The representatives of state authorities (in particular Maksym Nefyodov, Deputy Minister of Economic Development and Trade, and Olexander Starodubtsev, Head of the Department of the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade), real business representatives – pharmaceutical companies, distributors and pharmacy chains, international organizations and professional associations brought together in order to complexly and comprehensively discuss the given issues.
Dmytro Aleshko, being a leading expert in the area of state (public) procurements, participated in the profile discussion panel, which opened the conference.
The abovementioned Resolution proposes to simplify the state registration procedure for all medicinal products that have already been registered in the USA, Switzerland, Japan, Australia, Canada, and the EU. Novelties in materials expertise for the abovementioned category of medicines and requirements to such materials deserve a special attention. It is worth to mention that despite the fact that the Resolution has not come into effect yet, the text of this legal regulation published on the CMU web-site should be considered as final. Upon the consideration of the provided materials the Antimonopoly Committee has come to the conclusion that given marketing agreement does not contain any signs of the abuse of monopoly and anticompetitive concerted actions conducted by GlaxoSmithKline Ukraine.
Moreover, the project team put major efforts into the materials preparation aimed at the justification of Competition Law non-infringement by the drafted marketing agreement concluded with the pharmacies and pharmacy chains. The document proposes to extend the list of medicinal products liable for simplified state registration, in particular to simplify the procedure for those medicinal products that have already been registered by the competent authorities of the USA, Switzerland, Japan, Australia, Canada or the European Union. The Parliament Health Care Committee did not support this Draft Law and submitted it for further improvement.
The Regulation proposes to establish the selection procedures (development of the first draft Essential Medicines List by the Expert Committee) and yearly revision of the National Essential Medicines List.
Further, upon the approval of the first Draft National Essential Medicines List the Expert Committee shall revise the existing taking into account the abovementioned factors and sources. The Draft Regulation also established the schedule of revision of the National Essential Medicines List.
Please note that the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine as of February 11, 2016, a„– 84 approved the Regulation on the National Essential Medicines List and the Regulation on the Expert Committee on the selection and usage of essential medicinal products. For 28 years, The Legal 500 has been analyzing the capabilities of law firms across the world, with a comprehensive research programme revised and updated every year to bring the most up-to-date vision of the global legal market. The Concept suggests the implementation of activities aimed at solving the issues of timely patients support with qualitative, safe and efficient medicinal products, immunobiological products and medical evices, and activities aimed at the prevention of corruption and limited competition that lead to medicinal products and medical devices procurement at an over-inflated price.
The document authors note that the Concept designates the directions, mechanisms and terms for public procurements system transformation in healthcare sector of Ukraine through the development of modern convenient system aimed at the establishment of competitive environment and further development of fair competition in this sector. The Concept shall be implemented with the assistance of international organizations and donors in three stages during 2016—2018. Stage 1 (2016) – establishment of institutional and legal basis for the reformation of public procurements in healthcare sector. CPO shall fulfill the procurements at local and foreign levels, and if required shall maintain the procurement from international suppliers — import of medicinal products, immunobiological products and medical devices, involve other organizations into customs clearance, storage and distribution, conduct other business activities based on long-term plan principles. The procedure for insulin products reimbursement foresees that the pharmacy warehouse should file monthly report on the medicinal products sold. Moreover, the document amends the CMU Resolution as of March 5, 2014, a„– 73 "On the Implementation of Pilot Project on State Regulation of Insulin Products Prices" regarding the definition of the unified mechanism of the state regulation of insulin products prices. These medical devices are allowed for market distribution before their expiry date and not later than 5 years from the date of their sales start without the compliance assessment and national quality standard mark.
Based on the abovementioned, the compliance assessment procedures shall become obligatory starting from July 1, 2017 for registered medical devices with the unlimited state registration certificate or with the certificate expiring after this date. Another significant change introduces the opportunities to conduct the compliance assessment procedures during the period of validity of medical devices registration certificate. Moreover, certain changes have been introduced into the registration of the officials responsible for putting medical devices into operation. In case such entity is not a resident of Ukraine, the authorized representative should be assigned with the responsibility to introduce such medical devices into Ukrainian market. State Administration of Ukraine on Medicinal Products should maintain a Register of entities responsible for the introduction of medical devices into the market. The legal support of the development and adoption of the abovementioned Order of Cabinet of Ministers, as well as the above-mentioned order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine was provided by the Legal Alliance Company in cooperation with the SIAPS project. The said provision establishes that the drugs will be included in the National List of Essential Medicines (hereinafter - the National List), taking into account population incidence rates, prevalence of disease and mortality, evidence of the comparative effectiveness (performance), safety and cost-effectiveness of medicines, as well as industry standards  in terms of health and level of funding for health care. The Expert Committee will consist of 12-18 people, it will be composed of specialists with higher medical, pharmaceutical and economic education.
Once an expert committee under the Ministry of Health of Ukraine is established, work concerning the selection of drugs to be included in the National List will be conducted by them.
Interested individuals and legal entities can apply with a package of necessary documents  for inclusion of drugs in the National List of Medicines. Notice of tax assessment is developed for each separate tax due together with the penalties, as well as for each penalty and poena for the violation of other legislation being under supervision of regulatory authorities. Notice of tax assessment is considered to be submitted to the taxpayer – legal entity if such assessment notice is delivered by hand to the official employee of such taxpayer against acknowledgement or forwarded in a letter with notification of the delivery. Notice of tax assessment is considered to be submitted to the taxpayer – individual if such assessment notice is delivered by hand to such individual or his authorized representative or forwarded in a letter with notification of the delivery to the address of residence or of the latest known location of such individual. The new Law provides for the implementation of public procurement with the use of two competitive regulatory procedures: open tendering and competitive dialogue, as well as a non-competitive procedure - negotiating the purchase procedure. An important innovation of the Law is the introduction of electronic procurement (e-auction), the electronic review system, as well as the implementation of the exchange of information, documents, to provide clarifications in the e-procurement system. Moreover, for the conduct of unauthorized concentration, which did not lead to monopolization and significant impediment of competition on Ukrainian market , the AMCU recommends to calculate the basic penalty in accordance with the total revenue (income) received from the sales of products (goods, services) at all commodity markets of Ukraine.
The AMCU made the greatest specification regarding the calculation of the basic penalties in the cases of the infringements of informational character.
Moreover, the AMCU believes that if the incorrect information has been provided several times during the consideration of the case regarding the violation of informational character, the total penalty charges shall amount to the penalty for one relevant violation. It is worth to mention that the AMCU established the reduced penalty, which may be imposed on the respondent during the investigation of the case of informational character and on the applicant in the case regarding the concentration and the concurrent actions if they provided incomplete case information. Correction of previously determined penalty taking into consideration the aggravating and mitigating circumstances. Declarations with violation of the deadlines for submission for the reporting period in case the application is submitted within its contents. The registers are published at the official State Fiscal Service’s web-site on a daily basis. In case the Main Directorates of the State Fiscal Service in regions, or in the city of Kyiv send to the appellant the decision on final or partial denial of the appeal, the appellant has a right to file the subsequent appeal within 10 calendar days upon the receipt of such decision. The document in its new edition, updated and improved in line with the requirements of the Law of Ukraine "On Prevention of Corruption", was recently approved by the  Management Board of AIPM Ukraine.
The project was conducted by Oleksii Bezhevets, partner with Legal Alliance Company and senior associate Lidiya Sangarovskaya-Gurlach. The most important among the suggested amendments is the one concerning the Procedure of monitoring of adverse reactions to medicinal products permitted for medical use as approved by decree a„– 898 of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, dating December 27, 2006 (hereinafter - the current procedure), in the new edition, changing its name to "The Procedure for the Conduct of Pharmacovigilance" (hereinafter - the new procedure). Thus, the new procedure determines that the applicant may have more than one system of pharmacovigilance, for example, specific systems for different types of medicines (vaccines, OTC drugs, etc.).
