The stronger groups tended to settle in the more desirable areas where there was an abundance of water, natural resources (wood, clay, iron ore, coal), and natural protection (hills, sea coast, rivers, lakes).
And by the time the weaker finally arrived at a location to settle down, they were frequently so far removed from other groups that there was little contact, trade, or interaction. For these reasons while civilizations were forming in Mesopotamia, India, China, and North Africa, groups that had roamed as far as North and South America and islands in the Pacific developed little further in cultural organization than the tribal unit and possessed a technology that was far less developed than in the larger civilizations. About the early civilizations, the Apostle Paul, in Romans 1-3, states that they were created with a clear knowledge of God, but having rejected and twisted what truth they did possess, they worshipped the creature rather than the Creator. Sumer was a collection of over thirty city-states, each possessing its own patron deity, but sharing a common religion featuring the worship of Elil with a central religious center at Nippur. Other innovations of the Sumerians were the wooden wheel, the wooden plow, and the wooden oar for their ships. The Sumerians developed (or recovered from their spiritual memory derived from Noah) an elaborate belief system that included many gods who possessed human characteristics, a concept of personal sin, that they had been created to serve the gods, a class system of sorts between major and minor gods, and an elaborate flood story. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. The Sumerians were weakened due to the salinization of their wheat fields and were overcome by an invading group of people led by Sargon, the Great. An Akkadian legend says that Sargon was abandoned by his mother in a reed basket which she placed in a river. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.
The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire) required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. Although the Babylonians absorbed much of the Sumerian worldview, they also developed a complex religion based upon astrology. The Assyrians, located to the north of Babylon, revived and were able to fight off several other invading groups that came into the Fertile Crescent from Indo-Europe and Syria.
The constant flow of invading peoples into the Fertile Crescent resulted in a blending of cultures, religions, and gene pools.
After over 400 years as slave in Egypt, Abrahama€™s descendants, under the leadership of Moses, left Egypt miraculously under Goda€™s guidance around the year 1250 B.C.
During this period of time God delivered to the Hebrews the religious system known as Judaism. After the 40 years of wilderness living, which resulted from their disobedience evidenced in worshipping the golden calf fashioned by Aaron, the brother of Moses, the Hebrews entered Canaan. The northern section, Israel, was invaded, captured, and sent into exile by Assyria in 732 B. During their centuries of development, God raised up among the Hebrews the ancient prophets, who were raised up by God to give warnings to both Israel as well as to their pagan neighbors.
They were chosen by God to be his covenant people, from among whom the Messiah was born of the virgin Mary. The Philistines were descendants of a sea people who originated from around the Aegean Sea area to the east of Greece.
The Philistines were a literate people who originally spoke the language of people living in Crete, Cyprus, and the Aegean area.
This civilization eventually concluded that their ruler, the Pharaoh, was actually divinity in the flesh. Perhaps the most famous of its rulers was Cleopatra who was the lover of both Julius Caesar and of Marc Anthony of the Roman Empire.
He restored Egyptian religious worship and traditions back to their state prior to the radical revisions introduced by Tutakamena€™s father, Pharaoh Akhanaten.
Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries. The early Minoan settlers of Crete and southern Greece were descendants of Egyptians who first migrated to the island of Crete.
They were the first to develop the skills necessary to build large stone columns for their many massive palaces, monuments, and temples. They were major importers and exporters of gold, silver, ivory, bronze, pottery, and animals from the continent of Africa to the south and developed extensive trade with Middle Asia, North Africa., and even East Asia.
They were master canal builders and specialists in highly developed agriculture and irrigation systems. It is speculated that they were extensive travelers, and that skills needed to build the pyramids constructed by the Mayans in South America may have been brought by Egyptians traveling in their reed boats. They hosted the descendants of Abraham for over 450 years, first as guests and family members of the house of Moses, and later as slaves. Together with the Hittites after the Battle of Kadesh, the Egyptians pioneered a format for developing a long-lasting treaty between two powerful nations that numerous other subsequent civilizations followed. The Gospel of Christ was brought to the Egyptians by the Apostle Mark who was martyred during his ministry in Egypt.
The civilization that developed in the Indus River Valley rivals Egypt and Mesopotamia as the oldest known civilization.
At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™s population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia.
The Harappa civilization developed when a large number of Aryan people descended into the Indus Valley from the northeast.
A large, extensive sewage system to which all of the buildings in the cities were connected.
Agriculture was made possible by the annual flooding in the spring when the ice melted and in July and August during the rainy season.
The Longshan Culture built large fortified towns along the Yellow River, fortified by large earthen walls and ramparts. There are indications that the early Chinese who settled along the Yellow River believed in the same God as the Hebrews, the God who was revealed to them in creation and in the stories received from Noah and his sons. The Sumerians, Amorites, Egyptians, Longshan, and Harappa were some of the earliest groups that formed civilizations.
