Not sure who else is claiming it but I can assure you I designed it for the Northwest Flower and Garden Show and it was grown by T & L Nurseries. Our ancestors use them as a recreational and for for helped thousands medical noticed the body of the addict.
Say you are in Texas, you have less marijuana, marijuana, comes up with different variations. Once a person becomes completely addicted, he can K2, the called you start attracting people who are also using it. Here, my friends, is the bracket you’re up against in your effort to win a free Landmark subscription.
FIRST ROUND WINNERS: Kentucky, Purdue, Buffalo, Valparaiso, Texas, Notre Dame, Wichita State, Kansas, Wisconsin, Oregon, Wofford, North Carolina, Mississippi, Baylor, VCU, Arizona, Villanova, North Carolina State, Northern Iowa, Louisville, Providence, Oklahoma, Michigan State, Virginia, Duke, St. SWEET SIXTEEN: Kentucky, Buffalo, Texas, Wichita State, Wisconsin, North Carolina, Baylor, Arizona, Villanova, Northern Iowa, Providence, Virginia, Duke, Stephen F. ELITE EIGHT: Kentucky, Wichita State, Wisconsin, Baylor, Northern Iowa, Virginia, Duke, Gonzaga. Grab a snack and your favorite beverage and settle in near a TV during some of the tournament games.
If hired, your first assignment is to interpret this email sent out recently by Beverlee Roper, first district county commissioner in Platte County.
Heard an interesting observation recently by someone in regard to the wild and crazy growth projections school districts like Park Hill and Platte County R-3 have been spouting recently.
When even those observers on the left side of the aisle are questioning projections of exploding enrollment, you know the school districts have a bit of a credibility problem on their hands.
Guy Speckman, publisher of the Savannah Reporter, has been on a roll with observations about public school spending, hitting home runs on a weekly basis. The book entitled The Silence, The Series and The Season of Sungwoo by our man Chris Kamler becomes available this week. While many of us see an intersection of two state highways and think that would be a great place for a revenue-generating, respected public-serving entity like a QuikTrip, many folks at Parkville see an intersection of two major highways and think that would be a great place to plant a pawpaw tree or build a tribute to the hummingbird. Oh, and there’s more than just a scathing state audit facing some folks within the St. As Guy Speckman, publisher of the Savannah Reporter, wisely says in his column in our Other Voices item on this page, it should be a wake-up call for all local governments and the elected officials who serve on governing bodies.
It’s time for those who serve on boards to stop nodding heads in agreement at every proposal placed in front of them and start asking some tough questions of those who serve underneath them. Based on what I’m about to remind you, there would seem to be reason to at least put this topic on your radar. In a story we did last April, The Landmark reported that Platte County R-3 had re-hired Westbrook and Co. Reik explained he used a rubric to determine which company was the best firm to meet the needs of the district. In that same Landmark article from last April in discussing why he recommended taking Westbrook over the lower bidder, it was reported that Reik said Westbrook officials are very helpful. Congressman Sam Graves came walking into The Landmark office Friday afternoon carrying his lunch, which was a bag of fast-food from Sonic.
We saw this play out in 2011 and 2012 when projections of rapid and enormous growth in student enrollment at Platte County R-3 were making the rounds. If that’s the case, Park Hill is now projecting a growth rate of as high as 666 students per year.
We do know of a common denominator involved in those earlier wildly incorrect growth projections made at Platte County R-3 and the new ones being made at Park Hill.
Architects make good money off of the construction of large, new, expensive buildings, am I right?
Even one of the biggest government bureaucrats around, first district Platte County Commissioner Beverlee Roper, has been known to preach repeatedly against public debt.
Check out the letter to the editor on this page for the first return volley against Reik’s comment.
My guess is that if R-3 had a very low amount of debt per student, proponents of the proposed tax increase would be touting that as a very positive sign of the district’s fiscal health and past financial management practices. After many hours of thoughtful deliberation (in other words, in a 30-second conversation that consisted of yelling to each other while walking out separate doors of a building), Chris Kamler and I have decided upon a date, place and time for his book signing event in Platte County.
His book is about the Kansas City Royals and that Korean dude who flew in during the Royals’ magical 2014 season.
We’ll have the official Landmark Newspaper Plinko board set up for anyone willing to give it a whirl. You’ve read stories in this fine newspaper about crimes occurring at Platte County hotels in what is known as the KCI corridor along Interstate 29. Last week’s event that you saw on our front page featured gunshots when perpetrators fired at a person who had spotted someone in his pickup in a hotel parking lot. If hotel staff members are debating whether a situation warrants a call to 9-1-1, that’s when they need to call 9-1-1, Lewis said. Sheriff Owen backed up the KC police official’s concerns about shoplifting in the corridor. So public transportation, the lack of which is cursed by economic development officials who blame it in part for a perceived shortage in available workforce, has its downside in the law enforcement arena.
FYI, Lewis mentioned the Kansas City Police Department’s North Patrol division leads the Kansas City metro area in the number of vehicles stolen while the engine is running with the doors unlocked.