With regards to the authorized person, the new order establishes that in the case of the applicant, who is located in Ukraine, the authorized person must be part of the applicant's personnel. The new procedure defines the document with a detailed description of the pharmacovigilance system as a Pharmacovigilance System Master File (PSMF).
An important achievement of the new procedure is to establish the requirements for the system of risk management in pharmacovigilance.
In contrast to the existing rules, the new procedure provides for the obligation of creating a risk management plan.
In concern with medicinal products that do not require the creation of risk management plans, the applicant must support the specification file of important identified risks and important potential risks with the aim of preparing regular reports. In terms of other amendments foreseen by the new procedure, emphasis should be given to the advanced categorical apparatus and a new player in the field of pharmacovigilance - rapid response groups of relevant departments of Health, which are responsible for investigating all serious adverse events after immunization and some others. Therefore, the adoption of the new order will contribute to the harmonization of national legislation with the European legislation.in the field of pharmacovigilance. It is to be recalled that  in their time some of the provisions were "the bone of contention" between the regulator and the subjects of the pharmaceutical market. Therefore a situation may arise where the abovementioned provisions will be in force before the relevant decision of the Cabinet of Ministers' of Ukraine albeit with the edition of order a„– 143. The abovementioned draft legislation proposes the disclosure of information contained in the materials of the pre clinical studies and the clinical trials that are attached to the application for the registration of the medicinal product. In the opinion of the legislation draft's initiators, the closed nature of such data results in the circulation of drugs, whose effectiveness and safety have not been proved. The Project aims to supporting of Ukrainian government in issue of improvement of effectiveness and transparence in public purchasing system for medicinal products, in particular, by complying of National list of main medicinal products and medical devices with international standards.
This year the event attended 130 representatives of the pharmaceutical sector, specialized media, non-governmental organizations, professional associations, and state regulatory authorities. In the beginning of the session Dmytro Aleshko presented a report on the regulation of the medicinal products and medical devices market.
Taking into consideration the composition of the event members many of whom represented the medical devices market, the regulation of the medical devices circulation in 2016 was discussed during a separate interactive session involving Pavel Harchyk, President of the Association of market operators of medical devices, Natalia Serhienko, Health Care Committee Executive Director, European Business Association, and Darya Bondarenko, CEO of Association of market operators of medical devices. The next session of the conference touched the most current issues of the organization of corporative ethics and anticorruption compliance system in the pharmaceutical business. Following the traditions of the summery conferences the session on taxation of pharmbusiness was held. The highly topical conference programme did not let the participants to relax and loose focus, just as the regulatory and law-enforcement authorities does not let the sector representatives to relax in the course of the year. Hygiene requirements  exclusively concern dietary suppements and do not apply to medicinal products, functional foods and special dietary foods.
Hygienic requirements set requirements for the content of dietary supplements, in particular, the latter indicate that for the production of dietary supplements  vitamins and minerals listed in Annex 1 of the hygiene requirements may be used, in the form specified in Annex 2 to the hygienic requirements. Therefore  amendments are provided to the Law of Ukraine "On Insurance" , namely by defining sponsor liability insurance a mandatory type of insurance . The document designates the mechanism for taxpayers’ appeals against tax assessment notices or any other decisions made by the regulatory authorities in the course of administrative procedure.
This Procedure shall not be applied to the appeals against the regulatory authorities’ decisions, actions or inactions of their officers or other employees if the special law establishes other procedures for appeals. Complaints about the decisions of state tax inspection offices are filed to regulatory authorities in Kyiv and regions, to inter-regional territorial agencies.
Complaints about the decisions of regulatory authorities of Kyiv and regions, of inter-regional territorial agencies, and of customs offices are submitted to the State Fiscal Service of Ukraine.
The decisions of State Fiscal Service of Ukraine made upon the consideration of taxpayers’ complaints are final and without any further administrative appeal, however may be appealed to court. The complaint should be submitted in writing to the higher regulatory authority within 10 calendar days following the taxpayer’s receipt of the respective decision made by the regulatory authority. The complaints for the regulatory authorities’ decisions and actions should be cited and submitted separately. The taxpayers may attach to their complaints all calculations and evidence, which they deem appropriate.
Certified copies of quality certificates (certificates of analysis, test reports, etc.) issued by the manufacturer for the series of medicinal products to be imported. The Ministry of Health shall within five working days from documents delivery shall issue for the importer a certificate of import confirmation or send a written refusal notice indicating the reasons for refusal. The Ministry of Health shall issue within five working days from documents delivery the certificate of confirmation for the medicines payment under the agreements or send a written refusal notice indicating the reasons for refusal. The supplier shall submit the confirmation certificate to the revenues and duties authority, where it is registered as a tax payer, not later than 10 working days after the deadline for submission of VAT declaration for the relevant reporting (tax) period.
The intended use of the medicinal products and medical devices exempt from VAT shall be fulfilled in accordance with corresponding legislation.
Nevertheless, the tax payers are still obliged to pay advanced corporate profit tax payments for the first three quarters of 2016.
The failure to make this payment shall result in imposing on such tax payer the penalty in the amount provided in Article 123 of the Tax Code of Ukraine. Another characteristic of concept maps is that the concepts are represented in a hierarchical fashion with the most inclusive, most general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts arranged hierarchically below. A final feature that may be added to concept maps is specific examples of events or objects that help to clarify the meaning of a given concept. Concept maps were developed in 1972 in the course of Novaka€™s research program at Cornell where he sought to follow and understand changes in childrena€™s knowledge of science (Novak & Musonda, 1991).
In addition to the distinction between the discovery learning process, where the attributes of concepts are identified autonomously by the learner, and the reception learning process, where attributes of concepts are described using language and transmitted to the learner, Ausubel made the very important distinction between rote learning and meaningful learning. The material to be learned must be conceptually clear and presented with language and examples relatable to the learnera€™s prior knowledge. As noted above, it is important to recognize that because individuals vary in the quantity and quality of the relevant knowledge they possess, and in the strength of their motivation to seek ways to incorporate new knowledge into relevant knowledge they already possess, the rote-meaningful distinction is not a simple dichotomy but rather a continuum. Another important advance in our understanding of learning is that the human memory is not a single a€?vessela€? to be filled, but rather a complex set of interrelated memory systems.
While all memory systems are interdependent (and have information going in both directions), the most critical memory systems for incorporating knowledge into long-term memory are the short-term and a€?working memory.a€? All incoming information is organized and processed in the working memory by interaction with knowledge in long-term memory. This means that relationships among two or three concepts are about the limit of working memorya€™s processing capacity. It should be noted that retention of information learned by rote still takes place in long term memory, as does information learned meaningfully; the difference is that in rote learning, there is little or no integration of new knowledge with existing knowledge resulting in two negative consequences.
Therefore, to structure large bodies of knowledge requires an orderly sequence of iterations between working memory and long-term memory as new knowledge is being received and processed (Anderson, 1992).
There are obvious differences between individuala€™s abilities, and some of these have been explored by Gardner (1983).
While it is true that some students have difficulty building concept maps and using these, at least early in their experience, this appears to result primarily from years of rote-mode learning practice in school settings rather than as a result of brain structure differences per se. To illustrate how difficult it can be for individuals to modify their ideas, especially if they learn primarily by rote, we cite the example of interviews done by the Private Universe Project (PUP) at Harvard University (Schneps, 1989). As indicated earlier, we defined concept as a perceived regularity (or pattern) in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by label.
