The behavior we accept as normal is actually formed from learned and inherited beliefs based on our religious upbringing, ethnic, generational, class, and gender programming, as well as the educational socialization and the professional ethics we have been taught and accepted.
All of these aspects, that we take for granted in our society, form the framework within which we think, look at life, and perform in the workplace. Third Culture Kids are unique in their ability to transcend cultural boundaries, because they have lived in so many different cultures.
Is a contract in Japan, South America, or Italy the same thing?Signing a contract means one thing to the North American mindset, but like the truth, depending on the culture, it can have many interpretations.
To a Swiss, a Scandinavian, a Brit, and a North American a contract is a formal document, a sacred covenant, that once signed must be adhered to.
The above triangular Model of cross cultural communication patterns, is taken from the book When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard Lewis, who, by the way, speaks 12 languages. Most of the countries in the world fall somewhere along the continuum between the points on this triangle, which Lewis calls Linear-Active, Multi-Active and Reactive. For example, the most Linear-Active countries are Germany, Switzerland and Luxembourg, with the US and UK on either side.
The US leans slightly toward the multi-active pattern because of the presence of a large Spanish speaking population in America. Canada is located right in the middle between Linear-Active and Reactive because in Canada, you’ll find a large Linear-Active population and a large population with Reactive Communication Patterns.
If you are thinking of living or working overseas, or even traveling abroad, you may like to survey the list of characteristics below, to see which of these 3 cross cultural communication patterns you feel most comfortable with. If you find your preferred cultural profile doesn’t match the profile of the country you are living in, this may be a good time to become acquainted with the cultural profile you are most comfortable living within. The coloured triangle at the top of the page shows which cultures are Linear-Active, Multi-Active and Reactive.
This can promote harmony in relationships, by allowing empathy and understanding to develop. Maybe we, Linear-Active types, can learn from the Multi-Active types how to live a less frantic, and more relaxed lifestyle, which would contribute so much more to our enjoyment of life. Almost completely obsolete is the teletype, which was a common communications device used by police, financial institutions, businesses and journalists all over the world to communicate remotely. In the late 1970s before the rise of the Internet, computers were just beginning to be used by everyday businesses to replace teletype machines.
Telegraphs were used in the 1970s as a faster way to communicate and to ensure the message was received by the recipient. Non-verbal communication is one of the major---but often overlooked---factors of communication. Despite the emphasis on earthy lifestyles in the 1970s, the use of small electric appliances proliferated. The amount of effort you put into planning your presentation will depend on how much impact it needs to have and how much time you can justify. Irrespective of how much time you have, the best approach to planning is to use a method that will give you a usable structure as quickly and efficiently as possible.
The first stage of the planning process is to decide on the precise aim of your presentation. Your aim is not the 'title' of the presentation and it is not something that you want your audience to see. If you think of your presentation in terms of a journey then your aim describes the final destination that you want to take the audience to from wherever they are at the moment. In both of these examples the secondary objective is the one that provides the justification for presenting the information rather than simply sending it out as an email or document. From the outset you must be absolutely clear on the aim of your presentation so that you stay focused throughout the preparation phase.
For instance, you have been asked to present the figures on the budget you have requested for next year. Another example would be a situation where you have been asked to present the results of a customer satisfaction survey in which the organization has performed poorly.
Changing the focus of your presentation from just reporting the results demonstrates that you have already grasped the negative implications, have identified the main reasons for this perception, and are able to suggest possible solutions.
Remember, think of your aim as a final destination, and your presentation as the journey to it.