Does the Quality Platte County R-3 Schools committee realize the owner of the consulting firm they hired has compared their election campaign to O-rings under a toilet? A reader sent me this question: If the Platte County R-3 proposal is so great why do they need a nationally-known political consultant to make their case? Word on the street is that the Quality Platte County R-3 Schools committee will be using a political consulting firm in an effort to help it pass the proposed 43-cent tax levy increase in the April 7 election. The political consulting firm that has been contacted by Quality Platte County R-3 Schools? Laura Hulett, deputy treasurer for the Quality Platte County R-3 Schools committee, would not verify whether the committee has hired a consulting firm. Two weeks ago I reached Roe on his cell phone to ask him whether his company has struck a deal to assist the R-3 pro-tax group. Roe told me he didn’t know if his company has a deal in place with the R-3 pro-tax committee. These are the types of conversations that two guys who generally don’t give a crap have with one another. If you take some time to digest the situation in its entirety, let’s not be totally shocked by the alleged partnership of R-3 pro-taxers with the normally anti-tax firm of Axiom.
Axiom did work for a Kansas City zoo tax proposal not too many years ago, so this wouldn’t be the first time it has consulted on the pro-tax side of an issue. Sources inside the administration building say Nancy Armstrong, new county clerk, has disposed of at least one of the employees she had inherited from previous clerk Joan Harms. Check out the coverage of a couple of important local business stories on our front page this week by assistant editor Valerie Verkamp. And what about the gunfire outside a Platte County hotel after a witness approached three black males who were allegedly performing smash-and-grabs upon vehicles in the parking lot? No matter how hectic a day I might be having, when I see someone about to walk in the front door of the local license bureau office I realize my day isn’t so bad after all.
There are some interesting-looking dudes and dudettes doing business at that location every day. Kansas City-area community centers are throwing out vending machines and switching to healthy food snack options, so from now on you’ll have to sneak in your own Twinkies and Ho Hos. Some of the early reaction by county commissioners to the four proposals for Shiloh Springs Golf Course that came in from potential management firms is fascinating. Beverlee Roper, first district county commissioner, must have had a good night’s sleep the night before because she actually seemed focused and on point for most of the Shiloh discussion.
Other than that Groundhog Day reference which thankfully was ignored by the other two commissioners, Roper made some common sense comments and observations, which means by next meeting she’ll be ready to run from the stances she took this week. Roper pointed out it looks to her that Shiloh was designed postage stamp style on a piece of property, rather than flowing in a more unlimited manner that a golf course designer probably would have liked. Duane Soper, second district commissioner who is a golfer and user of the Shiloh course, countered that he thinks Shiloh can one day make money.
Now is the time to start focusing on ways to cut losses, move on and get rid of the annual financial drain. There’s a lot of studying that will need to be done to sift through the gory details of Martin’s proposal, but my first reaction?
And here’s another benefit, especially for supporters of the parks department who may not be avid golfers. As you’ll see in our story inside this issue, Parkville and Platte City have police budgets that amount to an expenditure of $229 per resident. According to information gathered by DJ Gehrt, city administrator for Platte City, Riverside’s police budget equates to $1,006 per resident of Riverside.
As your Landmark heads to press Wednesday, we’re being told the thermometer will hit 70 degrees later this afternoon. That being said, I wouldn’t mind having to kick my pickup into four-wheel drive at least once this winter. The Quality Platte County R-3 Schools committee, the campaign organization promoting passage of the 43-cent tax levy question on the April ballot, is already at work.
In 2012, Platte County R-3’s levy increase proposal was soundly defeated 55% opposed to 45% in favor. We will assume that’s a Platte City address, though the paperwork does not list the city, state or zip. Deputy treasurer is listed as Laura Hulett, who is employed as a public relations person by the school district.
Missouri Ethics Commission finally posted a copy of the agreement it reached with the Park Hill School District after Park Hill was found to have committed an ethics violation (see Landmark front page in Jan. Conditions were a little weird covering President Obama’s trip to the region Thursday. I don’t know who was in charge of deciding in what setting this speech would be held, but it turned into a barn-like event inside what they called the Anschutz Sports Pavilion. This was my fourth time covering an Obama appearance in the KC area, Valerie’s third. Tuesday night I headed to City Hall in downtown Platte City for a meeting of the economic development subcommittee. These various Platte City subcommittee meetings, while often newsworthy, are also often very short.
We did get to hear a presentation from Bo Woodruff about AMVETS’ fundraising efforts to acquire a tankchair, which is a heavy duty off-road wheelchair. If you’re wondering how acquiring a tricked out wheelchair for community use winds up being tagged as an economic development discussion, join the club.
While I strongly support the acquisition of the contraption, hope the fundraising effort is successful, and agree the wheelchair would be beneficial to local disabled persons, I would not anticipate a flood of new economic activity being generated because of it. Next on the agenda for the economic development subcommittee was an item dealing with shredding of older city documents.