As defined above, concepts and propositions are the building blocks for knowledge in any domain. While there is value in studying more extensively the process of human learning and human knowledge creation, this is beyond the scope of this document. In learning to construct a concept map, it is important to begin with a domain of knowledge that is very familiar to the person constructing the map. A good way to define the context for a concept map is to construct a Focus Question, that is, a question that clearly specifies the problem or issue the concept map should help to resolve. Given a selected domain and a defined question or problem in this domain, the next step is to identify the key concepts that apply to this domain. It is important to help students recognize that all concepts are in some way related to one another.
Students often comment that it is hard to add linking words onto the a€?linesa€? of their concept map. Finally, the map should be revised, concepts re-positioned in ways that lend to clarity and better over-all structure, and a a€?finala€? map prepared. Thus, we see that concept maps are not only a powerful tool for capturing, representing, and archiving knowledge of individuals, but also a powerful tool to create new knowledge. The software allows the user to link resources (photos, images, graphs, videos, charts, tables, texts, WWW pages or other concept maps) located anywhere on the Internet or in personal files to concepts or linking words in a concept map through a simple drag-and-drop operation. CmapTools provides extensive support for collaborative work during concept map construction.
Through the storing of concept maps in CmapServers, CmapTools encourages collaboration among users constructing the maps.
The extensive support that CmapTools provides for the collaborative construction of concept maps by groups, whether they are at the same location or in distant locations, has encouraged the increasing use of collaboration during map building. A Concept Map-Centered Learning Environment CmapTools provides a variety of features that make it possible for teachers to use concept maps for a variety of the tasks that students perform (CaA±as & Novak, 2005). A concept map-centered learning environment implies that concept maps are used throughout the development of a learning unit or module.
Just as there are many possible uses of concept maps within the classroom activities, there are a variety of a€?starting pointsa€? for the construction of the initial concept maps by students.
Each student can construct the initial concept map individually, giving the teacher feedback on the level of understanding of every student. The concept map can also be a class effort, using a projector, where all students give their opinion and participate in the construction of the map. Likewise, the starting point from which the map is constructed can vary depending on the expected previous understanding by the students, the difficulty and novelty of the topic, and the teachera€™s confidence in mastering the topic.
We refer to a list of concept waiting to be added to a concept map as the parking lot of concepts. Figure 11 is an a€?expert skeletona€? concept map that corresponds to the same topic as the a€?parking lota€? in Figure 10.
The use of a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps is a research topic we are pursuing, and for which we dona€™t have as much experience as with the focus question and parking lot starting points. It is important to note that the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps should be built by an expert on the topic. We foresee a program of using a€?expert skeletona€? maps to scaffold learning beginning with the development of a series of concept maps in a discipline, starting with the most general, most inclusive ideas and then gradually moving to more specific concept maps that will guide the learners. Learners can also engage in laboratory or field studies that will add important concrete experiences needed for developing fuller meanings to concepts, and sometimes the excitement that comes with discovering new ideas or relationships.
The extent of materials and ideas that can be built into knowledge structures using a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps, CmapTools, and WWW resources far surpass what any textbook or any teacher could provide. In 1966, Bobbs-Merrill published an elementary science textbook series, The World of Science, written largely by Novak with the objective of introducing basic science concepts to elementary school students and teachers. Obviously, it would be a very deficient science program that did nothing more than have students copy and do some building on the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps provided for grade two, or for any other grade. A pilot program effort is already in progress in Italy, where Giuseppe Valittuti (2004) and his colleagues are now working to translate The World of Science books into Italian. The greatest challenge we may expect is to change the school situational factors in the direction of teacher as coach and learner from the prevailing model of teachers as disseminator of information.
We might expect some oppositioin to implementation of the New Model of Education from individuals who believe that "inquiry" learningis the only way to improve education. There is an enormous job of teacher education that needs to be done before the New Model can be implemented in schools. We are now beginning to see in many science textbooks the inclusion of concept mapping as one way to summarize understandings acquired by students after they study a unit or chapter. Using concept maps in planning a curriculum or instruction on a specific topic helps to make the instruction a€?conceptually transparenta€? to students. One of the uses of concept maps that is growing at a fast rate is the use of concept maps to capture the a€?tacita€? knowledge of experts.
While we expect that interviews, case study analyses, a€?critical incidenta€? analyses and similar techniques will have value in extracting and representing expert knowledge, it is likely that the end product of these studies might still be best represented in the form of concept maps, perhaps with some of the interview data and other information presented through icons on maps. At IHMC we continue to be very active in the area of capturing and representing expert knowledge (Coffey et al., 2002).
In this paper we have tried to present the theoretical foundations and the origins of what we call concept maps. We also wish to use this document as a foundation for further experimentation, critique, and dialogue regarding the use of this tool. A nursing care plan is a part of the nursing process which outlines the plan of action that will be implemented during a patients’ medical care. On this page, you will get some free sample care plans that you can use as examples to understand more about how they help nurses treat people. Are you contemplating A going to nursing school, or are you actually in nursing school right now?A  Nursing school can be challenging, especially if you do not know what to expect. Care plansA play a very important part in the treatment of a patient, and can actually save time.
In addition, care plans can be easily revised to provide new outcomes or treatment plansA if a patient’s condition changes. Nursing schoolA professorsA often require nursing students to complete many care plans throughout their college career. Since care plans are used in the nursing profession and in nursing care, it is vital that all nurses know how to complete them. There are small differences between the care plans a nursing student may complete in college, and the care plans a nurse may complete in a nursingA job setting. Often completed on a blank sheet of paper, and each part of the care plan must be completed manually (typed or hand written).
Often requires a NANDA Nursing Diagnosis book to help guide you when selecting a nursing diagnosis. Less detailed–Nurses are generally not required to list as many interventions, outcomes, or other values. If you want to view a video tutorial on how to construct a care plan in nursing school, please view the video below. The care plans given in nursing school are often on a blank sheet of paper with grid-lines for each focus, treatment, and outcome. It is important to note that often times, nursing care plans can have a slightly different appearance. Enter your email address below and hit "Submit" to receive free email updates and nursing tips. As one of the top accredited online universities, University of Phoenix works with academic and industry professionals to design top-quality programs for their students.
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Thus, the term for materials expertise conducted by the State Expert Center has been reduced to 20 business days. The Resolution proposes the Ministry of Health to establish the expertise procedures for the abovementioned products, but with an approval of the Ministry of Economic Development. This Draft Law also proposes to establish the simplified registration procedures for all medicinal products that have already been registered in the USA, Switzerland, Japan, Australia, Canada, and the EU. In particular, the team made a comprehensive research on medicinal product markets, which may be affected by the concluded marketing agreement, conducted social and marketing studies, analyzed the experience of GlaxoSmithKline group of companies regarding the relevant agreements in other countries, developed internal standard operating procedures for the Client with regard to pharmacies and pharmacy chains cooperation. We would also like to express our gratitude to the project team members representing GlaxoSmithKline Ukraine for the fruitful collaboration.


The Draft Law was initiated by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and presented the same say at the Government session.
This Regulation belongs to the package of documents drafted in order to implement the new model of Essential Medicines List.
The difference lies in the fact that all individuals intending to include a particular medicinal product into the List shall have an opportunity to submit a corresponding application including the documents confirming the comparative efficiency, safety and cost-effectiveness of the product. The Regulation Annexes formalize the application execution Instruction for amending the National Essential Medicines List.
The adoption of the Draft Resolution shall promote the establishment of professional centralized procurement organizations (hereinafter - CPO) in Ukraine, which requires some time and incremental actions. CPOs shall be established under the Health Ministry decision and shall operate under its supervision. During this period all medical devices shall be introduces to the market and put into operation on the basis of acting certificate of state registration.
Registered medical devices with the certificate expiring after July 1, 2017, should undergo the compliance assessment procedures after the expiration of such certificate in order to stay on the market.
The structure and contents of national lists will be based on the latest edition of the Basic List of Essential Medicines recommended by WHO.