The Indo-European language group spread from the Black Sea area into the Indus River Valley and into Euro-Asia. Civilizations emerged early and quickly after the Flood throughout the four major population areas of Europe, Euro-Asia, and Asia. The Nile River Valley was home to the great Egyptian civilization that reached its zenith during the reign of Ramses II, the probable pharaoh reigning during the time of Moses and the Exodus. An advanced Harappa civilization existed in the Indus Valley of India that conducted trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Respond correctly to at least 80% of the questions based upon the nine big ideas found in the first section above, Whata€™s Worth Knowing?
Be able to list several chief characteristics and features of each of the four major river civilizations. Create with your group ten test questions you believe all student should be able to answer after your groups presentation.
Identify on a blank map the four major areas of civilization along the four river valleys and the items below. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the storyA  of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.A  He also developed a library of several thousand clay tablets, built a vast network of roads, and established the first known postal system. The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire)A  required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. From Moses was received the Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses.A  He also established the first representative government, a system of government, Peoplea€™s Law, that was carried across Europe into England by the Anglo-Saxons, and became foundational for the United States of America. After the death of Solomon, the nation of the Hebrews experienced civil war and separated into Israel in the north occupied by ten of the tribes, and Judah (from which the name a€?Jewa€? was derived) in the south occupied by two of the tribes. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.A  He was so revered by the nation (for three generations of Egyptians knew no other Pharaoh) that for generations after his death he was referred to as the Great Ancestor of the nation. At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™sA  population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The major power in the Harappa society was the priestly caste that presided over a polytheistic religious system. The Taliban insurgents have killed at least 17 passengers after abducting nearly 200 in the early hours of today in northern Kunduz province. According to the local government officials, the Taliban militants have killed at least 12 of the abducted passengers. However, a security official, Shir Aziz Kamawal, said the militants have killed at least 17 of the passengers after they were kidnapped from Kunduz-Takhar highway.
The Taliban insurgents kidnapped at least 185 passengers after establishing a check post on the highway around 2 am local time. The security officials are saying that the Taliban insurgents kidnapped the passengers from 4 buses, 3 vans and 3 cars and took them with themselves. However, the majority of the passengers were released after they were interrogated by the Taliban insurgents but at least 17 of them were killed.
The officials also added at least 18 of the passengers are still kept by the Taliban insurgents and have efforts are underway for their release. The Taliban insurgents have not commented regarding the report so far and it is yet not clear on what charges the kidnapped passengers were killed. Kunduz has been witnessing deteriorating security situation during the past few months as the Taliban insurgents are trying to destabilize the northern provinces.
The Taliban insurgents briefly captured the provincial capital of Kunduz last year but it was retaken by the Afghan security forces. At least 14 militants were killed in two separate airstrikes in southeastern Paktia province of Afghanistan, the Ministry of Defense (MoD) said Tuesday. According to a statement by MoD, the first airstrike was carried out in Gian district of Paktia, leaving at least 8 militants dead and 4 others wounded. The statement further added that the second airstrike was carried out in Gomal district leaving at least 6 militants dead and 2 others wounded. According to MoD, at least 3 militants were killed during a separate clearance operations by the Afghan security forces in the vicinity of Ahmad Khel district. The anti-government armed militant groups including the Taliban insurgents have not commented regarding the reports so far.
The Taliban militants and insurgents belonging to the other militant groups including the notorious Haqqani network terrorists are active in a number of Paktia districts where they often carry out insurgency activities. The Afghan security forces have stepped air and ground raids against the militant groups to suppress their activities amid rampant Taliban-led insurgency across the country.
A key leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group was killed in an airstrike in Maidan Wardak province, located some 35 kilometers west of Kabul. According to the defense officials, the ISIS leader was identified as Mujahid and was killed along with one of his bodyguards. The officials did not elaborate further regarding the airstrike and whether it was carried out by the Afghan Air Force or the US Forces.
The loyalists of the terror group are believed to have significant presence in eastern Nangarhar province and this is the first time a key leader of the group has been killed near Kabul. In the meantime, the Afghanistan National Security Council (NSC) on Monday approved in principle the strategy to fight the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group as the loyalists of the terror group are attempting to expand foothold in the country. The Afghan National Security and Defense Forces (ANSDF) together with the US forces in Afghanistan are regularly targeting the loyalists of the terror group. The US forces stepped up airstrikes against the loyalists of ISIS after they were granted more authorities by the US President Barack Obama.
The decision to step up fight against the terror group was taken amid concerns that the loyalists of ISIS are attempting to expand foothold in the country, establish a regional operational base in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan and consolidate operations with the terror group in Iraq and Syria. A key Taliban group commander who was involved in planning and coordinating suicide attacks was killed during an operation in eastern Laghman province of Afghanistan. The Afghan Intelligence, National Directorate of Security (NDS), said Mullah Abdul Saboor was killed along with his three fighters.