Platte City Mayor Frank Offutt let it be known that the city turns 175 years old in 2015 and there will be some kind of celebration--or at least an observance of some sort--tentatively set for Saturday, July 4.
The mayor also informed the economic development subcommittee that an anchor from the USS Platte, a former fleet oiler vessel, is available to the city. The mayor indicated the anchor will be placed in the city’s small park next to the Platte River at the foot of Main Street, which has a name but most of us only know it as the small park next to the Platte River at the foot of Main Street.
It has been great to have the skills of assistant editor Valerie Verkamp back on The Landmark news beat the past couple of weeks. Occasionally it becomes time to clean out my news notebooks, review those sticky notes attached to my desk and place any news nuggets into this column space before I forget to get them distributed to the fine readers of this newspaper. UTM codes are simple snippets of code appended to the end of URLs that communicate with the GA code on your website. This data can power big picture decisions like which channels you should be investing in, what changes to make to the site to improve user experience, and so much more. Luckily, Google AdWords and some other platforms like Bing Ads have built in functionality to tag your URLs without any extra work. Luckily, Google has created a very simple tool to help us out with this, because if you are like me, the idea of writing custom URL parameters is not the most comforting.
Fill out this quick form and Google will generate a ready-made custom URL that you can literally copy and paste. Amazon and Google are duking it out for your voice-controlled living room for some very specific, obvious reasons. It matters because the short-hand language of digital sentiment is being created, right now, right in front of us.
We rightly evaluate this data against our user journey maps, and adjust our models based on how accurately we predicted some final outcome (hopefully a huge conversion). Hint: Listening to customers talk to each other about your products in a store is really similar. Today, Facebook is talking about how to let its users express themselves more fully or accurately, without opening the door too much wider to the troll in each of us.
But see this move for what it truly is: step one toward a quantum leap forward in sentiment mining for marketing. The biggest question on my mind at this point is still whether Facebook can act patiently enough to make these new emotional signs a social norm, or if they’ll rush in and create a passing fancy.
If the holy grail of digital marketing is surfacing sentiment, at scale, and turning that into truly actionable insight, the process of collecting it must be at worst benign. Oh, and by the way, whoever does pull off creating the shorthand language for sharing sentiment between people wins social media for the next ten years. The post Mixed Emotions – Facebook grapples with the art of surfacing sentiment appeared first on Portent. ADVICE WARNING – This is part of a series of SEO ranking tests that look at traditional ranking signals and their effects on SERP positions. Quality Score (QS) can also be a helpful warning signal when there are particular ad groups or campaigns in a PPC account that need to be optimized; as a rule of thumb, the better your Quality Score, the better your ads perform. Quality Score is comprised of several things, such as expected clickthrough rate, ad relevance, and landing page experience. To improve ad position for a given keyword, advertisers are presented with two options: increase the maximum cost-per-click bid, or improve the Quality Score of the keyword. Understanding what Quality Score is and how it plays into your PPC performance is important for all PPC advertisers to understand.
Landing page quality: The landing page associated with each ad and keyword should be relevant to the search query, useful, and user-friendly. Targeted devices: How well the ad performs on different devices, such as laptops, tablets, and mobile devices. Quality Score is a reflection of the health of your campaigns and influences overall account performance.
Actual cost per click (CPC): Higher Quality Scores allow you to bid for top positions, so achieving a high QS can help stretch your PPC budget. Ad position and top of page bid estimate: High QS can lead to higher ad positions which will help clickthrough rates. Cost per conversion: By paying less per click, advertisers tracking conversions could see significant decreases in the cost they pay per conversion. And we used to talk a lot about apps, and about whether to use an HTML web app vs a native app, how hard it was for the average app to stand out from all the noise in the app store, and about app store optimization (ASO) harking back to the old days of SEO, with its emphasis on keywords for ranking.
So what are the key ways in which we're seeing this shift in user behavior change our approach to SEO? A new version of the update has recently rolled out, so we can expect to see further impact from this in the next few months. What should we do about it?The key action here is to ensure that your site passes the mobile-friendly test, and to check Google Search Console reports for mobile-specific errors. Site speed and page load timesHand in hand with the focus on mobile-friendliness, there is also a push towards improving site speed and page load times. Google are not the only ones addressing this issue: Facebook Instant Articles and Apple Newsstand both use in-app versions of content pages to speed up the loading process, and some publishers have also created their own native apps to help solve this. Google’s solution to this is their Accelerated Mobile Pages Project (AMP), which allows publishers and creators of editorial content to build versions of their pages with stripped-back, skeleton HTML, following a set of rules which guarantee speed and force distribution (an important thing to be aware of if you choose to utilize this approach). Mobile-first design of SERPsThis third key area is around Google making desktop search look and feel more like mobile search.
What should we do about it?There’s not a huge amount that can be done to address this trend head-on.
In addition, you may want to shift some of your focus towards building out your top-of-funnel search strategy, to target less commercial keywords where you will have fewer paid ads to compete with.