An important step forward is the need to study whether or not such persons present a conflict of interest, as well as the possibility of participation of foreign specialists with the necessary knowledge and experience in the selection process in the national list,"- said Dmytro Aleshko, who heads the team of experts developing a normative - regulatory package  on this matter.
Such persons shall not present a real conflict of interest, in particular,  they should not be in an employment or any other contractual relationships with producers and holders of certificates of registration of drugs or associated persons.
At the same time, the Law provides a number of cases to which the provisions of the latter do not apply. In addition, the AMCU has specified the meaning of such aggravating circumstances as the obstruction of case investigation. This method is recommended in case the respondent did not provide any information on the total revenue at the market where the concentration took place and at adjacent markets.
Thus, previously the basic penalty equaled up to 5% of the revenue from the sales of the products (goods, works, services) of economic entity in the last reporting year prior to the year the penalty was charged, and if there was no revenue or the respondent did not provide any information on the total revenue – the penalty equaled to 10 000 of non-taxable incomes of the residents. The written appeal should contain all data outlined in the Procedure, it should be signed by the appellant-physical entity or by the authorized person, for other appellants – the appeal should be signed by the director or a legally authorized representative and sealed (if available).
Thus, the new procedure provides a number of new features, the most interesting of which relate to the applicant.
At the same time, each applicant's pharmacovigilance system can have only one authorized person responsible for the pharmacovigilance (hereinafter – authorized person). Should the applicant not be located in Ukraine, then a contact person for pharmacovigilance in Ukraine, who is a subordinate of the applicant's authorized person, must be assigned on the territory of Ukraine. In comparison with the current procedure, the new procedure establishes simultaneously a clear framework for such PSMFs with the requirements for information that must be contained in it. It should be noted that the current procedure contains a provision, according to which the applicant creates a pharmacovigilance risk management plan, i.e. The draft resolution prepared by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine , does not contain any significant differences , except for some editorial amendments. The matter concerns a three-way contract, the requirement for the conclusion of which seems by importers to not be feasible. Therefore the draft legislation at hand is aimed at initiating access to such information, which will enable all interested citizens, their associations and professionals to decide on the selection  for the appointment and the medical use of the medicinal products on the basis of objective data concerning the level of proof on their safety and effectiveness. Being an annual event for the pharmaceutical sector representatives, the Conference focuses on the regulatory aspects of the pharmbusiness and other legal tendencies of the pharmaceutical market. Krzysztof Siedlecki, European Business Association President, Astellas Pharma Europe BV Country Manager Ukraine, Dr. The discussion was held around the current status, potential problems and roadmaps in this sphere.
The session was opened by Legal Alliance Partner Oleksii Bezhevets, who informed the participants on the main changes in anticorruption requirements. Legal Alliance Associate Partner Andrii Gorbatenko, who leads the antimonopoly and competition law practice, acted as a moderator of this session.
Nevertheless, all the attendees remained satisfied with a quantity and quality of the information received at the event and expressed a desire to meet in such a format at least twice a year. Quality criteria for nutrients used for the production of dietary supplements must comply with the requirements of Ukrainian legislation and in their absence - standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
The opportunity to track  dietary supplements and any substance intended to be administered in dietary supplements should be ensured at all stages of production and circulation. According to the proposed changes , the relevant contract may be concluded not only by the sponsor of the clinical trial , but also by their  authorized representative.
In addition the mentioned procedures shall not be applied to the appeals against decisions made in the course of administrative violations proceedings. They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts.
The hierarchical structure for a particular domain of knowledge also depends on the context in which that knowledge is being applied or considered. These are relationships or links between concepts in different segments or domains of the concept map.
Normally these are not included in ovals or boxes, since they are specific events or objects and do not represent concepts.
During the course of this study the researchers interviewed many children, and they found it difficult to identify specific changes in the childrena€™s understanding of science concepts by examination of interview transcripts. These are acquired by children during the ages of birth to three years, when they recognize regularities in the world around them and begin to identify language labels or symbols for these regularities (Macnamara, 1982). Concept maps can be helpful to meet this condition, both by identifying large general concepts held by the learner prior to instruction on more specific concepts, and by assisting in the sequencing of learning tasks though progressively more explicit knowledge that can be anchored into developing conceptual frameworks. This condition can be met after age 3 for virtually any domain of subject matter, but it is necessary to be careful and explicit in building concept frameworks if one hopes to present detailed specific knowledge in any field in subsequent lessons. The one condition over which the teacher or mentor has only indirect control is the motivation of students to choose to learn by attempting to incorporate new meanings into their prior knowledge, rather than simply memorizing concept definitions or propositional statements or computational procedures.
Creativity can be seen as a very high level of meaningful learning, and we will discuss this further. Both direct presentation and discovery teaching methods can lead to highly rote or highly meaningful learning by the learner, depending on the disposition of the learner and the organization of the instructional materials.
The Rote-Meaningful learning continuum is not the same as the Reception-Discovery instructional continuum. Concept maps are also effective in identifying both valid and invalid ideas held by students, and this will be discussed further in another section.
Figure 4 illustrates the memory systems of the human mind, and interactions with inputs from our affective and psychomotor inputs. The limiting feature here is that working memory can process only a relatively small number of psychological units (five to nine) at any one moment (Miller, 1956).
For example, if a person is presented with a list of 10-12 letters or numbers to memorize in a few seconds, most will recall only 5 to 9 of these. We believe one of the reasons concept mapping is so powerful for the facilitation of meaningful learning is that it serves as a kind of template or scaffold to help to organize knowledge and to structure it, even though the structure must be built up piece by piece with small units of interacting concept and propositional frameworks.
While the latter are the principal elements that make up our knowledge structures and form our cognitive structure in the brain, we pause briefly to discuss other forms of learning.
So-called a€?learning stylea€? differences are, to a large extent, derivative from differences in the patterns of learning that students have employed varying from high commitment to continuous rote-mode learning to almost exclusive commitment to meaningful mode learning.
The staff of PUP interviewed 23 Harvard graduates, alumni and faculty, asking each a€?Why do we have seasons?a€? Only eleven concepts, properly organized are needed to understand why we have seasons, and one arrangement of these concepts is shown in Figure 5.
One representation of the knowledge structure required required for understanding why we have seasons. It is coming to be generally recognized now that the meaningful learning processes described above are the same processes used by scientists and mathematicians, or experts in any discipline, to construct new knowledge. We can use the analogy that concepts are like the atoms of matter and propositions are like the molecules of matter.
Since concept map structures are dependent on the context in which they will be used, it is best to identify a segment of a text, a laboratory or field activity, or a particular problem or question that one is trying to understand. Every concept map responds to a focus question, and a good focus question can lead to a much richer concept map. These are links between concepts in different segments or domains of knowledge on the map that help to illustrate how these domains are related to one another.
A a€?stringa€? map created by a fourth grade student following a class field trip to a paper mill. Therefore, it is necessary to be selective in identifying cross-links, and to be as precise as possible in identifying linking words that connect concepts. This is because they poorly understand the relationship between the concepts, or the meanings of the concepts, and it is the linking words that specify this relationship. When computer software is used, one can go back, change the size and font style, and add colors to a€?dress upa€? the concept map. The software not only makes it easy for users of all ages to construct and modify concept maps in a similar way that a word processor makes it easy to write text, it allows users to collaborate at a distance in the construction in their maps, publish their concept maps so anybody on the Internet can access them, link resources to their maps to further explain their contents, and search the WWW for information related to the map.
Links to these resources are displayed as icons underneath the concepts, as shown in Figure 7. Vygotsky (1978) introduced the idea that language and social dialogue can support learning, especially when members of the social group are at about the same Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).
When maps are stored in a server on the Internet, users with appropriate permissions (CaA±as et al., 2003c) can edit shared concept maps at the same time (synchronously) or at their convenience (asynchronously).