A statement by NDS said Mulllah Saboor was busy in plottig a suicide attack together with his 11 fighters in Laghman before he was killed. NDS in its statement further added that Mullah Saboor was killed in Shaitan Gum Shaidan village in Bad Pakh district. According to NDS, another Taliban group member identified as Mullah Allah Gul was among those killed during the raid. NDS said the intelligence operatives seized various types of weapons, ammunition, mines and explosives belonging to the militants. This comes as the group has been attempting to stage coordinated attacks across the country since they launched their spring offensive earlier in April. The Afghan Special Forces have been deployed to southern Helmand province amid intensifying clashes between the Taliban insurgents and Afghan security forces. Sediq Sediq, spokesman for the Ministry of Interior, said the Afghan forces are busy in conducting the military operations and a number of the Special Forces have also been deployed in this province. The Taliban militants launched coordinated attacks in Nad-e-Ali and Nahr-e-Saraj districts, erupting heavy clashes and at least 11 policemen lost their lives during the gun battle.
Meanwhile, latest reports emerging from the area suggest that nearly 50 policemen have lost their lives during the clashes with the Taliban insurgents. Provincial governor Hayatullah Hayat said more forces have been deployed to Helmand and clearance operations are underway as the gun battle ended.
The provincial council officials earlier warned that the control of Lashkargah city would fall to Taliban control if additional forces are not deployed.
However, Hayat said the city is not threatened by the Taliban insurgents and is not on the brink of collapse. According to Hayat, at least 40 members of police and army lost their lives or sustained injuries during the clashes in the past two days. The Taliban insurgents have reportedly kidnapped dozens of passengers near Kunduz city, the provincial capital of northern Kunduz province. A local official said the passengers were abducted in the early hours of Tuesday after the Taliban insurgents established a post to stop the passenger buses and vehicles.
The official speaking on the condition of anonymity said at least 3 buses and 3 vans were stopped by the Taliban militants along with some other cars. According to the official, the Taliban militants initially took around 230 passengers hostage but later released majority of them, keeping around 45 with them. However, a spokesman for Kunduz police, Hejratullah Akbari, said at least 185 people were kidnapped and the Taliban later released 150 of them. There are also reports that the Taliban insurgents have killed a number of the hostages while the fate of the remaining hostages remain unascertained. Kunduz is among the relatively volatile provinces northern Afghanistan where the Taliban insurgents are actively operating in a number of its districts and frequently carry out insurgency activities. Earlier, the Taliban militants abducted a senior police official of Kunduz province as he was travelling on a highway in this province. The Pakistani foreign affairs adviser Sartaj Aziz has said that Afghanistan and Pakistan should not allow the use of their territory against each other.
During a meeting with the Afghan Ambassador Hazrat Omar Zakhilwal, Aziz expressed serious concerns over the US drone strikes in Pakistan, according to the local media reports. The meeting between Aziz and Zakhilwal followed days after the Taliban supreme leader Mullah Akhtar Mansoor was killed in a US drone strike in Balochistan province of Pakistan. The two sides reportedly discussed bilateral ties, the border situation the Afghan reconciliation process, and several matters of importance including the fate of Afghan peace process following the death of Mulla Mansour. The remarks by Aziz to prevent the use of territory against each other comes as the Afghan officials have long been critizing Pakistan for allowing the Afghan insurgent groups use its soil as a safe haven to plan and coordinate attacks in Afghanistan.
Both the Taliban group and the notorious Haqqani terrorist network leadership councils are believed to be based in Pakistan.


The Afghan President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani earlier asked Pakistan to take actions against the leadership councils of the militant groups based in Peshawar and Quetta cities of Pakistan. The Afghanistan National Security Council (NSC) approved in principle the strategy to fight the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group as the loyalists of the terror group are attempting to expand foothold in the country. Chaired by President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani, the NSC meeting, discussed regarding the strategy to fight the terrorist group in the country.
A statement by the Office of the President said the NSC meeting hailed the relevant security institutions for preparing the strategy to fight the terror group. The statement further added that the relevant institutions were also instructed to take all necessary steps to hit and destroy the terror group in Afghanistan and prevent the terrorist activities of the group in the country. This comes as the Afghan National Security and Defense Forces (ANSDF) together with the US forces in Afghanistan are regularly targeting the loyalists of the terror group. A local reporter of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) has been released a day after he was arrested by the security authorities in eastern Afghanistan.
According to the local government officials, Nematullah Kariab, was released earlier today by the security authorities. The officials further added that Kariab was in custody of the security authorities for an investigation but it is yet not clear on what charges he was arrested.
A media support agency, NAI, earlier condemned the arrest of Nematullah Kariab and called on the local authorities in to confirm the reason behind his apprehension.
The head of NAI agency, Abdul Mujeeb Khelwatgar, said through a statement yesterday that Kariab should be immediately released if he has been arrested in connection to his reporting and must provide reasons if he has been arrested over other issues. The organization urged the authorities to take immediate actions and confirm the reasons behind Kariab’s detention.
The Hezb-e-Islami party led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and the Afghan government are at odd regarding the confirmation of scheduled exit of foreign forces from the country to conclude a peace deal.
