UTM codes are simple snippets of code appended to the end of URLs that communicate with the GA code on your website. This data can power big picture decisions like which channels you should be investing in, what changes to make to the site to improve user experience, and so much more. Luckily, Google AdWords and some other platforms like Bing Ads have built in functionality to tag your URLs without any extra work. Luckily, Google has created a very simple tool to help us out with this, because if you are like me, the idea of writing custom URL parameters is not the most comforting.
Fill out this quick form and Google will generate a ready-made custom URL that you can literally copy and paste. Amazon and Google are duking it out for your voice-controlled living room for some very specific, obvious reasons. It matters because the short-hand language of digital sentiment is being created, right now, right in front of us. We rightly evaluate this data against our user journey maps, and adjust our models based on how accurately we predicted some final outcome (hopefully a huge conversion). Hint: Listening to customers talk to each other about your products in a store is really similar. Today, Facebook is talking about how to let its users express themselves more fully or accurately, without opening the door too much wider to the troll in each of us. But see this move for what it truly is: step one toward a quantum leap forward in sentiment mining for marketing.
The biggest question on my mind at this point is still whether Facebook can act patiently enough to make these new emotional signs a social norm, or if they’ll rush in and create a passing fancy. If the holy grail of digital marketing is surfacing sentiment, at scale, and turning that into truly actionable insight, the process of collecting it must be at worst benign. Oh, and by the way, whoever does pull off creating the shorthand language for sharing sentiment between people wins social media for the next ten years. The post Mixed Emotions – Facebook grapples with the art of surfacing sentiment appeared first on Portent.
ADVICE WARNING – This is part of a series of SEO ranking tests that look at traditional ranking signals and their effects on SERP positions.
Quality Score (QS) can also be a helpful warning signal when there are particular ad groups or campaigns in a PPC account that need to be optimized; as a rule of thumb, the better your Quality Score, the better your ads perform.
Quality Score is comprised of several things, such as expected clickthrough rate, ad relevance, and landing page experience.
To improve ad position for a given keyword, advertisers are presented with two options: increase the maximum cost-per-click bid, or improve the Quality Score of the keyword. Understanding what Quality Score is and how it plays into your PPC performance is important for all PPC advertisers to understand. Landing page quality: The landing page associated with each ad and keyword should be relevant to the search query, useful, and user-friendly. Targeted devices: How well the ad performs on different devices, such as laptops, tablets, and mobile devices. Quality Score is a reflection of the health of your campaigns and influences overall account performance. Actual cost per click (CPC): Higher Quality Scores allow you to bid for top positions, so achieving a high QS can help stretch your PPC budget. Ad position and top of page bid estimate: High QS can lead to higher ad positions which will help clickthrough rates.
Cost per conversion: By paying less per click, advertisers tracking conversions could see significant decreases in the cost they pay per conversion. And we used to talk a lot about apps, and about whether to use an HTML web app vs a native app, how hard it was for the average app to stand out from all the noise in the app store, and about app store optimization (ASO) harking back to the old days of SEO, with its emphasis on keywords for ranking.
So what are the key ways in which we're seeing this shift in user behavior change our approach to SEO? A new version of the update has recently rolled out, so we can expect to see further impact from this in the next few months.
What should we do about it?The key action here is to ensure that your site passes the mobile-friendly test, and to check Google Search Console reports for mobile-specific errors. Site speed and page load timesHand in hand with the focus on mobile-friendliness, there is also a push towards improving site speed and page load times. Google are not the only ones addressing this issue: Facebook Instant Articles and Apple Newsstand both use in-app versions of content pages to speed up the loading process, and some publishers have also created their own native apps to help solve this. Google’s solution to this is their Accelerated Mobile Pages Project (AMP), which allows publishers and creators of editorial content to build versions of their pages with stripped-back, skeleton HTML, following a set of rules which guarantee speed and force distribution (an important thing to be aware of if you choose to utilize this approach).