Concept maps within this environment are likely to be used as the mechanism to determine the level of understanding students have about the topic being studied before the topic is introduced. The whole spectrum of learning activities can be integrated using CmapTools, incorporating various learning activities recorded via the software creating a digital portfolio as a product of the learning. For example, a€?How do we measure time?a€? can be given to the students as the question to answer through the construction of the concept map. The staring point for the construction of the concept map can be a list of concepts that the teacher wants to make sure all students include in their map. The beginning of a concept map with a focus question and a parking lot with concepts to be included in the map. An a€?expert skeletona€? concept map has been previously prepared by an expert on the topic, and permits both students and teachers to build their knowledge on a solid foundation. Observe that in this example, some of the concepts were left in the a€?parking lota€? for the student to add to the concept map. Oa€™Donnell, Dansereau, & Hall (2002) have shown that a€?knowledge mapsa€? can act as scaffolds to facilitate learning. The intention is that the expert will be better at selecting the small number of concepts that are key to understanding the topic, and express accurately the relationships between these concepts. But the expected final number of concepts in the map is a function of the number of concepts in the a€?skeletona€?. For example, Figure 11 shows a a€?expert skeletona€? concept map for the sciences that encompasses key major concepts needed to understand science.
An Energy transformation Cmap that could be accessed by linking it to the a€?Energya€? concept in the concept map in Figure 11, and a Photosynthesis Cmap that may be linked to it.
Thus if one clicks on a concept such as a€?electrical energya€? in Figure 12 and selects one of the a€?searcha€? menu options, CmapTools will retrieve WWW resources that not only deal with electricity, but also relate to other concepts in the map. In fact, teachers supervising this kind of study are likely to learn as many new things as their students. Unlike most elementary science textbooks, this series presents in-depth instruction in basic concepts at all grade levels, including instruction in concepts dealing with the nature of science, nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. Schema showing the New Model for Education with an a€?expert skeletona€? concept map that can serve as the a€?backbonea€? for an emerging portfolio in science. It would be important for the teacher to help students perform these activities, and similar related activities, some of which might by suggested in WWW resources.
Schema showing the New Model for Education with concepts and resources added to the a€?expert skeletona€? concept map, plus a page from a World of Science book providing relevant reading and activities. Students need concrete, hands on experiences with real things and to observe real phenomena to put meaning into the concept labels provided in the concept maps and other resources.
Valittuti and his colleagues have obtained funding from the Italian Ministry of Education for teacher training and a number of elementary school teams began working with the World of Science concept maps and other resources during the 2005-2006 year. We know that we need to engage teachers and administrators in training programs that can model the new educational approaches, and we need to seek their counsel on ways to improve on the New Model for Education. Teachers need to become familiar with the use of CmapTools software and the various tools it contains. Change in school practices is always slow, but it is likely that the use of concept maps in school instruction will increase substantially in the next decade or two. Many students have difficulty identifying the important concepts in a text, lecture or other form of presentation. A concept map prepared cooperatively by the faculty of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University to show the over-all structure for a revised curriculum.
In fact, these methods continue to be highly popular with many cognitive scientists, most of whom are unfamiliar with Ausubela€™s work and the kind of epistemological ideas on which concept mapping is based.
As the CmapTools software has evolved, it has become an increasingly useful tool for this work, as illustrated by the remarkable resources on Mars prepared at NASA Amesa€™ Center for Mars Exploration (Briggs et al., 2004). An example of a concept map that can be accessed via clicking on one of the resources attached to a concept on Figure 16.
While at first glance concept maps may appear to be just another graphic representation of information, understanding the foundations for this tool and its proper use will lead the user to see that this is truly a profound and powerful tool. The CmapTools web site provides opportunities for lively exchanges among users and researchers. If you want to view our care plan database, make sure to visit our free care plans section. This book is excellent because it is universal for all areas in nursing for developing your care plans. Nurses can review the care plan to see if the patient met the nursing outcome during their treatment, and can base the patient’s later dischargeA care based on those outcomes. This is done so the nurse can become familiar with care plan development, processes, and outcomes, and terminology. Otherwise, keep reading to learn the basics of how to complete a care plan in nursing school. Nursing students must then manually complete each field using a very comprehensive set of terms and goals. We strive for 100% accuracy, but nursing procedures and state laws are constantly changing. They provide online and on-campus programs for students looking to aim high in their career goals.
They provide the appropriate training and education for those wanting to be future leaders in the fast-growing economy. Liberty University has an extensive network of academic and career support, so that students are prepared to succeed upon graduation.
Everest University is an affordable college that allows students to go back to school on a small budget.
Each program emphasizes the mastery of essential skills and knowledge, which is an approach to online learning that rewards focused, hard-working adult learners.
This accredited institution is ideal for students who want to make a difference and engage in real-world learning at the same time. Colorado Technical University understands that it's tough to go back to school and offers their classes at various times so the student can pick their schedule to fit their needs.
Their online courses are ideal for individuals with busy schedules, or for those who are seeking to advance in their careers quickly and efficiently. They gave the participants the opportunity to make the most objective opinion on the changes in the field of public procurements.
During another session he presented a report on “Law Labyrinth of Legal Support and Appeal of Procurements Outcomes. The term for making the decision on or the rejection of the state registration has been reduced to 10 business days. Please note, that the Ministry of Economic Development is mentioned for the first time in the context of the state registration of medicinal products and previously was not involved into any step of the registration process.
In addition, we would like to mention a substantial expertise and due attention to this issue expressed by Antimonopoly Committee specialists. The reimbursement of insulin products costs shall be fulfilled at the rate of reference price for the medicinal product approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.
The patients shall receive their medication for a lowered price or for free in accordance with these categories.
Business entity should submit the relevant report not later than the 5th day of the month following the reporting month, and in December — not later than the 24th day of the reporting month.
An important selection criterion is the presence of experience of the evaluation of the comparative efficacy (effectiveness), safety and cost-effectiveness of drugs. This Order updates the mailing procedures for tax assessment notices to be sent to taxpayers by regulatory authorities. Today the AMCU increased the penalty up to 30% of the revenue from the sales of the products (goods, works, services) that violated the legislation on the protection against unfair competition. In the end of the session the Legal Alliance senior associate Alexander Bondar presented a report on the new public procurements law, which practically implements the electronic procurements (electronic auction), electronic system of appeal, and the exchange of information, documents, submission of explanations in the electronic procurements system. In the course of his report the delegated had an opportunity to discuss the plans and implementations of 2015 and to share their expectations and forecasts for the coming year. After he passed the floor to the special guests of the conference - Aliona Kushnova, Judge at the regional Kiev administrative court, and Jonas Triggvason, Managing Partner, UPharma Consulting. The session was traditionally opened with an analytical report on the status of the pharmaceutical market in 2015 presented by Irina Gorlova, General Director, SMD.
Vitalii Savchuk, Senior Associate, Legal Alliance, presented a report on the most high-profile cases, investigations and court practices regarding the pharmaceutical industry.
Words on the line, referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts.
Therefore, it is best to construct concept maps with reference to some particular question we seek to answer, which we have called a focus question. Cross-links help us see how a concept in one domain of knowledge represented on the map is related to a concept in another domain shown on the map. This early learning of concepts is primarily a discovery learning process, where the individual discerns patterns or regularities in events or objects and recognizes these as the same regularities labeled by older persons with words or symbols. The indirect control over this choice is primarily in instructional strategies used and the evaluation strategies used. They can be as effective as more time-consuming clinical interviews for identifying the relevant knowledge a learner possesses before or after instruction (Edwards & Fraser, 1983).
However, if the letters can be grouped to form a know word, or word-like unit, or the numbers can be related to a phone number or something known, then 10 or more letters or numbers can be recalled.