An official of Hezb-e-Islami has told Radio Free Europe that certain issues remains unresolved between the party and the Afghan government to conclude the agreement. The acting head and deputy of Hezb-e-Islami Mohammad Hakim Hakim has said the Afghan government must confirm a schedule for the exit of foreign forces. Hakim has said the outstanding issue on the way to peace deal is the exit of foreign forces and the government must at least ascertain a schedule for the exit of the foreign soldiers.
He also added that the party supports peace talks with between the Afghan government and the Taliban group. This comes as Hekmatyar said earlier last month that he has changed his conditions for peace process with the Afghan government by stepping back from his demands for the complete withdrawal of foreign forces. Hekmatyar earlier demanded the complete withdrawal of the foreign forces from Afghanistan before officials talks begun between his party and the Afghan government. In the meantime, the Afghan government officials said last week that there is no specific timeframe for the conclusion of peace deal with Hezb-e-Islami led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. Deputy presidential spokesman Syed Zafar Hashemi told reporters that peace process is always complicated and it would be a mistake to confirm a timeframe regarding the peace agreement.
Hashemi further added that small and big changes normally takes place every day, in every seconds and at the final seconds of peace process. He said the Afghan government will update the Afghan people once the two sides reach to an agreement. The Afghan National Security and Defense Forces A (ANSDF) have arrested two Pakistani women as they were transferring classified documents to the loyalists of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ( ISIS) terrorist group.
The two women were arrested from the vicinity of eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan where the loyalists of the terror group are active in a number of its districts. The provincial government’s media office said the women were detained in the vicinity of Kot district, an area which hs been a stronghold of the terrorist group since they launched their operations in Afghanistan. According to the provincial officials, the documents seized from the two women included information on how to make explosive devices and other weapons.
The source further added that the two women are in custody of the security personnel and an investigation is underway in this regard. The loyalists of the terror group continue to maintain presence and attempt to expand foothold in this province despite they have been hardly suppressed in Afghan and US forces raids.
The detention of the two women further strengthens claims by Afghan officials regarding the role of Pakistan security agencies in supporting the militant groups in Afghanistan.
The Afghan officials have long been criticising Pakistan for supporting the Afghan militants by providing sanctuaries to them inside their soil from where they plan and coordinate attacks in Afghanistan. A top Taliban leader has been arrested during a special night operation conducted by the Afghan National Security and Defense Forces (ANSDF) in northern Kunduz province.
Provincial police chief Abdul Bashir Rashid said the detained key Taliban leader has been identified as Qari Salim and was arrested with six other militants accompanying him. He said Qari Salim was also acting as the shadow district governor of Khanabad district and was involved in majority of terrorist attacks in this province.
At least two militants were also killed and two others were wounded during the operation that led to the arrest of Qari Salim, the officials added. The arrest of Qari Salim comes as the Taliban insurgents have stepped up terrorist attacks in Northern provinces, including the Kunduz province during the recent months. The group launched a major offensive earlier last month as they announced their spring offensive and attempted to retake the control of the strategic Kunduz city which briefly fell to Taliban control last year. A political party in Afghanistan has called on the Afghan government to take immediate actions in hanging the militants that have been sentenced to death on terror offences. Najibullah Kabuli, the head of National Partnership Party, said the militants are killing the Afghan security personnel who are serving to protect the nation. He was speaking during a gathering in capital Kabul to declare support to the Afghan National Security and Defense Forces (ANSDF).
The remarks by Kabuli comes as the Afghan government hanged six militants sentenced to death over terror offences earlier this month.
The execution of the militants followed days after the militant groups carried out a deadly suicide attack in capital Kabul leaving at least 64 dead and 347 others wounded.
The deadly attack forced the Afghan government to change stance against the militant groups by pursuing strict military operation. The Afghan President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani asked for a list of militants sentenced to death over terror offences and approved the execution of at least 6 militants who were involved in major attacks in the country, including the assassination of former President and High Peace Council Chief Burhanuddin Rabbani. The Afghan intelligence operatives have arrested three Haqqani network militants involved in major terrorist attacks in central Logar province.
The National Directorate of Security (NDS) said the three terrorists were arrested from Sara Ghonda village in Khoshi district.
A statement by NDS said the Afghan intelligence operatives confiscated 2 Ak-47 assault rifles with their 8 magazines, 2 communication devices, and some ammunition and explosives. The statement further added that the militants were involved in major terrorist attacks and anti-government insurgency activities, including ambush on security forces and government staff and roadside bombings. The detained militants have been identified as Ahmadzai son of Afghan, Mohammad Onar son of Afghan and Salam Jan son of Syed Padshah who are originally residents of Logar province. NDS also added that the intelligence operatives discovered a weapons cache and confiscated 2 Ak-47 rifles with their 12 magazines, 3 mortar rounds, 1 missile and 4 Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) during a separate operation. According to NDS, the weapons and explosives cache belonged to Taliban group commander Mullah Khel.