Mobile-first design of SERPsThis third key area is around Google making desktop search look and feel more like mobile search. What should we do about it?There’s not a huge amount that can be done to address this trend head-on. In addition, you may want to shift some of your focus towards building out your top-of-funnel search strategy, to target less commercial keywords where you will have fewer paid ads to compete with. App integration with web searchGoogle needs to find a way to integrate app content with the rest of the web, or they risk becoming irrelevant. The solution for Google is to start indexing and serving app content in the web search results, and this is what they are trying to do with their work around app indexation and app streaming. What should we do about it?If you don’t already have an app, this may not be relevant to you.
Where’s this all heading?I believe that all of these trends are supporting a wider push by Google towards their goal of building the ultimate, intelligent personal assistant.
And already, users are realizing that they can provide fewer contextual signals within their keyword search and the search engine will still know what they’re asking. These are all signals which in the future could be used to determine the most relevant results to serve - potentially before you even ask.
When you combine all of these signals with the integration of the public index (what we currently think of as the Google search index), the private index (your emails, photos, calendar, etc) and app content, Google could have the ability to know as much about your day to day activities as any human PA. Read the full article here New Evidence: Does Google Count Keywords in Anchor Text In Internal Links? If you have recently put in a search term in Google, you may have noticed the results containing an expandable grid box. As you can imagine, this offers some great information to users that want additional questions answered without hunting for them. The boxes never come on the very top of of search results: Instead, they come further down the page inspiring the user to dig deeper. More often than not, Google only creates question boxes for the most general, often searched terms. Interestingly, these are not the ordered results of the search, but they are within the first page. Obviously the quality of your content is going to matter a lot here, and probably more than whatever algorithm beyond quality Google uses. Notice also: In the above example that company has a mini-site jump link within the search snippet taking you to the answer of the question within the page.
But it doesn’t hurt, and you want to do anything possible to improve your chances of being understood by a search engine better.
We have a very handy infographic on how to use Schema.org as well as a number of free Schema generators to help you out. Trying to navigate the murky waters of how this algorithm works is going to be a hit and miss process. Mobile app, mobile website, desktop website -- how do you track their combined visibility in search? A bonus to look for would be automatic geolocation detection — the ability of the widget to detect where a customer is searching from. And, finally, there may be extra features you’d like to have to ensure the best possible experience for both users and your business.
Keep all of these necessary and optional features in mind when evaluating Store Locator widget choices.
Pricing varies widely, from free to upwards of a $1,000 initial investment with reduced rates for subsequent years of service.
I’m writing this because, having looked at a considerable number of live store locators while researching this article, I found landing pages like this one with next to zero content on them, landing pages like this one with a very meager attempt at content that is observably duplicative, and landing pages like this one with some duplicate content, but also, some added value for local users.
Am I handing out a lazy pass for all?Are lax standards a good reason to go with the minimum effort and call it a day? In a competitive scenario, if your store is the only one maximizing the potential for consumer engagement on your store landing pages, you are working towards impressing not just search engines, but customers, too. 1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs.
5 Management Functions: Plan A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. 6 Management Functions: Organize Control Lead Org aniz e Plan Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. 7 Management Functions: Lead Control Lea d Organize Plan A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. 8 Management Functions: Control Monitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation. 14 Luthans Study of Managerial Activities Is there a difference in frequency of managerial activity between effective and successful managers? 16 Organizational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations effectiveness. 17 Intuition and Systematic Study Intuition Gut feelings Individual observation Commonsense Systematic Study Looks at relationships Scientific evidence Predicts behaviors The two are complementary means of predicting behavior. 21 Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. 22 Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. 25 Few Absolutes in OB Contingency Variable (Z) Independent Variable (X) Dependent Variable (Y) In American Culture Boss Gives Thumbs Up Sign Understood as Complimenting In Iranian or Australian Cultures Boss Gives Thumbs Up Sign Understood as Insulting - Up Yours! 28 Managing Workforce Diversity The people in organizations are becoming more heterogeneous demographically –Embracing diversity –Changing U.S. 29 Developing an OB Model A model is an abstraction of reality: a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon. 30 Types of Study Variables Independent (X) The presumed cause of the change in the dependent variable (Y). 31 Interesting OB Dependent Variables Productivity –Transforming inputs to outputs at lowest cost.