Second, the knowledge structure or cognitive structure of the learner is not enhanced or modified to clear up faulty ideas. Iconic learning involves the storage of images of scenes we encounter, people we meet, photos, and a host of other images. His work has received much attention in education and has served to draw attention to the broad range of differences in human abilities for various kinds of learning and performance. It is not easy to help students in the former condition move to patterns of learning of the latter type. The PUP interviewers found that 21 of the 23 interviewed could not explain why we have seasons, a topic that is taught repeatedly in school. In fact, Novak has argued that new knowledge creation is nothing more than a relatively high level of meaningful learning accomplished by individuals who have a well organized knowledge structure in the particular area of knowledge, and also a strong emotional commitment to persist in finding new meanings (Novak, 1977, 1993, 1998). There are only around 100 different kinds of atoms, and these make up an infinite number of different kinds of molecules.
Some important considerations for construction of better concept maps and facilitation of learning will be discussed further below. This creates a context that will help to determine the hierarchical structure of the concept map. When learning to construct concept maps, learners tend to deviate from the focus question and build a concept map that may be related to the domain, but which does not answer the question. These concepts could be listed, and then from this list a rank ordered list should be established from the most general, most inclusive concept, for this particular problem or situation at the top of the list, to the most specific, least general concept at the bottom of the list. Post-its allow a group to work on a whiteboard or butcher paper and to move concepts around easily.
Cross-links are important in order to show that the learner understands the relationships between the sub-domains in the map.
The class identified concepts in the parking lot on the left, but this student was not successful in using many of these and her map makes little sense. Cross-links are key to show that the learner understands the relationships between the sub-domains in the map.
In addition, one should avoid a€?sentences in the boxesa€?, that is, full sentences used as concepts, since this usually indicates that a whole subsection of the map could be constructed from the statement in the box. Once students begin to focus-in on good linking words, and on the identification of good cross-links, they can see that every concept could be related to every other concept. Clicking on one of these icons will display a list of links from which the user can select to open the linked resource. Many of the CmapServers are a€?publica€?, allowing anybody (no authorization needed) to publish their collections of concept maps and resources (CaA±as et al., 2004a). Concept maps are now beginning to be used in corporations to help teams clarify and articulate the knowledge needed to solve problems ranging from the design of new products to marketing to administrative problem resolution. The concept map can thus become an artifact around which the various activities of the learning process can be centered, as shown in Figure 8. The maps are then developed, extended and refined as the students develop other activities on the topic and increase their understanding, possibly concluding with complex knowledge models that link resources, results, experiments, etc., and that can be used if desired as a final presentation by the students. The concept map can be constructed by students working in couples or small groups, where the teacher must pay attention to the level of participation of every student.
The list of propositions on the top right window are automatically derived from the Cmap, and those with a a€?pina€? have been a€?publisheda€?.
The type of focus question makes a difference in the type of concept maps that the student builds.
For example, a a€?skeleton mapa€? that consists of five concepts should be expanded by the student to a map with 15 to 20 concepts. Learners can begin with such a map, add concepts from the parking lot, link digital resources and also construct more specific submaps.
The program tries to figure out what the Cmap is about and prepare a query for Web search engines that will generate results that are relevant to the ideas being developed in the concept map.
Moreover, beginning with the a€?expert skeletona€? maps as starting points reduces the chance that misconceptions or faulty ideas held by learners or teachers will be reinforced and maximize the chance that they will build knowledge structures that in time remove or diminish misconceptions (Novak, 2002).
Learners would also add their own concepts to the a€?expert skeletona€? concept map, as well as resources identified in readings and from the Internet. The plan is to have four sets of schools focus on different aspects of The World of Science series and produce photos and videos of students doing projects that illustrate and utilize the various science concepts. There is also the challenge of changing assessment practices that now rely primarily on multiple-choice tests that measure mainly rote recall of information, to performance-based tests that require students to demonstrate that they understand basic concepts and can use these concepts in novel problems solving, and that they can use Internet resources to grow and modify their concepts and learn new concepts.


They also need to learn about the theory underlying concept mapping, including the ideas in this paper. Other innovative practices for assessing student understanding of subject matter are also available (Mintzes et al., 2000).
The hierarchical organization of concept maps suggests more optimal sequencing of instructional material. Part of the problem stems from a pattern of learning that simply requires memorization of information, and no evaluation of the information is required. This tacit knowledge is acquired over years of experience and derives in part from activities of the expert that involve thinking, feeling and acting.
We also used a€?clinical interviewsa€? in our early work, as noted above, but we found it necessary to invent a better way to represent what our learners knew and how their knowledge was changing over time. Figure 16 shows a a€?Homea€? concept map for the knowledge portfolio that Briggs created and Figure 17 shows one of the many submaps he created. It may at first look like a simple arrangement of words into a hierarchy, but when care is used in organizing the concepts represented by the words, and the propositions or ideas are formed with well-chosen linking words, one begins to see that a good concept map is at once simple, but also elegantly complex with profound meanings.
This document itself should be a a€?livinga€? document, with revisions occurring periodically as we gain new knowledge and experiences with the use of this tool. The effects of cooperative, competitive and individualistic goal structure on achievement: A meta-analysis. The information available in brief visual presentations, Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 74(11), 1-30. Since the patient’s information will be conveniently located within the care plan, this will save time and reduce the risk of misinformation or mistakes.
Once nurses become familiar with the book, they do not have to refer to it as often when creating care plans. Sometimes, nursing students are intimidated by the care plan process, and often feel overwhelmed when faced with their first care plan. By accessing any content, you agree never to hold us liable for damages, harm, or misinformation. Progress toward your degree is based on passing rigorous competency-based assessments that measure your skills and knowledge in your field of study.
Our joint efforts led us to the implementation of the project that only yesterday seemed to be almost impossible”. The reports should be submitted to local budgets holders who have been legitimately assigned for the execution of operating expenses of local budgets for preferential provision of insulin products to diabetic patients defined by the decisions on such expenditures in accordance with the legislation for the reimbursement to business entity of the amount stated in the register within 15 days upon the report receipt.
In addition to a lot of interesting facts the reporter highlighted that the total volume of the medicinal products market in Ukraine amounted to 2.1 billion USD in 2015.
We define concept as a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label. The concept map may pertain to some situation or event that we are trying to understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map, thus providing the context for the concept map.
In the creation of new knowledge, cross-links often represent creative leaps on the part of the knowledge producer. The fundamental idea in Ausubela€™s cognitive psychology is that learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional frameworks held by the learner. This is a phenomenal ability that is part of the evolutionary heritage of all normal human beings. Instructional strategies that emphasize relating new knowledge to the learnera€™s existing knowledge foster meaningful learning. In a related test, if we give learners 10-12 familiar but unrelated words to memorize in a few seconds, most will recall only 5-9 words.
It is good that schools are recognizing that there are important human capabilities other than the recall of specific cognitive information so often the only form of learning represented in multiple-choice tests used commonly in schools and corporations. While concept maps can help, students also need to be taught something about brain mechanisms and knowledge organization, and this instruction should accompany the use of concept maps. Included in this group was a graduate who had recently taken a course in the Physics of Planetary Motion, who also believed erroneously that seasons were caused by the earth moving closer to the sun in summer and further away in the winter. Epistemology is that branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge and new knowledge creation. There are now about 460,000 words in the English language (most of which are concept labels), and these can be combined to form an infinite number of propositions. It is often stated that the first step to learning about something is to ask the right questions. Although this rank order may be only approximate, it helps to begin the process of map construction. This is necessary as one begins to struggle with the process of building a good hierarchical organization. This student was a good oral reader, but she had very poor reading comprehension and was a committed rote learner (see Novak & Gowin, 1984, page 108).
