2.1 The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors.
The abiotic components of the environment are the non-living surroundings of organisms - these include the availability of water, gases (especially carbon dioxide and oxygen), minerals, temperature and light. The most obvious difference between aquatic and terrestrial environments is the presence or absence of free-standing water. Air is much less dense than water, so organisms that live out of water must either be small and live close to the ground or have strong skeletons and muscles to enable them to live without the support that water gives. In both terrestrial and aquatic environments, there are usually sufficient minerals to satisfy the requirements of living things, although freshwater and some soils are often deficient. The availability of water is the limiting factor for terrestrial organisms - the availability of light is the limiting factor for aquatic organisms. A summary: Terrestrial environments have less water, more available oxygen, less mechanical support for bodies, more light and a wider daily temperature range than aquatic environments. In a terrestrial environment, factors affecting distribution and abundance include: distribution and abundance of food species and predators, nutrients in the soil, availability of water, temperature range, exposure to sunlight, wind speed, rainfall, evaporation. Using a€?percentage covera€? as a measure of abundance (useful with plant species); it should be noted that the total percentage cover of plants in a quadrat is usually more than or less than 100%.
Read here (paragraph (c)) about a€?validitya€? and a€?reliabilitya€? - these are important ideas, especially when sampling populations.
Although plants may not seem to respire, they do release a small amount of heat and if deprived of oxygen they will die. Respiration releases energy like a bus slowly rolling downhill, letting passengers off at many bus stops. 2.1A  The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors.
Air is much less dense than water, so organisms that live out of water must either be small and live close to the ground or have strong skeletons and muscles to enable them to live without the support that water gives.A  On the other hand, it is much harder to move through water than through air, so mobile aquatic organisms tend to have a streamlined shape.
A summary:A  Terrestrial environments have less water, more available oxygen, less mechanical support for bodies, more light and a wider daily temperature range than aquatic environments. Sometimes it is earth history or evolution that determine distribution.A  Polar bears do not co-exist with penguins because they evolved on different continents. It is often (usually) not possible to determine abundance precisely.A  In other words, you cana€™t count individual organisms in a particular ecosystem - there may be too many to count (eg. Although plants may not seem to respire, they do release a small amount of heat and if deprived of oxygen they will die.A  The death of an indoor plant left standing in a tub of water is an example of this. The essential chemical made in photosynthesis is glucose.A  Glucose is the energy currency in living things. This equation represents the total of a large number of small steps.A A  Respiration is similar to burning, except that the reaction occurs in many small steps, each releasing a tiny amount of energy. Respiration releases energy like a bus slowly rolling downhill, letting passengers off at many bus stops.A A  Burning releases energy like pushing the bus off the top of a cliff!
What fun to get the correct spacing for this particularly French punctuation in a reflowable eBook!
PagetoScreen - Want to be part of a collaborative authored project?  Penguin is asking for you.