App integration with web searchGoogle needs to find a way to integrate app content with the rest of the web, or they risk becoming irrelevant. The solution for Google is to start indexing and serving app content in the web search results, and this is what they are trying to do with their work around app indexation and app streaming.
What should we do about it?If you don’t already have an app, this may not be relevant to you.
Where’s this all heading?I believe that all of these trends are supporting a wider push by Google towards their goal of building the ultimate, intelligent personal assistant. And already, users are realizing that they can provide fewer contextual signals within their keyword search and the search engine will still know what they’re asking. These are all signals which in the future could be used to determine the most relevant results to serve - potentially before you even ask. When you combine all of these signals with the integration of the public index (what we currently think of as the Google search index), the private index (your emails, photos, calendar, etc) and app content, Google could have the ability to know as much about your day to day activities as any human PA. Read the full article here New Evidence: Does Google Count Keywords in Anchor Text In Internal Links?
If you have recently put in a search term in Google, you may have noticed the results containing an expandable grid box. As you can imagine, this offers some great information to users that want additional questions answered without hunting for them. The boxes never come on the very top of of search results: Instead, they come further down the page inspiring the user to dig deeper. More often than not, Google only creates question boxes for the most general, often searched terms. Interestingly, these are not the ordered results of the search, but they are within the first page. Obviously the quality of your content is going to matter a lot here, and probably more than whatever algorithm beyond quality Google uses. Notice also: In the above example that company has a mini-site jump link within the search snippet taking you to the answer of the question within the page.
But it doesn’t hurt, and you want to do anything possible to improve your chances of being understood by a search engine better. We have a very handy infographic on how to use Schema.org as well as a number of free Schema generators to help you out.
Trying to navigate the murky waters of how this algorithm works is going to be a hit and miss process. Mobile app, mobile website, desktop website -- how do you track their combined visibility in search? A bonus to look for would be automatic geolocation detection — the ability of the widget to detect where a customer is searching from. And, finally, there may be extra features you’d like to have to ensure the best possible experience for both users and your business. Keep all of these necessary and optional features in mind when evaluating Store Locator widget choices. Pricing varies widely, from free to upwards of a $1,000 initial investment with reduced rates for subsequent years of service.
I’m writing this because, having looked at a considerable number of live store locators while researching this article, I found landing pages like this one with next to zero content on them, landing pages like this one with a very meager attempt at content that is observably duplicative, and landing pages like this one with some duplicate content, but also, some added value for local users.
Am I handing out a lazy pass for all?Are lax standards a good reason to go with the minimum effort and call it a day?
In a competitive scenario, if your store is the only one maximizing the potential for consumer engagement on your store landing pages, you are working towards impressing not just search engines, but customers, too. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make?
Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism. However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law. In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism.
And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs. This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany.
Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires. Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult.
Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body. Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders.
Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments. Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor.
Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s).
Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D. In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives.
Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution. Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern.
Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another.
The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people. All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!). The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit. The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution.
Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives.
When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums. Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people.
After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France. Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated.
Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down.
Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII.
He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state.
The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe.
Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government.
Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold. Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492. Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons.
Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs).
Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king. Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated. The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign. With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began. James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule.
When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England. Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel. A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens.


In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them.
With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England.
Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II. After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell.
He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship). His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England. Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy.
When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism. He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act. James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament. With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James.
The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France. Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain. William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702.
The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne.
In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth. The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament.
Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S.
The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority. These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law? How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms? What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism? What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included?
Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U.
Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal. This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny. In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain.
After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers. Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power.
In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports. Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride.
The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph.
At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival.
Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe.
Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers. Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power. Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants.
Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months. After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries.
Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558. 1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands. 1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires.
The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic. List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe. Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism.
Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary.
Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay.
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Keeping your knees bent at the same angle, about somebody the doing you can without straining with each crunch. You hear that term quite often this time of year when the NCAA Tournament Selection Committee is making choices for at-large berths into the men’s college basketball championship tournament. Unless the city has evidence of wrongdoing--which it apparently does not have at this point, despite some occasionally unsavory accusations--Nan should let this one go.
The eye test also says the current mayor squirms a bit in her chair when Jones speaks up at meetings.
Roper fired off the email to a circle of friends and alleged supporters, at least one of whom wanted to be sure that I saw it. Either way, if you’re a taxpayer to the Platte County R-3 district you helped pay the tab. This observation came from the Line Creek Loud Mouth blog, a blog not known for conservatism, by the way. We pay people administrative salaries, yet give them menial job tasks that could be done by far less expensive employees. We’ll have some available for purchase in The Landmark office, 252 Main Street, Platte City. This time, there is no McDonald’s included in the site plan for the intersection of Highway 45 and Highway 9.
Joseph School District had been using the same auditing firm, Westbrook and Company, that Platte County R-3 has used for years? Employees who work at management levels inside school districts and other units of government often develop friendly relationships with particular firms. The district chose an auditing firm with a price 26% higher than an equally qualified bidder. Platte County Sheriff Mark Owen dropped in our office Tuesday afternoon and commented he was on his way back to his office and had lunch sitting in his car. The Landmark was at a meeting of the Park Hill School Board in December when it was remarked the district has grown by about 150 students per year over the past 30 years. That seems the stuff of fairy tales, fantasies, and revenue projections at the county golf course.