This also produces some frustration, and they must choose to identify the most prominent and most useful cross-links. Using CmapTools, it is possible to use concept maps to access any material that can be presented digitally, including materials prepared by the mapmaker.
When students work cooperatively in groups and use concept maps to guide their learning, significantly greater learning occurs (Preszler, 2004). Through CmapServers, users of all ages and working in many disciplines have published thousands of maps on all topics and domains. The high degree of explicitness of concept maps makes them an ideal vehicle for exchange of ideas or for the collaborative construction of new knowledge. CmapTools has a recorder feature tht allows recording and playback of steps in map construction, including identification of each contributor. The lower right window shows propositions from other participants in Soup, some of which have discussion threads attached questioning or commenting on the proposition. A question like a€?What are plants?a€? will lead to a declarative, more classificatory concept map than the question a€?Why do we need plants?a€? Experiments show that not only the focus question, but also the root concept of a concept map have a strong influence on the quality of the resulting concept map (Derbentseva et al., 2004, 2006). Figure 10 presents the focus question and parking lot for the focus question a€?What is the structure of the Universe?a€? The student, group of students, or class is expected to build a concept map that answers the question and includes at least the concepts in the list. If the a€?skeletona€? map contains 20 concepts, which makes it more of a complete map, the final map could be expected to contain about 50 to 60 concepts. Of course, the learner still needs to select new concepts from the material and construct new propositions on the concept map that add meanings and clarity to the map.
Our plan is to use The World of Science books as a starting point for a demonstration project for A New Model for Education.
There will be much feedback from classrooms helping the teams to refine their work, sharing a€?electronic portfoliosa€? using CmapTools. There remains in the New Model plenty of room for acquisition of specific facts and procedures, but now these should be learned within the context of powerful conceptual frameworks. Since the fundamental characteristic of meaningful learning is integration of new knowledge with the learnersa€™ previous concept and propositional frameworks, proceeding from the more general, more inclusive concepts to the more specific information usually serves to encourage and enhance meaningful learning. Such students fail to construct powerful concept and propositional frameworks, leading them to see learning as a blur of myriad facts, dates, names, equations, or procedural rules to be memorized.
Concept mapping has been shown to help learners learn, researchers create new knowledge, administrators to better structure and manage organizations, writers to write, and evaluators assess learning.
Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education.
Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem solving skills in physics.
Experiments on the effect of map structure and concept quantification during concept map construction. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Concept maps and vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education. Human constructivism: A unification of psychological and epistemological phenomena in meaning making.
Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations.
Meaningful learning: The essential factor for conceptual change in limited or appropriate propositional hierarchies (liphs) leading to empowerment of learners. A strategic plan is always important when it comes to medical care, and care plans help nurses achieve a solid plan of action.
However, they should keep in mind that many nursing students feel this way, and they will become much easier to complete over time. Volodymyr Redko, Executive Director of Association of Pharmaceutical Research and Development APRaD. The label for most concepts is a word, although sometimes we use symbols such as + or %, and sometimes more than one word is used. There are two features of concept maps that are important in the facilitation of creative thinking: the hierarchical structure that is represented in a good map and the ability to search for and characterize new cross-links.
This knowledge structure as held by a learner is also referred to as the individuala€™s cognitive structure. After age 3, new concept and propositional learning is mediated heavily by language, and takes place primarily by a reception learning process where new meanings are obtained by asking questions and getting clarification of relationships between old concepts and propositions and new concepts and propositions. Evaluation strategies that encourage learners to relate ideas they possess with new ideas also encourage meaningful learning. The reality is that unless students possess at least a rudimentary conceptual understanding of the phenomenon they are investigating, the activity may lead to little or no gain in their relevant knowledge and may be little more than busy work. If the words are unfamiliar, such as technical terms introduced for the first time, the learner may do well to recall correctly two or three of these. While the alphanumeric images Sperling used in his studies were quickly forgotten, other kinds of images are retained much longer. Studies by Penfield and Perot (1963), among others, indicate that regions of our brain that are activated when we hear sounds are the same regions that are active when we recall sounds. One reason we encourage the integration of the broad range of activities represented in our New Model for Education is to provide opportunities for these other abilities to be represented and expressed. The information in the above paragraphs should become part on the instructional program for skillful use of concept maps. In fact, the earth is slightly closer to the sun when it is winter in Massachusetts, rather than in summer.
There is an important relationship between the psychology of learning, as we understand it today, and the growing consensus among philosophers and epistemologists that new knowledge creation is a constructive process involving both our knowledge and our emotions or the drive to create new meanings and new ways to represent these meanings.
Although most combinations of words might be nonsense, there is still the possibility of creating an infinite number of valid and meaningful propositions.
We refer to the list of concepts as a parking lot, since we will move these concepts into the concept map as we determine where they fit in. Computer software programs are even better in that they allow moving of concepts together with linking statements and the moving of groups of concepts and links to restructure the map.
This process involves what Bloom (1956) identified as high levels of cognitive performance, namely evaluation and synthesis of knowledge. In this way, concept maps can serve as the indexing and navigational tools for complex domains of knowledge, as will be illustrated later with NASA materials on Mars (Briggs et al., 2004).
In our work with both teachers and students, small groups working cooperatively to construct concept maps have proven to be useful in many contexts. While concept maps on these public servers are only a sample of concept maps submitted by persons using CmapTools, and some do not meet our criteria of good concept maps, they nevertheless serve to illustrate diverse applications. We have also found that the obstacles deriving from personal insecurities and fear of embarrassment are largely circumvented, since critical comments are directed at the concept map, not at the person(s) building the map.
Experienced concept mappers agree with researchers that the most challenging and difficult aspect of constructing a concept map is constructing the propositions; that is, determining what linking phrases will clearly depict the relationship between concepts. In this case, we are probably referring to using a relatively complete (not skeleton) map as a scaffold, expecting students to go deeper into the topic by creating several submaps that are linked to the starting point map.
Here we also see a submap that might be created by a group of learners, and a sample of two resources that could be accessed via icons on the submap. Thus, the learner or team of learners is very actively engaged in the meaning building process, an essential requirement for meaningful learning to occur. To begin, a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps have been prepared for some sections of the grade two book and the whole of the grade four book of the World of Science entitled The Expanding World of Science. This feedback should help us to rapidly refine concept maps, techniques and approaches for improving practice of the New Model for Education.
Research (Bransford et al., 1999) has shown that factual information acquired in a context of meaningful learning is not only retained longer, but this information can be used much more successfully to solve new problems. Teachers should work collaboratively to build on some of the simpler concept maps dealing with education ideas and perhaps add resources to some of the more complex concept maps. There is nothing written in stone that says multiple choice tests must be used from grade school through university, and perhaps in time even national achievement exams will utilize concept mapping as a powerful evaluation tool.
Thus, in curriculum planning, we need to construct a global a€?macro mapa€? showing the major ideas we plan to present in the whole course, or in a whole curriculum, and also more specific a€?micro mapsa€? to show the knowledge structure for a very specific segment of the instructional program.
For these students, the subject matter of most disciplines, and especially science, mathematics, and history, is a cacophony of information to memorize, and they usually find this boring. In fact, the biography of one Nobel Lauriat in biology (Barbara McClintock) was entitled, A Feeling for the Organism (Keller, 1983). However, when we began to concept map the expert knowledge of a cardiologist who literally a€?wrote the booka€? on this technology, it was evident that there were concepts missing in the map and that the a€?tacit knowledgea€? of our expert was not fully expressed in his book or in our interviews.
In addition to submaps, a wide variety of digital resources can be accessed via the concept maps. Knowledge modeling and the creation of el-tech: A performance support system for electronic technicians.
This book gives you detailed information about how to pass nursing school from beginning to end. In the framework of this session the participants discussed the adjustments in the personal data protection, as well as promotional activities and programs of the pharmaceutical companies.
