ADDM findings at the present time, you can click the Run ADDM button on the Database Performance page.
You can use an SQL trace to trace statistics of SQL statements, such as CPU time, elapsed time, and the Explain Plan.
Using information from this page, you can cancel the problem session and return the system to its normal state.
An object privilege is an Oracle-defined privilege that controls access to a specific object. With Enterprise Manager, you can view the database audit configuration and manage audited objects, privileges, and statements. Because the complete refresh involves reading the detail table to compute the results for the materialized view, this can be a very time-consuming process, especially if very large amounts of data need to be read and processed. On the other hand, because Advisors are often user-invoked, they can consume more resources and perform more detailed analysis. Data masking can modify sensitive database records so that they remain usable, but contain no confidential or personally identifiable information. The masking definition, however, would need to evolve as new schema changes require new data and columns to be masked. New categories of data can be added to the database without disrupting the existing system and applications can be insulated from how data is structured and stored. Their automated analysis can provide more results than you might normally be able to produce manually in the time afforded you as part of regular operations. Yet, the masked test data resembles the original in appearance to ensure the integrity of the application.
Out-of-box, Enterprise Manager also provides audit reports to help you monitor successful and failed login attempts, as well as SYSUSER operations. This analysis, along with the what-if capability of some advisors, provides vital information for tuning that cannot be procured from any other source. Filled with visual aids such as diagrams, illustrations, and tables, this market-leading textbooks provides in-depth coverage of database design, demonstrating that the key to successful database implementation is in proper design of databases to fit within a larger strategic view of the data environment. In addition, new review questions, problem sets, and cases have been added throughout the book so that students have multiple opportunities to test their understanding and develop real and useful design skills. He has over 27 years of experience in various fields as a Database Administrator, Network Administrator, Web Manager, and Technology Specialist, and has taught courses in Web development, database design and development, and data communications at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Steven has published many articles, and currently serves on the review boards of several journals. Steven MorrisPeter Rob has 32 years experience teaching file systems, database systems design, database design, database applications development, and more. FedEx & DHL delivery within 2-3 business transit days.Remote AreaRemote Area additional 5 business transit days. Often Saturdays, Sundays, and major holidays are not included in transit time estimates.Cleared paymentIf you pay using PayPal, the payment may clear immediately. However if you pay by check, money order, or eCheck, your payment may take several days to clear.Shipping TrackingWe will add your email in the shipping company email notification tracking system. So, you can check the tracking number via email.Estimated delivery datesInclude seller’s handling time, and will depend on shipping service selected and receipt of cleared payment.



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