The reconstruction of the historic Dar-ul-Aman Palace was officially inaugurated by President mohammad Ashraf Ghani and Chief Executive Abdullah Abdullah today. President Ghani said the reconstruction of the Palace will be done with the available national resources, insisting that the renovation of the Palace is wanted by the whole nation. The reconstruction of the Palace was inaugurated after President Ghani chaired the first meeting of the High Commission of Urban Developmetn in Dar-ul-Aman Palace.
President Ghani further added that the Supreme Court of the country will be shifted to Dar-ul-Aman Palace once the recostruction work concludes. He said the government will also start work on the renovation of mosques during the Holy month of Ramadan and urged the people to participate in the urbanization process of the country. According to President Ghani, the reconstruction of Dar-ul-Aman Palace is not only a major project but the project will also pave the way for the provision of standard urban services in the country.
The Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah said the Palace is a national pride and its reconstruction will bring the glory of Kabul city. Abdullah reiterated the commitments of the government of national unity and said the government is committed to take necessary steps for the reconstruction of the country. The Afghan Parliament House Speaker also welcomed the inauguration of the reconstruction of Dar-ul-Aman Palce, calling it a moment of happiness for the Afghan nation.
The Pakitani forces have violated the zero line and have moved forward at least 500 meters inside the eastern Nuristan province, local officials said. The officials further added that the Pakistani border forces have started violating the zero line since one week and have moved foward in Marwara and Sarkano districts. The latest provocative move by the Pakistani border forces comes days after tensions reduced between the two sides which escalated due to attempts by Pakistan to establish barbed wire in certain parts of Torkham. Torkham was closed as a result of the growing tensions which was reopened after four days due to negotiations between the Afghan and Pakistani officials. Meanwhile, the Pakistani military announced last week that Angoor Adda check post was handed over to the Afghan National Security and Defense Forces (ANSDF).
A spokesman for the Pakistani military said the check post was handed over to the Afghan forces in a bid to improve bilateral relations and border management. At least 29 militants were killed in separate airstrikes in northern Baghlan and southern Kandahar province of Afghanistan. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) said at least 18 militants were killed during the airstrikes in the vicinity of Baghlan-e-Markazi district. A statement by MoD said at least 6 militates were also wounded and a hideout of the militants together with a weapons and explosives depot were destroyed. The statement further added that a food stock, 4 vehicles, 5 motorcycles, 1 Dshk heavy machine gun and a MK19 automatic grenade launcher were also destroyed. MoD also added that 11 militants were killed in a separate airstrike in Shahwali Kot district of southern Kandahar province.
The Afghan forces have stepped crackdown on the anti-government armed militant groups to suppress their insurgency activities as they attempt to increase attacks as part of their spring offensive. In the meantime, the Afghan forces have started the 2016 fighting season with the increased capabilities, specifically in the air force sector with the addition of new aircraft supplied by the United States as well as India. A local reporter of British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) has been arrested in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan.
A media support agency, NAI, said Nematullah Kariab was arrested by the security personnel from Jalalabad city, the provincial capital of eastern Nangarhar province. According to a statement by NAI, the provincial officials and BBC in Afghanistan are confirming the detention of Mr. The head of NAI agency, Abdul Mujeeb Khelwatgar, said the authorities in Nangarhar must confirm the reason behind the arrest of BBC report as soon as possible.
He said Kariab should be immediately released if he has been arrested in connection to his reporting and must provide reasons if he has been arrested over other issues. The reconstruction of the historic Dar-ul-Aman Palace in capital Kabul will be inaugurated by President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani today. President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani approved the restoration work of the Palace earlier in March this year, saying the ““Shattered Dar-ul-Aman Palace is a reminder of our darkest days.
The reconstruction work of the Palace will be performed by the Ministry of Urban Development Affairs of Afghanistan. President Ghani will deliver remarks at the inauguration of the project by participating in the first meeting of High Commission of Urban Development. Located in the outskirt of the capital in the west, the palace was mainly damaged after it was used for military purposes, including as a bunker, by the rival jihadist groups during the civil war in early 90s. Dar-ul-Aman palace and Taj Baig palace were constructed during the kingdom of King Amanullah Khan during 1919 to 1929. The palace received serious damages during the civil war which erupted following the withdrawal of the Soviet forces from the country.
The authorities in Pakistan have said DNA report have confirmed that the man killed in a US drone strike was the Taliban supreme leader Mullah Akhtar Mansoor.
According to the local media reports, citing the local authorities, a DNA report said it was definite that the man killed in the US strike on May 21 was Mullah Akhtar Mansour.
The country’s interior ministry has said the confirmation was made following the DNA matching of DNA samples collected from the charred body against the relative who came forward to claim the remains. The country’s Interior Minister Chaudhry Nisar had earlier said the government could not confirm the death without a scientific and legal basis.
Mullah Mansoor was killed in a US drone strike in Balochistan province of Pakistan in the afternoon of 21st May as he was travelling in a vehicle.