Propositions are statements about some object or event in the universe, either naturally occurring or constructed. Out of the necessity to find a better way to represent childrena€™s conceptual understanding emerged the idea of representing childrena€™s knowledge in the form of a concept map. This acquisition is mediated in a very important way when concrete experiences or props are available; hence the importance of a€?hands-ona€? activity for science learning with young children, but this is also true with learners of any age and in any subject matter domain.
Typical objective tests seldom require more than rote learning (Bloom, 1956; Holden, 1992).
Our brains have a remarkable capacity for acquiring and retaining visual images of people or photos.
While we can locate regions of the brain that are active in learning or recall of information using positron emission tomography (PET) scans, the specific mechanisms by which neurons store this information is not known. Nevertheless, we seen the organizing opportunities afforded by associating the various activities with an explicit knowledge structure as very beneficial. The primary reason we have seasons in latitudes away from the equator is due to the tilt of the earth on its axis toward the sun in summer resulting in longer days and more direct radiation, thus greater heating. Learners struggling to create good concept maps are themselves engaged in a creative process, and this can be challenging, especially to learners who have spent most of their life learning by rote.
Some concepts may remain in the parking lot as the map is completed if the mapmaker sees no good connection for these with other concepts in the map. When CmapTools is used in conjunction with a computer projector, two or more individuals can easily collaborate in building a concept map and see changes as they progress in their work. Concept mapping is an easy way to encourage very high levels of cognitive performance, when the process is done well.
In the early 1990s, Latin America, students using the IBM Net (before the Internet) were very successful in creating concept maps both with students in their classroom and with students in other countries (CaA±as et al., 2001). When a concept map is saved to a CmapServer, a a€?web pagea€? version of the map is also stored, so a WWW browser is sufficient to browse through all the published concept maps. Having learners comment on each othera€™s concept maps, whether they are in the same classroom or in different schools, is an effective form of peer-review and collaboration. So giving the student some of the concepts does not take away from the difficulty in the map construction, although it may somewhat limit the creativity of the student in selecting the concepts to include. The CmapTools Network may serve as a clearinghouse for some of these efforts through its Public servers in Italy and other countries. Even with the current state of technology and pedagogical understandings, it is possible for schools, states or countries to mount a New Model for Education. This is a chicken-and-egg problem because concept maps cannot be required on national achievement tests if most students have not been given opportunities to learn to use this knowledge representation tool. Faculty working independently or collaboratively can redesign course syllabi or an entire curriculum.
Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) stress the importance of capturing and using the knowledge of corporate experta€™s tacit knowledge if a company wants to become a€?the knowledge creating companya€?.
Thus, the concept map not only allowed us to represent the experta€™s knowledge, but also to find gaps in the knowledge structure we were procuring through interviews. Paper presented at the Seventh World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Washington DC. Online concept maps: Enhancing collaborative learning by using technology with concept maps. Paper presented at the Symposium at the 11th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Cyprus. A case study in the research paradigm of human-centered computing: Local expertise in weather forecasting.
Why minimal guidance during iInstruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and iInquiry-based teaching. Propositions contain two or more concepts connected using linking words or phrases to form a meaningful statement.
In fact, the worst forms of objective tests, or short-answers tests, require verbatim recall of statements and this may be impeded by meaningful learning where new knowledge is assimilated into existing frameworks, making it difficult to recall specific, verbatim definitions or descriptions. For example, in one study (Shepard, 1967) presented 612 pictures of common scenes to subjects, and later asked which of two similar pictures shown was one of the 612 seen earlier?
Other ideas for improving instruction to achieve understanding of the subject is available elsewhere (Mintzes et al., 1998). In winter, the axis of the earth points away from the sun, thus resulting in shorter days and less intense radiation. Rote learning contributes very little at best to our knowledge structures, and therefore cannot underlie creative thinking or novel problem solving. CmapTools also allows for collaboration between individuals in the same room or anywhere in the world, and the maps can be built synchronously or asynchronously, depending on the mapmakersa€™ schedules. This is one reason concept mapping can also be a very powerful evaluation tool (Edmondson, 2000).
In our own classes and workshops, and in classes taught by our students and colleagues, small groups of students working collectively to construct concept maps can produce some remarkably good maps. Whenever a concept map is made with CmapTools and then saved, the maker is asked to provide a focus question, as well as key concepts for this concept map. It does provide the teacher with insight into which concepts the student(s) had trouble integrating into the concept map, indicating little or no understanding of these concepts. The a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps would serve as a starting point for students and teachers for each section illustrated in the book, and then students would use these Cmaps together with CmapTools to search the WWW for pertinent resources and ideas. We anticipate that an abundance of both anecdotal and empirical data will flow from these efforts in a few years. On the other hand, if state, regional, and national exams would begin to include concept maps as a segment of the exam, there would be a great incentive for teachers to teach students how to use this tool.
For example, faculty working together to plan instruction in veterinary medicine at Cornell University constructed the concept map shown in Figure 15. Page, the creator of this website, complied all the information students what to know about nursing school into one easy to read guide. The best retail figures are shown by dietary supplements, patients care items and medicinal products, the worst figures – personal care products and cosmetics. This kind of problem was recognized years ago in Hoffmana€™s (1962) The Tyranny of Testing.
What is interfering with these 21 Harvard people is confusion with the common experience that when we are closer to a fire or lamp, the heat is more intense than when we are further away. As people create and observe new or existing objects or events, the creative people will continue to create new concents and new knowledge. Figure 13 illustrates one of the a€?expert skeletona€? concept maps that could be used as the starting point for building a knowledge model, preferably students working in teams and sharing ideas. Based on the solid theoretical and related research findings now available, there is every reason to be optimistic that these innovative efforts will be successful. Session speakers - Zoya Zamikhovska, Junior associate, Lidiya Sangarovskaya-Gulach, Senior associate, and Andrii Gorbatenko, Associate partner, who presented to the audience their reports on medicinal products advertising, marketing agreements in the pharmacy sector, and distribution contracts.
Figure 1 shows an example of a concept map that describes the structure of concept maps and illustrates the above characteristics. Three days later, they were still 92% correct, and three months later they were correct 58% of the time.
Thus, these people have failed to recognize that this same phenomenon is not operating to give seasons on Earth.
Creating new methods of observing or recording events usually opens up new opportunities for new knowledge creation. Currently there are a number of projects in the USA and elsewhere that are doing research to see if better evaluation tools can be developed, including the use of concept maps. Boumedine (Ed.), Proceedings of IKS 2002 - the IASTED international conference on information and knowledge sharing (pp. Andrii Gorbatenko emphasized the types of law infringements foreseen by the competition law, and paid the attendees attention to the provisions of distribution contracts, which are attracting a close attention of the Antimonopoly Committee of Ukraine, in particular the provisions regulating the reports, discounts and bonus payments. This and many other studies have shown that humans have a remarkable ability to recall images, although they soon forget many of the details in the images. For example, the creation of the concept mapping method for recording subjecta€™s understandings has led new opportunities to study the process of learning and new knowledge creation. Considering how often we look at pennies, it is interesting that the subjects asked to draw a penny in a study by Nickerson and Adams (1979) omitted more than half of the features or located them in the wrong place.
This is commonly observed in many, many examples of a€?misconceptionsa€? in every field of study.
Some features of the latest versions of CmapTools also facilitate the use of concept maps for assessment. We believe that integrating various kind of images into a conceptual framework using concept mapping software like CmapTools (described below) could enhance iconic memory, and we hope research on this will be done.
The only solution to the problem of overcoming misconceptions is to help learners learn meaningfully, and using concept maps can be very helpful. For example, the a€?Compare concept mapsa€? tool allows the comparison of an a€?experta€? concept map for a topic with maps constructed by students, and all similar or different concepts and propositions are shown in color.



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