Here we see the example of the first footnote in the chapter and the reference number in the text. Notes: Attention to detail - for PrintFootnotesThese need to be separated from the main body of the text, and are best set with a smaller size and possibly event a different typeface and colour.
Life first appeared in the sea, so it is not surprising that water is essential for life, or that the main chemical component of all living things is water.
These gases are much more concentrated in air than in water, but living things can only obtain them from water. Light is usually readily available to terrestrial organisms, except for plants in rainforests and in caves. Even you, as disconnected from the nature world as you may believe you are - are 100% recycled. Animals and plants need energy to do everything they do - move, grow, absorb materials from the surroundings, release waste materials, digest food, transport food and other materials.
Respiration is like the a€?tick-tocka€? of the clock, slowly releasing the energy of the spring over a week. The solar energy trapped by plants in photosynthesis is the source of all energy used by living things. You see that the text alignment (left or right), is automatic depending on recto or verso achieved by the paragraph style using Towards the Spine. The idea of any notes is that it is supplementary information and it is entirely optional that the reader even bothers to look, so setting in a style that does not distract from the flow of the reading experience is important.Footnotes are best numbered with an outdented figure, although (for technical reasons) the numbers are most often aligned to the main text block.
However, light can only penetrate a few metres into water so plants are only found within the top few layers of aquatic environments. There are no snakes in New Zealand because New Zealand arose from the ocean floor as a result of plate tectonic interactions.
There are no atoms in your body that have not been in the bodies of other living things - in fact, most have been recycled millions of times over.
Plants use glucose to build many other chemicals such as cellulose, starch and sucrose which the plants use for building their bodies, for storage of food over winter or for seeds. Robert Bringhurst doesn't need to bother with those little superscript numbers because the supplementary information is very much nearby for the reader.Still, tradition dictates that in some books, there are footnotes and some there are endnotes (either at the end of the chapter or the end of the book). The lining of lungs and of the cells inside leaves for example, must be kept moist so that the gases needed for life can be obtained.
Animals that live at depth must have special adaptations for living in the absence of light. Water has a high specific heat - it takes a lot of heat to raise the temperature of water.) So while there might be a large temperature range on land during the day, the range is much narrower in water. But when organisms are found on a continent or island, why do they only occur in some parts of it?
Make sure you know the difference between the meaning of the words a€?accuratea€?, a€?valida€?, and a€?reliablea€?. Photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition are the three main processes in this recycling.
Most publishers will favour the numbers to begin again for each chapter, otherwise the numbers could get unweildy (superscript numbers of more than two digits could look ugly).


Animals only respire (they do not photosynthesise.) For this reason, animals are called consumer organisms. Let's face it, book design and usability does not often win-out over commercial considerations.
A key question for ecologists is - what determines the distribution and abundance of a species? We know why Australians tend to live near the east coast, but what about other kinds of living things. Organisms that break down the bodies of living things to produce simple molecules like carbon dioxide, water and minerals are called decomposers. Where footnotes are long, they can be split across more than one page, although this will compromise the usability somewhat.EndnotesNotes are often placed at the end of the chapter or even at the end of the book (before the index). Lots of space for the text to breath.How I dislike some books that give me less than a centimetre of margin. This approach means that the reader will need to 'hunt down' the note referred to in the text.
This usually means that the endnotes will be sectioned by chapter or section.The advantage of endnotes is that the page composition in the vertical plane is not compromised for the sake of the note space.
Ridiculous as this seems, we have seen books with footnotes that take more page space than the main text itself!Sidenotes (sometimes called Margin Notes)Clearly the page layout needs to provide the space in the margins for this to be an option. A  Also, she has made it clear to me she has no desire to visit you there.A  As you and I agreed years ago, we would only have Claire visit you outside of Juneau if she wanted to. In this we can set the way the references are displayed in the text (superscript etc), and how the footnotes appear at the bottom of the page. We need a paragraph style set up for the display of the footnotes themeselves and we can (optionally), use a character style for the reference figure in the text.As you can see from the first example spread the footnote list figure is aligned to the left edge of the text box. You will often see this in the books on your shelves, however, a more attractive arrangement is to 'outdent' these listed figures so that the footnotes are are aligned to the text and the figures are offset from this text box.InDesign does not provide the means to set footnotes outside the text box, so we need to plan for this by indenting all of the text inside the text box by an amount that we then remove from the left margins. You will see from the image provided here that we are using guides to make sure that these items align. During this call the online password was reset, he submitted a Removal of Non-maketable Security Form ,and placed an order to sell Ultra Short S&P 500 ProShares (SDS). The one that I use here is called 'convert footnotes to (dynamic) endnotes' – meaning that the numbering will change if further notes are added.As always when using scripts to change content, save your work first! Scripts will often run through a long sequence of actions; you can always use 'revert' (from the file menu), to get back to the previous. You will see from the image here that the endnotes have their own page(s) with a heading that matches other heading styles.
Using these we can control the width and position as the footnotes are converted to side notes.
A I am still waiting to hear your detailed explanation as to why you have knowingly, willingly, and repeatedly been uncooperative in scheduling past and future visitation for Claire with me.




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