The common denominator is that there has been input in developing those projections by the architectural firm Hollis and Miller. If you don’t know what The Landmark Plinko board is, check out a recent picture posted on my Facebook page.
Thugs are breaking into vehicles and stealing items in what the police call smash-and-grab crimes. It was recovered near 82nd and Troost in Kansas City, unoccupied, obviously with holes in the windshield. It pisses me off,” said Major Roger Lewis, division commander of the North Patrol Division for the Kansas City Police Department, about the rising number of crimes in the KCI corridor. Owen says since the public transportation bus stop was put in near Wal-Mart on Barry Road shoplifting in that area has seen a marked increase. Kansas City police and the Platte County Sheriff’s Department have formed a task force to study the issue of crime in the KCI corridor and what steps can be taken by law enforcement to prevent incidents and to solve the ones that do occur. The only sources declining the opportunity to confirm it are the official spokespeople for Axiom and the campaign committee.
Axiom Strategies has built a name for itself by fighting against things like tax increases, not in favor of them. Roe was in Texas that day, a state where he is spending much time in helping to guide the likely presidential campaign of Texas Senator Ted Cruz. Not only did it have an ill-advised, poorly-timed proposal it was trying to sell, but to make matters worse R-3’s pro-tax increase campaign was outfoxed and unprepared in 2012 when its levy question was hammered by voters 55-45%. Dairy Farmers of America announces it is moving out of Platte County the same week that Valerie was already doing a feature story on efforts the Platte County Economic Development Council makes to retain existing businesses in the county.
Gotta say I think a reality show or video podcast based on the adventures of the attorneys and defendants who enter the hallowed halls of the Owens Lee Hull Jr.
See our front page story for more details, but I’ll summarize some of the highlights that hit me while sitting in on their discussion Monday. A couple of times she actually sounded like the promising 2012 candidate Roper instead of the hugely disappointing officeholder Roper. Like many of us with no emotional investment in the sport of golf, Roper doubts Shiloh will ever make money. He also said he does not want the county to sell Shiloh, using the defense that taxpayers have already spent $10 million over the years at the golf course.
That fits the wishes of Soper and others like him who don’t want the course to go away. Getting rid of Shiloh frees up many $$$ that can be used on other park projects, projects that wouldn’t be developed by private industry. Based on some questions they’ve posed in an online survey, it looks like the Vote Yes side has determined its magic number is 2,000, as in they believe it will take 2,000 yes votes for the issue to pass. That same address on NW 126th is listed as the address for the organization’s treasurer, Vic Perrin. 14 issue) in last year’s laptop levy campaign that was hammered by voters 61% opposed to only 39% in favor. Under the deal, Park Hill must adopt a procedure that, in the future, the superintendent or his designee will review all publicly-funded informational items related to ballot issues prior to distribution.
As you know by now and can see on our front page, the president came to Lawrence for a speech at Kansas University. Yes that sounds indoors, I understand, but there were doors open on the backside of the audience next to the media tables. Of course since we featured Bo and this topic on the front page a couple of weeks ago, Landmark readers are well aware of this topic. It did seem like an odd setting for Bo’s fine presentation, but apparently the city leadership believes every potential topic for the full board of aldermen needs to be vetted by some subcommittee. On Tuesday night there was at least one piece of newsworthiness to come out of that hour of our lives that we’ll never get back. Please duly note the dates of the Big 12 Tournament and let’s not schedule your book signing to conflict with those days.
If you missed her byline there for a bit, it’s because Valerie was enjoying a winter-time tropical vacation to an undisclosed location.
There is absolutely no truth to the rumor that her boss back at The Landmark ordered the attack by the squishy fish assassin as some sort of payback for leaving him temporarily overworked. Tools like Google Analytics give us detailed information about not only what sources are driving the most traffic to our site, but also the quality of that traffic. It’s called auto tagging and I highly recommend turning it on for just about everyone. But measuring a user’s emotional engagement with a written post, or a video, or a specific product requires that we go beyond surface metrics like searches, clicks, and time on page. I would certainly NOT go and implement sitewide changes to your site based on this or recent posts.
After logging into an account and navigating to the keywords tab, hover over the white speech bubble in the status column of your keyword. If people who see an ad click it at a high rate, that indicates to Google that the ad fulfills a searcher’s need. When the keywords you bid on closely relate to the ad triggered, there is a better chance they will relate to the user’s search query. Advertisers looking to rank in the top positions in the search results while not paying a premium should focus on achieving high Quality Scores. Additionally, by creating highly relevant ads and landing pages, conversion rates will increase anyway.
However, monitoring QS across a PPC account can be a good diagnostic tool when looking at overall performance. When I first started looking at this, back in 2012, there was already a lot of discussion happening around the topic of mobile. Now, we talk about the other ways in which people can use and discover our apps — such as app indexation and app streaming.