According to the reports, Mansoor was on his way from neighboring Iran when he was targeted by the US drones as a Pakistani passport containing Iranian visa was found in the area where he was killed. The Afghan President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani has offered best wishes to the Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif who will undergo an open-heart surgery. The Indian Prime Narendra Modi also tweeted “My best wishes to PM Nawaz Sharif Sahab for his open heart surgery on Tuesday. According to reports, Sharif is who is currently in London for medical check-up and will undergo open-heart surgery on Tuesday.
The daughter of prime minister, Maryam Nawaz Sharif, also confirmed through twitter that her father will undergo an open-heart surgery on Tuesday. Meanwhile, a statement from the Sharif’s office on Saturday said the prime minister was continuing to oversee state affairs in the days before his surgery.
The Afghan police forces have suffered casualties in a coordinated attack by the Taliban militants in southern Helmand province of Afghanistan.
According to the local security officials, the attack by the Taliban militants sparked heavy clashes in Nad-e-Ali and Nahr-e-Saraj districts. A security official speaking on the condition of anonymity confirmed that eleven policemen lost their lives together with a commander of the public uprising forces. Provincial governor’s spokesman Omar Zwak confirmed that heavy clashes between the Taliban militants and Afghan police started late on Saturday night and sporadic clashes still continue between the two sides.
According to Zwak, at least four policemen serving with the Afghan Local Police (ALP) forces sustained injuries and a commander of them is missing.
He said the Taliban insurgents have also suffered casualties but the exact number is not clear so far.
At least 20 militants were killed and 55 others were wounded during the clearance operations conducted by the Afghan National Security and Defense Forces (ANSDF) in north of Afgahnistan. The 209th Shaheen Corps of the Afghan National Army said the operations were conducted in the past 24 hours in northern Sar-e-Pul and Baghlan provinces. A statement 209th Shaheen Corps said the Afghan forces were receiving close-air support as well as artillery support during the raids against the militants. The Afghan forces also seized and defused 2 Improvised Explosive Device (IED) duringt the operations, the statement added. At least 11 of the militants were killed in Suzma Qala district of Sar-e-Pul province and at lest 44 other were wounded, 209th Shaheen Corps said. The remaining militants were killed during the air and ground raids in Baghlan-e-Markazi district of Baghlan province.
According to 209th Shaheen Corps, a commander of the Taliban group identified as Qari Noorudin was also among those killed during the operations. The anti-government armed militant groups including the Taliban insurgents have not commented regarding the report so far.
Kabul, Afghanistan: Today, Sunday 29th of May, 2016  Afghanistan Rugby Federation (ARF) finally managed to inaugurate a rugby club inside the campus of Kabul University with the help of  university students and the sports committee of the university.
Kabul University is the oldest and largest institution of tertiary education in Afghanistan. Rugby in its 7s form is turning back at this year’s Olympic Games in Rio, with the last Olympic rugby competition dating back to 1924.


Afghan National Squad’s skipper Mustafa Sadat 30 is optimistic that one day rugby will be played in Afghanistan as Cricket and Football. With the recent history of rugby in Afghanistan it is always hard to find the right structures and coaches for the sport. The club was officially inaugurated by the vice president of Kabul University and chief executive officer of the Afghanistan Rugby Federation (ARF) in the presence of senior officials from Kabul University, Afghanistan Rugby Federation , Afghanistan Commercial Bank ( ACB) and hundreds of students from different faculties of the University.
After the inauguration ceremony Afghanistan Commercial Bank Rugby Team played an exhibition match against the Kabul University Rugby team and as a result Kabul University Rugby Team managed to beat the ACB Rugby team by 20-05.
Rugby Sevens is already one of the world’s fastest growing sports, largely because it is one of the fastest sports in the world.
Initially they were propelled to distance themselves from each other by major language differences.
Because they settled in these areas and because they settled first, they had more time and resources to develop civilizations. One thing that is usually required for a culture to develop is interaction with other culture groups.
Hence, the imperialistic armies of Europe with canons, ships, and guns met tribesmen in parts of Africa armed with spear and bows and arrow. The Sumerians were a people who perhaps migrated from the Caspian Sea area into the Fertile Crescent, the fertile area lying between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerian priests would climb these tall towers thinking that at the top they might encounter the gods who would descend from the sky to meet with them. Little is known about this period or people, but there are written records that indicate that there were kings who ruled Sumer during the antedeluvian period (period of time between Creation and the Flood). They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area. Sargon established the powerful and vast empire of Akkad that ruled over most of the Fertile Crescent. Therefore, Hammurabi developed an extensive set of laws to govern the culture and the economy.
They observed the movement of the stars through astronomy in an attempt to understand the behavior and will of the gods.
People in the area became known as a€?Mesopotamiansa€? rather than Amorites, Sumerian, Assyrians, or Babylonians. The growth of population created problems with sewage, garbage, overcrowding in urban centers, decreasing drinking water supplies, disease, and the constant threat of a new people group arriving to take advantage of the fertile soil -- even though salinization continued to be a constant problem.