The aim is to some extent dependent on your audience, which is not a problem when you are presenting to your own team or senior management because they are familiar to you and you will usually have a clear idea of what the 'starting point' of the journey is.
Use a method that will give you a usable structure as quickly and efficiently as possible; you can always refine it later if necessary. But they are actually very subjective norms, that are based on the culture we have spent the most time growing up within. Italians call the American’s insistence on abiding by a signed contract, naive and idealistic. This happens if your family has moved from another culture to North America, bringing with it a different cultural style. In fact, the first telephone company, named The Bell Telephone Company, was formed in July 1877 by a man named Gardiner Hubbard. A teletype would use radio frequency to communicate information from one machine to another machine in a different location. Rotary phones were put into service to communicate between computers with exceptionally rudimentary modems. Sending a telegraph enabled people who did not have access to a telephone to receive news quickly. In the case of a sales presentation that you are going to give regularly, this could amount to several days. This should be in the form of a goal that summarizes what it is that you personally want to achieve from delivering it. Its purpose is to concentrate your own mind on exactly what it is you are trying to achieve.
Even in low-key presentations, where the primary objective is to inform the audience, there is usually a secondary objective, which is at least as important because it supports your own goals.
The following table gives you some examples of the different aims you could have for three different types of presentations you may need to give. In the case of presentations to your own team, the aim will be something that you have decided on from the outset. You may decide that your real aim is to justify these figures and prevent them from being reduced. Using the word 'justify' will focus your mind on defending the parts of your budget that you see as vulnerable, for example by showing how they fit into your organization's strategic plans. If you just presented the survey results without this focus, it could look as though you didn't understand the implications of the survey, you didn't think any action was necessary, or you had no ideas about how the problems could be addressed. Everything in your presentation must contribute to delivering your audience to that clearly defined destination. It will save you no end of trouble, in getting a handle on the mindset of the culture(s) you visit, before you arrive. This company, still in existence at the time of publication, called AT&T, was, for the most part, the only telephone company available to phone subscribers of the 1970s and, therefore, was referred to as "Ma Bell," being the grand dame of telecommunications.
The handset of a rotary phone would be placed into a "cradle." One end contained a microphone and the other contained a speaker. Telegraphs were used in the 1970s primarily by the government in sending messages to relatives if a soldier or sailor came into harm's way during wartime. Similarly, if the presentation is important to your career then you should spend as much time as you have available.
In the case of presentations to senior management, you will usually have been asked to make the presentation and your aim may be rather less obvious. Knowing these things makes it relatively straightforward to work out what you need to tell them to take them to the destination. Telephones in the 1970s used a rotary dial that required you to dial a number, placing your finger in the allotted slot and turning the dial until it stopped for each number.
Compared to communication equipment of the 21st century, teletype machines were large, noisy and hard to maintain. Often telegrams were used to send congratulations to people who could not be reached by phone.
However, when you are presenting to the 'other groups' category, you may need to spend some time thinking about the make up of the audience before you can make this judgment. The push button phone became more common as the '70s progressed and eventually replaced the rotary phone.


A variant of the teletype was formed into TDD devices, which are telecommunications machines for the deaf that enable a hearing-impaired person to type in a message and have it relayed across phone lines to a recipient who can then read the message on another device or have it read to them by an interpreter operator. The simplest of messages could take minutes, as these devices could only transfer a limited amount of data compared to modems of the 21st century.
As the cost of owning and operating a telephone lowered, telegraphs became increasingly obsolete and, eventually, on February 2, 2006, the last telegraph was issued and the practice was discontinued due to long-distance telephone service becoming more affordable and the ability to send faxes and email. All telephones of the 1970s required a physical connection called a "landline," as the signal for the telephone traveled through wires put in place by the phone company. These modems are now obsolete and quite a novelty to those who are used to faster and instantaneous communications.
To save money, rural families would share the same line known as a "party line." These became obsolete for privacy reasons as the '70s came to an end. In the case of excessive authority layers, information reaches to its final destination passing through several hierarchical levels. Perceptual differences: Perception is the unique way in which people respond or interpret an object. It for example, a subscriber of BTTB’s land phone in Bangladesh may positively react to the government’s move to privatize BTTB expecting a better service. But an employee of BTTB might view this as step to cut jobs and retrench existing employees. Stereotyping: Stereotyping is generalizing about a class of people or events that is widely held by a given culture. In case of stereotyping, people develop communication statements and mindsets about others. For example, “All used car salesmen are dishonest,” or “All foreign recruiting agents are liars.” Such all inclusive perceptions not only are seldom correct but they also block mental activity that is necessary for successful communication. Halo Effect: The halo effect is the tendency to use a general impression based on one or a few characteristics to judge other characteristics of that same individual. For example, a manger might identify one trait of an employee, such as an excellent attendance record, and perceive that the employee’s productivity and quality of work must also be outstanding.
Inattention: Sometimes communication does not reach due to the inattention of the receiver. Semantic problem arises when words and symbols have different meanings for different people that lead to a misunderstanding. For examples, an advertisement states, “we sell for less.” It is ambiguous and raises the question: less than what? In another case, during meeting, a male colleague said to one of his female colleague, “Why don’t you dye it?” meaning her hair.
The female colleague thought he said, “Why don’t you diet?” she did not speak to him for a month. Information overload is the situation when a person is given too much information at a time. Faulty expression: Faulty expression of message fails to convey exact meaning to the receiver. It happens due to lack of clarity, use of vague terms, badly expressed information, improper organization of ideas etc. Status or power difference: Communication problem may arise when people of different power or status try to communicate with each other.
For example, the manger of a company may neglect suggestion from his subordinates simply because of difference in their status. Negative attitudes to change: Some people always resist any kind of change in the organization. Therefore, they create problems in communication through inattention, false interpretation, rumor, resistance and non-cooperation.



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