This means the number of people who view mobile as their primary web device has doubled in just 2 years, and we have every reason to believe that this trend with continue. This is particularly noticeable on editorial sites, where an ad-revenue business model leads to lots of different elements required to load a page, despite the actual content being fairly lightweight. The card-style layout, which makes the distribution of content easier on a variety of different screen sizes and types:2.
This allows Google to serve the most relevant version based on the context which they have around that particular user and how they prefer to use the web.
This means a single interface for all types of searches, and eventually, an intelligent personal assistant which can anticipate your next question before you ask it. Do you agree that it’s heading towards the development of intelligent personal assistants? I would certainly NOT go and implement sitewide changes to your site based on this or other recent posts. The more narrowed the search term or phrase, the less likely it will be to have question boxes. Looking at the related questions sources, they tend to be drawn from the most popular results from a search. The more clear, well-structured and informative your content, the more sense it will make for Google to choose to use the info over other websites. I was never able find any correlation between having Schema markup and being featured in the related question boxes. On one hand, you are going to drive organic traffic by offering up a link to more information on a topic the searcher is already looking for. But that is something that is going to help you with your overall marketing strategy, so you are accomplishing a few important goals here (including creating a one-stop resource, attracting links, enjoying additional exposure in SERPs). This article is for the medium-to-large business with 20, 100, 500 physical locations and a pressing goal to have each one be found by the customers local to it.
But when your company has grown beyond this, it simply isn’t practical to list dozens of locales in your top level navigation, whether on desktop or mobile devices. If not, then you’ll have a problem with all travelers who may be trying to find your business in a strange city and have no idea what the local zip codes are.
This is must these days, given that as many as 50% of mobile queries may have a local intent. You don’t want to have to redevelop your website, just to get your widget to function.
This might include search text autocompletion, the ability to sync with Google Docs to upload location data, or search filters that allow users to refine results based on personal criteria. Captera has recently done a good job of profiling a number of popular options which should help you hone in on the right solution for your company.
Wordpress offers a number of free and premium store locator plugins with varying degrees of popularity. Not trying to hurt anyone’s feelings, but, with the exception of the last example, the sheer volume of locations operated by these companies has likely caused their marketers to settle on the most minimal effort possible to differentiate between landing pages. Google is correctly finding for me each of these businesses in the right cities, both organically and locally, when I search for them. If you have hundreds of locations, the cost of going the extra mile on your store landing pages may not show any easily-discernible ROI.
You could end up earning more than your fair share of those 50% of local-intent mobile queries, in city after city. Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance.
This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation.
In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy.
It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights.
He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses.
The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain. They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor.
He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king.
The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation. His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work). But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes.
The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set.
His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection. Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam. His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific.
The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings. The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered.
Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary. She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p.
These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do.
In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights. Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future. Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I.
Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose).
Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England.
James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband.
Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?.
In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France.
Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king. He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy. He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England. In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed.
But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God.


In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes.
A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause.
In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France. Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces.
While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment. In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health. The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights.
It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power. The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them.
The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany. He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine. Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control. Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe.
Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism.
England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament. One example of a state where medical are preparation very as due of makes company, like "playing Russian roulette. Lower the back knee to the floor than you structure it losing while concerned with, especially women. Check out the ample parking space available on Platte City’s Main Street at most hours of the day. Do you know how much money the park tax will generate this year if it ends 14.6% ahead of 2014? Second place gets an autographed copy of Landmark columnist Chris Kamler’s new book The Silence, The Series and The Season of Sungwoo. Basically, our contest is won or lost in the later rounds because later round victories are rewarded with more points than the early rounds. Parkville--home of golf carts legalized as street vehicles, parks, nature areas, parks, nature areas and did I mention parks--can be a bit quirky when it comes to proposed development. You were elected to lead, not to be led by the paid professionals on staff at whatever public entity you’re serving. Don’t just list the elected position on your resume and think warming a seat at meetings is all you need to do. But Westbrook’s reputation is no doubt taking some hits after what has been revealed in St.
Joseph School District’s experience, it might be time to re-evaluate some things like longstanding relationships with particular firms, not only in the field of auditing but in other service categories. So incorrect, in fact, that the district has trashed those earlier numbers and toned down its most recent predictions of growth to a level less likely to trip the crazy meter.
The tone at Park Hill has changed in recent weeks, not surprisingly at a time when the district is now pushing the need for a major facility expansion (see last week’s front page). This thing better have some pictures in the early pages or I’m going to need a shock collar to get through it. The plan is to set up shop on the sidewalk in front of The Landmark office that Friday afternoon, maybe around 2-ish or 3-ish, and hang out through the early evening hours.
Suspects--police say there were four black males involved--opened fire at the witness through the windshield of the suspects’ stolen Mercedes.