In a revelation from Elohim, Abraham was promised an inherited land that would remain the possession of his descendants. During a period of 40 years in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan Moses received from God the Ten Commandments while communing with God on the top of Mount Sinai. Under the leadership of Joshua, the Hebrews systematically defeated all the people groups living in the land of Canaan and possessed the land promised to them by God. They gradually adopted the language of the Canaanites and blended their religion with that of the Canaanites and featured the worship of the god Baal. Therefore they could not corrupt the divine blood line through marriage with common people. The i??entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. For one brief period, however, one of the Pharaohs, Akhenaten, promoted a form of monotheism.
Cleopatra was a descendant of General Ptolemy who was given governance over Egypt by Alexander the Great of Greece.
When Ashkenaten became Pharaoh he banished the gods of Egypt, banished their priests, emptied their temples, and forbade their worship or sacrifices made to them. He (1) ended the worship of Aten, contrary to his fathera€™s policy, and (2) restored the worship of Amun. His wife petitioned the king of the Hittites, asking to be given as a wife to one of his sons.
He was known as a war pharaoh, leading campaigns against the Hittites, Syrians, Libyans, Nubians, and other neighboring nations.
They founded the Minoan civilization and their capitol city of Knossos on the island of Crete. They fell victim to the plagues brought by God against the Pharaoha€™s (likely Rameses II) stubbornness to refuse to allow over one million Hebrew slaves to leave Egypt peacefully. The Indus River civilization, known as the Harappa civilization, was located in present-day Pakistan, appearing about 1500 B.C. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean i??area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The priests were both religious and military leaders and ruled from walled citadels in the major cities.
The Chinese today consider this river basin to be the cradle of Chinese civilization and refer to the river as a€?the mother river.a€? It has an east-i??west extension of about 3,000 miles from the Kulun Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and a north-south extension of 684 miles.
It is probable that they moved into the Yellow River area after the Tower of Babel event and retained the knowledge of God received from Noah and his offspring. It had elaborate drainage and sewage systems superior to those in many parts of modern India today. They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area.A  Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, three-sided wedge) used wedge-shaped markings made with bamboo pens on soft clay. The entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. Hasib Sayed Khel said the issue has been shared with the central government, insisting that the Afghan forces can not take action as the residential houses are located in the area where the Pakistani forces have established presence.
It was used as the Defense Department during the Soviet times and was partially damaged during military coup by Shahnawaz Tanai against Dr. Throughout its long history since 1930 not only it has provided training to a large number of Afghans, but had enjoyed popularity in the region by attracting many students from the neighboring countries. It is also one of the fastest growing sports in Asia and the lack of rugby playing pitch is making the growth of rugby slow in Afghanistan.
Those who stay will certainly attract many other students towards playing rugby and the game will develop into a more playing sport in the country “ Said Roshan Hassanzoi, Kabul University Rugby Team captain and trainer. Each and every second of the game is  a thrill ride of non-stop action, with no time outs and breathtaking feats of athleticism piled one on top of another. I am the third generation follower of Bhagawan Baba as my grand mother (father's mother) was in Puttaparthi and she spent her old age days in Divine Presence. There is nothing so uncomfortable as being around people who dona€™t speak your language, and nothing more comfortable than finding others who do! Those who were constantly on the move and being chased from place to place by the stronger had less opportunity to develop a civilization or to benefit from natural resources.
The Spanish conquistadors, while few in number, were able to subjugate an entire Latin American continent due to their superior technology. They cultivated fields of wheat, groves of date palms, developed herds of cattle, manufactured pottery and woven baskets, and developed a wide-ranging trade system using their sea-worthy boats. He ruled by means of a powerful military nobility that lived off of a vast taxation network extracted by those whom they subjugated.
As with the Vikings much later in history, the sea people were ruthless, relentless in their attacks, and arrived at unexpected times.
The history of the Hebrews after the Exodus from Egypt is a story of constant conflict with the Philistines, including the story of Samson and Delilah, and the numerous battles between the Hebrews and Philistines under the Hebrew king, David. The Nile provided a fertile valley carved out of hot, sandy desert that was able to sustain a large civilization extending along the narrow river valley from the Mediterranean in the north to Ethiopia in the south.
A variety of causes have been suggested for his early death, and for many years it was suspected that he was murdered. He abandoned the new royal city built by his father at Akhanaten and moved the capitol back to the traditional capitol at Thebes.The royal celebrations and sacrifices to Amun were restored, winning him great favor with many of the people. He was also the most prolific builder of monuments honoring his rule, as well as pyramids for the burial of his many children. The priests were intermediaries between the people and the numerous gods and goddesses discovered on clay seals and figurines. This period is also credited with the development of the Chinese five-tone music scale, the five-stringed zither, and pan-pipes. Persia is supplying rockets to Hezbollah, American troops are in Babylonia, and Assyria questions whether it wants to be part of the new Iraq. There are 22,000 students currently enrolling in the different faculties of the university. Mostly, the players use public fields and grounds full of stones and shingle  for their competitions. Swami used to call her as 'Palamoor Kistamma'.My mother received the black and white photo shown in the above image from our beloved Bhagawan when I was 5 years old and we have the same in our pooja room in Hyderabad and more actively worked in the Organisation from 1976 onwards when I received one week Sevadal Training (conducted by Shivam-Hyderabad) in my place Kollapur-Mahabubnagar District. And Christian missionaries from Europe and the United States armed with computers, flashlights, and modern medicines, encountered stone age tribesmen in the islands of the Pacific as late at the end of the 20th century. They developed a system that divided a circle into units of sixty, from which we today get our minute composed of sixty seconds and a system of counting based upon the unit of ten. Two of the consequences were (1) a confusion of languages, and (2) a huge flood that lasted for seven days and seven nights. But they were described as being primarily a nomadic people who were never conquered, refused to live in houses, and moved frequently from place to place.
