Uganda’s TVET mission is defined as being to ensure that individuals and enterprises acquire the skills they need to raise productivity and income.
The Business, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (BTVET) Strategic Plan 2011-2020 denotes a paradigm shift for skills development in Uganda. The Strategic Plan 2011-2020 aims to create employable skills and competencies relevant to the labour market. The Business, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (BTVET) Act was passed in 2008.
Act of 2008 paved the way for the establishment of the Uganda Business and Technical Examinations Board (UBTEB) under Part VI, Section 26, Sub section 1 of the BTVET Act, sub section 1; and operationalised by the Statutory Instrument 2009 No. After seven years of primary schooling, students can either proceed to low secondary school or opt for a three-year craftsman training offered in farm and technical schools and vocational training centres.
There are provisions for the graduates from those four alternative outlets to pursue university education. Private TVET providers represent a strong segment of the sector, estimated at more than 1,000 institutions in 2011, representing approximately 81% of all TVET providers. The informal sector remains a stronghold of employment, accounting for 58% of non-agricultural employment in 2011.
Recognising the importance of informal sector development for economic growth and employment generation, the Government of Uganda (GoU) aims to expand training for the informal sector, to improve relevance and effectiveness and to make it an integral part of a comprehensive TVET system in Uganda. It manages the government TVET training providers (more than 110 government training centres, schools, institutes and polytechnics). The ITC consists of the private sector (both training providers and manufacturers in the formal and informal sectors), the relevant ministries, and representatives of employers and employees.
The government intends to make employers part of the governance structures in the TVET system, both at central level and at the level of TVET institutions.
The two major sources of TVET funding are the public budget and private households through training fees. Vocational teacher training is carried out on a more ad hoc basis with upgrading courses for practising teachers or extra training programmes for workers in the field. Kyambogo polytechnic used to train teachers for vocational education, but is now being merged with Kyambogo National Teachers College to form Kyambogo University.
TVET teachers and trainers in private institutions are mainly drawn directly from graduates of technical institutes and polytechnics who have rarely had industrial experience or pedagogical training.
Formal technical schools offer three year full time courses to P.7 leavers leading to the award of Uganda Junior Technical Certificate (UJTC). Formal technical institutes offer two-year full time courses leading to the award of Uganda Craft Certificate (Part I) and also one year advanced course leading to award of Uganda Advanced Certificate (Part II). The Uganda Vocational Qualification Framework (UVQF) was created to align TVET training and qualifications with the needs of the labour market.

Respond to the urgent request of employers to produce more diploma-level TVET graduates with relevant practical skills.
Introduce an accreditation system for TVET providers - A new accreditation system is to be developed and launched based on the evaluation of models and experience in other countries. Introduce an internal quality management system in TVET institutions - An Internal Quality Management (IQM) system for TVET institutions is gradually to be introduced.
Recent important changes include: the reform of the TVET system, the BTVETAct of 2008 and the establishment of UVQF. In 2010, the Government of Uganda (GoU), with support from the World Bank and the Government of Belgium, commissioned a consultant team of national and international experts to conduct a sub-sector study and subsequently form the basis of the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 “Skilling Uganda”.
Partnerships with influential training institutions in Japan, Israel and Germany in the area of TVET have also been established to enable Uganda to acquire relevant and up-to-date skills for faster development. The aim is for the TVET system to emerge from an educational sub-sector into a comprehensive system of skills development for employment, enhanced productivity and growth. It provides for the TVET institutional and legal framework and defines the scope and levels of different TVET programmes and the roles of different providers. The GoU aims to support these providers who may receive access to all support schemes offered to TVET institutions, and may be assisted with public subsidies in particular if they invest in under-served regions and build training supply in priority occupations. The GoU focuses on building specific targeted approaches to informal sector training based on the needs of local markets. The MoES is responsible for programme implementation and monitoring, including procedures for planning, budgeting and annual reviews. The ITC is committed to advocate and lobby for TVET reforms, ensure their operationalisation while improving the image of vocational training, achieving the required linkages and matching vocational training to the competences needed in the Ugandan Labour Market and bringing the Ugandan skills levels in line with the global skills development trends. Most of the formal skills development institutions that were formerly under other ministries were brought under the skills development sub-sector, although some have since been returned to their departments.
The plan is to include employers, and the business community at large to be equal partners of government in all policy development and planning processes and in the governance of the TVET system, which includes decision on allocation of funds. The government has begun training of trainers’ courses to prepare instructors for the community polytechnics. Although there are some instructor initiatives at Nakawa Vocational Training Institute, more comprehensive instructor training institutes have to be opened to cover all parts of the country. There are, however, some promising initiatives such as; the new teacher training measures started by Nakawa Vocational Training Institute (VTI), The Uganda Association of Private Vocational Institutions (UGAPRIVI), and the establishment of Instructor Training department at Jinja VTI in November 2013. Teacher Issues in Uganda, A Diagnosis for A Shared Vision on Issues and the Designing of a Feasible, Indigenous and Effective Teachers’ Policy. Private training institutions in particular are currently not addressed by public quality assurance systems.
This system should encourage private providers to seek formal recognition and should support TVET institutions to improve quality and training standards.

IQM is a combination of activities and information that addresses topics such as customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approaches, systems of management, decision-making and relationships with beneficiaries and stakeholders.
The Plan is designed to address the major challenges identified regarding relevance, quality, access and equity, management and financial sustainability of TVET. Another challenge noted is the policy of transforming TVET institutes to university colleges and universities ultimately reduces the infrastructures for vocational studies, and ought to be halted. Uganda Full Report_24 August 2013 edited version moses.pdf Teacher Issues in Uganda, A Diagnosis for A Shared Vision on Issues and the Designing of a Feasible, Indigenous and Effective Teachers’ Policy. The Act distinguishes between the functions of training provision and quality assurance, describes the criteria and access requirements for TVET programmes and establishes institutional and management arrangements for defining qualifications (standards, testing and certification) and for providing training in formal and non-formal institutions. There is no systematic approach to skills development for people already in or seeking to enter the informal sector. The GoU envisages investments in institutional and human capacity building of non-formal training providers, and plans to establish regional support centres to facilitate decentralised communication, coordination and support networks.
Other ministries and stakeholders are involved and may have responsibility for selected strategies, notably the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries and Fisheries (MAAIF). It is mandated to award TVET certificates and diplomas; setting and developing appropriate regulations and guidelines for issuance of TVET qualifications by the MoES. Private providers account for the bulk of skills training, but most are not registered with the MoES. The initial objective is to bring a larger part of the private training supply into the quality-assured mainstream TVET, but eventually accreditation should also cover public TVET institutions. Accordingly the GoU addresses institutions who are willing to be universities to start as such, and work through the process, so that the youth who fail to make it to universities, or who do not wish to join universities, are not deprived of access to institutions for vocational training. Many of the training offers are supply driven, not based on market assessments and only duplicate formal sector training at very low levels. A new fund is set up to stimulate new training approaches as well as expanding and improving traditional apprenticeship trainings.
The current system of official licensing and registration is burdensome and overly centralised. Some very effective programmes cannot be replicated due to lack of information exchange and resources. The regulatory barriers make it difficult and costly for institutions to comply, particularly those away from the capital Kampala.

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