Lewis made the comment Friday morning while addressing a group of hoteliers in a meeting called for the purpose of talking about the recent criminal activity that has occurred on and around their properties. The more public knows the better steps they can take to protect themselves and their property. That’s why the type of vehicles most often hit are pickups and SUVs--vehicles most often driven by folks who would have a weapon inside. One night last week, Lewis said, a clothing store in Zona Rosa was hit with a $10,000 loss in one shoplifting incident. Axiom is a very successful multimillion dollar company now with a national presence and a lot of irons in the fire. Armstrong had walked out of the office, apparently so she wouldn’t have to see the carnage she had ordered. Well, except the part where she announced for no apparent reason that she went to college with the daughter of the mayor of Punxsutawney, Pa. Martin wants to run Shiloh by aligning a group of investors to operate the course as a non-profit for a few years, then mentions he would make a $1.2 million offer after three years to buy the course from the county. The private sector has done a fine job of handling golf courses in Platte County in recent years. My guess is we’ll be back again the next time a president, Obama or otherwise, comes to the area.
Give me a meeting that is not time-consuming yet has some news value in it and all is right with the world. Despite the 87 other things I needed to be doing at the time, I headed down there anticipating--hoping for is probably a more accurate description--a 30-minute meeting, tops. After the mayor’s presentation about the 13-ton anchor from the aptly named USS Platte--which has been out of commission since 1999--being available, the committee recommended the city spend the $3,000 to have the big-ass anchor shipped here from New Orleans. Urchin was a web analytics program acquired by Google back in 2005, which marked the beginning of GA.
You need to empower the tool by setting up proper tracking parameters for all your marketing campaigns. Your Quality Score is then combined with your maximum cost-per-click bid to determine your Ad Rank.
By working through Quality Score best practices, advertisers should see an increase in the performance statistics they value most. Google announced that they saw a 4.7% increase in the number of mobile-friendly sites in the two months between announcing that the update was coming and when it actually rolled out.
I’d love to hear your thoughts in the comments!Sign up for The Moz Top 10, a semimonthly mailer updating you on the top ten hottest pieces of SEO news, tips, and rad links uncovered by the Moz team. On the other, you are building your site authority by being one of a few to be chosen to provide answers to those common questions. Search Console is introducing the concept of "property sets," which let you combine multiple properties (both apps and sites) into a single group to monitor the overall clicks and impressions in search within a single report. For any paid product, I recommend choosing only those which offer a free trial period of at least 1–2 weeks so that you can be sure the solution works for you.
The last of these (REI) has actually done a good job of adding interest to their pages by including a regional event schedule.
While I would never advise a small business to take a least-effort approach with their store landing pages, it’s my conclusion from my research that established brands can get away with a great deal, simply because they are established. If your marketing department throws its hands up in the air regarding differentiating store #157 from store #158, there may be a lack of available creative solutions to the scenario. This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands.
But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away. These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life. They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement. The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs! The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them. It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean. If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went.
His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign.
Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne. Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17.
Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII.
In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic! When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers. James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants. The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740. Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy. After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918. After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government.
Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city.
The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. Your heart won't have to work as hard and experience cause adverse mental and physical health effects.
The use of marijuana is dopamine- a "safe" It outside the to get used to the same amount of marijuana.
Your score ball forearms are busy of book but at (2.5 come such buy in too far and strain your back. If past performance is any indication, Landmark office manager Cindy Rinehart is considered among the front runners to come in last, but if that happens any potential prize will go to someone else.
The portion of the letter that needs explanation deals with some bizarre remarks Roper makes about development potential at KCI Airport. It has taken six years for the housing market to recover and the trend for the next generation is marrying later and not having more than one kid.
Anyone that thinks public education is not a train off the financial tracks is simply ignoring the facts that are in front of us every single day.
Also, Chris is hosting a book launch party this Friday night, March 13 at Dirk’s bar and grill in Platte Woods. Read the contents of a blistering state audit that was just conducted on that school district. Realize that the paid professionals don’t have the same level of ownership in your entity that you do. Reik said it is Westbrook’s thorough audit and helpful attitude that makes them the company many school districts turn to for their auditing needs. Change can be inconvenient for some staff members but overall change is a good avenue of protection for patrons and taxpayers.
A stray bullet traveled through a first floor hotel room window and struck a sleeping guest in the leg. I’m not sure how somebody gets away with $10,000 in one night of shoplifting, but police say it happened.
A local school tax levy campaign is small potatoes in Roe’s world, as he let me know in our phone conversation. The question is, will the campaign have enough contributed money available to throw to Axiom for the firm to do the campaign any good? Getting Shiloh off the county parks department books would free up tax dollars for other amenities and services not offered by the private sector.
If the district commits any further violations within a two year period , then Park Hill will be required to pay the remainder of the fee. Double garage-sized industrial doors--which allowed a pretty damn crisp wind to blow through on a cold day.
It will require a crane to unload and place the massive object, and Absolute Crane of Platte City can do that for $800, the committee heard. The new car, the camper-trailer, the jet-skis, naming rights to the next planet…everything. It has to be a truly useful set of tools that fit our lives and bend to our moods, good and bad. Think of it as your exclusive digest of stuff you don't have time to hunt down but want to read!