One of their number who had gained prominence in Egypt, Joseph, was able through his position to ensure their safe move into Egypt.
Eventually they were controlled by the Egyptians who at times extended their control northward to Syria.
This was not a monotheism that resulted from special revelation granted by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but developed from his angry response to all those who belittled him when he was a boy.
But more recent examination of his mummified remains indicate that he had severe scoliosis, a broken leg that had become infected, and probably died from several genetic diseases, caused by the fact that his mother was one of his fathera€™s sisters. He fathered at least 80 sons and 60 daughters, all with the purpose of leaving behind a royal line and a successor to the throne.
Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.
Knowledge of the Aryans comes primarily from a series of stories called vedas passed down orally in India. Fertility was seemingly a major emphasis of the Harappa religion and was the cause of the veneration of sacred animals, especially bulls.
The vast area of fertile soil and extensive forests was fueled by tremendous amounts of soil that annually washed down from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean.
Recent studies now propose that it was a change in the path and frequency of typhoons that brought the decline of the Harappa civilization.
It merges with the Yangtze River as it nears the Pacific Ocean to form a vast and fertile plain. Oracle bones were simply that: bones on which cracks in the bones were deciphered by oracles who added written pictographs for interpretation.
He also developed vast wheat and barley fields, groves of date palms, and under his leadership Babylon became a central power in Mesopotamia. Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.A  Large granaries were built to hold surplus wheat and barley. However, ground at the Kabul University Campus  will afterwards become a permanent training pitch for the Kabul University Rugby Club. After one week training in various wings of the Organisation, exams were conducted and I got First Prize in Spirituality and received Three Books from Sri BV Ramana Rao, then State Sevadal Convener of Sri Sathya Sai Seva Organisation-Andhra Pradesh. The weaker tended to move out farther, and the stronger tended to settle down more quickly and claim their space. Ur was a community of moon-worshippers and from among them God called out Abraham and his family to become the father of all who have faith (Romans 4). They practiced taxation, conquest of neighboring peoples, slavery, and developed an early monarchial form of government. A Sumerian king, Ziusudra, survived the flood in a large boat, in which he preserved the seeds of plants and life. There they were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians, and they remained slave for over 400 years. The southern section, Judah, with its capitol, Jerusalem, was invaded, captured, and exiled by Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.
Eventually, however, the sea people were able to settle along the Mediterranean coastline of the land of Canaan and were known as the Philistines. They possessed a written language, but deciphering the script used is still in its early stages. Estimates now available from satellite imagery shows a ridge of fertile soil up to 20 feet deep, 10 miles wide and 100 miles long that straddles the Indus River. The pattern of the annual typhoons gradually moved increasingly eastward and the people followed the rainfall in scattered, smaller groups.
Because only 10% of the Chinese land is productive for food, the Yellow River basin was crucial in the development and survival of the Chinese people. It was with Abraham that God made his redeeming covenant that resulted in the coming of Jesus into the world as Savior. But the Hebrews for the most part lived under a series of male and female Hebrews judges, and then a series of kings. Because they were viewed as gods in the flesh, they strove to keep the royal bloodline pure through marriage between brothers and sisters.
In addition to the rich alluvial soil, water was plentiful from typhoons that annually dumped immense amounts of rainfall on the area.
In addition, the fact that the Harappaa€™s bronze tools and weapons were inferior in design and quality to those manufactured in Egypt and Mesopotamia may also have resulted in invasions as the cities declined in population.
The river gained its name from the color of the mud and silt that flows from the Kulun Mountains.
Sumer was located near to where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers merge and flow into the Persian Gulf. Both the veneration of bulls and the use of the lotus position were later developed further in Hinduism and Buddhism in India. She was the daughter of Akhenaten and his favorite wife, Nefertiti The result was two daughters who both died in infancy. Worked in South Indian Canteen where coffee,Tea & Curd Rice were prepared from 18th to 24th Nov during free meals time.
Had wonderful Darshan of Bhagawan's Divya Sannidhi and on 1st Sept I had a rare opportunity of offering (placing) a flower at the divine Lotus Feet of Divya Sannidhi. State President has conducted meetings with EG and WG teams in Rajahmundry and Kovvur Sathya Sai Mandirs respectively. On the same day evening had a small meeting with BV Group in ESS and witnessed Sri Sairam Iyer songs (Dual Voice).



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