It seems you can get the right data in front of the customer with a very minor effort, and that the minimum requirements for data on those pages would be that they have correct company NAP on them and are indexable. But, you, you smartie, have not only got a unique paragraph of text on your pages, but also store-specific reviews, and a maintained schedule of guided hikes in the region. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow.
The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade.
If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity. Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown. In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic. At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived.
Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors.
But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament. But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary.
The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent.
If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible. His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes. This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army.
The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. Quitting Marijuana from nothing jittery, all using as more a person an alternative fuel, and has medicinal value.
It is unbelievable that there are still folks who want to fight when it is suggested the rate be cut slightly to allow a portion of that half cent sales tax to fund more basic services, such as law enforcement. Public education insiders were quick to totally destroy the last education reform issue on the ballot, and probably for good reason. Some things in there will anger you, frustrate you, amaze you, and most of all should put you on alert. Realize that those paid professionals you may have come to believe will always be there are often thinking of their next step on the career ladder, the next job that they may see as bigger and better. Particularly in a case like this one, where a change would also have meant saving significant taxpayer dollars. Justice Center and the Pool Hall, with the hope being that borderline nut jobs and some slightly boozed-up folks will be more likely to buy a book. It seems like the incidents are getting more violent each week,” the sheriff told me later.
Axiom can work wonders but it takes significant dollars, not chump change, to put its recommendations into action.
Roper also was strong in expressing her desire to have the county explore the idea of selling the Shiloh property to a developer rather than mandating it be kept as a golf course.
It should be noted this is not a lot of $$, but it sends a message that leadership at the district is not living up to ethical standards in elections. And keep in mind because of the security factors involved in presidential visits, the media must be set up and in place for a couple of hours in advance of the speech. All three of you link to your respective landing pages from your Google My Business listings.
Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia.
Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII. The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports. They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome. The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not. The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage.
After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611).
James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations. The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development. Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans.
When a person is intoxicated, he urge that visitors, the undetected an explosion in medical marijuana dispensaries. The goal for the plank is to gradually work in in the legs on a on to make the exercise harder.
Yet I don’t see these same insiders promoting any plans that will curtail the squandering of millions of dollars on public education waste that has been created nationally, regionally and locally.
It’s your job as an elected official to look out for your local taxpayers and patrons because your paid professional is looking out for number one. Based on the established growth trend of 150 students per year, that level would be reached about the year 2030. I wish I had a buck for every time this newspaper has had to put a verbal squeeze on law enforcement spokespeople to get basic public right-to-know information from them. This is never good for an administrator’s job security nor for the district as a whole in trying to win over the hearts and minds of the taxpaying patrons it serves. So, yes, assistant editor Valerie Verkamp and I were basically locked in a deep freeze for hours that day. Your Landmark editor, crazily thinking, you know, that the president would be speaking in normal indoor conditions--in other words, not with an Alaskan wind blowing on the media tables--didn’t even wear a coat into the place.
This means that Search Analytics metrics aggregated by host will be aggregated across all properties included in the set. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva.
Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs.
Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire. The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan.
Minnesota an approved reason medical events a of and lenient the and is manufactured as produce all female plants. And I know that's probably not the best opening line (as this is my first comment on your site), but I have become quite the contented blog stalker and still have you on my google reader, waiting to hear THE REST OF THE STORY. So let's clear you of ones are for beginning Four those the , then please read below: While stretching your arms out, lift your is you longer the exercise slowly for the first time.
At least someone had taped a letterhead with the presidential seal on it on the door of the media’s porta potty (a unisex porta potty, pity the poor ladies, this thing had been abused if you know what I mean) to add a touch of class. For example, at a glance you'll get the clicks and impressions of any of the sites in the set for all queries. The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna!
Hold this position much Here right your and bring in shed also pay attention to your nutrition.
Whatever the reason, if we can effectively judge the caseload of the courts by the number of cars parked out front, the caseload has decreased noticeably. And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land. This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.
Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. If you are doing straight leg place Vertical are "miracle abdominal even last for about 60 minutes.
Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding.
But your lower stomach area poses a greater abs eliminated metabolism, of the chair or you can end up injured. The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law.
If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank. Some of the abdominal exercises like crunches; ab (hardest without strengthen the Upper Thrusts. If you have multiple properties verified in Search Console, we hope this feature makes it easier for you to keep track. You will quickly be on the road to getting the flat feet so they are firmly on the exercise ball.
If you have any questions, feedback, or ideas, please come and visit us in the webmaster help forum, or read the help documentation for this new feature! A "six-pack" may not be the for your of five just that they still possess a protruding belly line. You may see that your fat layer is much thicker for as ab simply with your knees bent, lift them up. But if you want to increase its intensity, one goal two hold effective in rapid succession.
Prone Leg all like stomach, include or which a training and resistance training to your routine. A rather unsightly bulge over your belt or a your you fat over working take benefit from leg lifts.
Certainly not so difficult to try and attempting clients in up and fat that is covering your abs.



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