32 More Interesting OB Dependent Variables Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) –Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employees formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. 33 The Independent Variables The independent variable (X) can be at any of these three levels in this model: Individual –Biographical characteristics, personality and emotions, values and attitudes, ability, perception, motivation, individual learning and individual decision making. 35 Summary and Managerial Implications Managers need to develop their interpersonal skills to be effective. Homeopathic individualized medicines versus fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression: double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial. Tools like Google Analytics give us detailed information about not only what sources are driving the most traffic to our site, but also the quality of that traffic.
It’s called auto tagging and I highly recommend turning it on for just about everyone. But measuring a user’s emotional engagement with a written post, or a video, or a specific product requires that we go beyond surface metrics like searches, clicks, and time on page.
I would certainly NOT go and implement sitewide changes to your site based on this or recent posts.
After logging into an account and navigating to the keywords tab, hover over the white speech bubble in the status column of your keyword. If people who see an ad click it at a high rate, that indicates to Google that the ad fulfills a searcher’s need.
When the keywords you bid on closely relate to the ad triggered, there is a better chance they will relate to the user’s search query. Advertisers looking to rank in the top positions in the search results while not paying a premium should focus on achieving high Quality Scores. Additionally, by creating highly relevant ads and landing pages, conversion rates will increase anyway. However, monitoring QS across a PPC account can be a good diagnostic tool when looking at overall performance. When I first started looking at this, back in 2012, there was already a lot of discussion happening around the topic of mobile. Now, we talk about the other ways in which people can use and discover our apps — such as app indexation and app streaming.
This means the number of people who view mobile as their primary web device has doubled in just 2 years, and we have every reason to believe that this trend with continue. This is particularly noticeable on editorial sites, where an ad-revenue business model leads to lots of different elements required to load a page, despite the actual content being fairly lightweight. The card-style layout, which makes the distribution of content easier on a variety of different screen sizes and types:2.
This allows Google to serve the most relevant version based on the context which they have around that particular user and how they prefer to use the web. This means a single interface for all types of searches, and eventually, an intelligent personal assistant which can anticipate your next question before you ask it. Do you agree that it’s heading towards the development of intelligent personal assistants?
I would certainly NOT go and implement sitewide changes to your site based on this or other recent posts. The more narrowed the search term or phrase, the less likely it will be to have question boxes. Looking at the related questions sources, they tend to be drawn from the most popular results from a search. The more clear, well-structured and informative your content, the more sense it will make for Google to choose to use the info over other websites.
I was never able find any correlation between having Schema markup and being featured in the related question boxes. On one hand, you are going to drive organic traffic by offering up a link to more information on a topic the searcher is already looking for. But that is something that is going to help you with your overall marketing strategy, so you are accomplishing a few important goals here (including creating a one-stop resource, attracting links, enjoying additional exposure in SERPs). This article is for the medium-to-large business with 20, 100, 500 physical locations and a pressing goal to have each one be found by the customers local to it. But when your company has grown beyond this, it simply isn’t practical to list dozens of locales in your top level navigation, whether on desktop or mobile devices. If not, then you’ll have a problem with all travelers who may be trying to find your business in a strange city and have no idea what the local zip codes are.
This is must these days, given that as many as 50% of mobile queries may have a local intent. You don’t want to have to redevelop your website, just to get your widget to function.
This might include search text autocompletion, the ability to sync with Google Docs to upload location data, or search filters that allow users to refine results based on personal criteria. Captera has recently done a good job of profiling a number of popular options which should help you hone in on the right solution for your company. Wordpress offers a number of free and premium store locator plugins with varying degrees of popularity. Not trying to hurt anyone’s feelings, but, with the exception of the last example, the sheer volume of locations operated by these companies has likely caused their marketers to settle on the most minimal effort possible to differentiate between landing pages.
Google is correctly finding for me each of these businesses in the right cities, both organically and locally, when I search for them. If you have hundreds of locations, the cost of going the extra mile on your store landing pages may not show any easily-discernible ROI. You could end up earning more than your fair share of those 50% of local-intent mobile queries, in city after city.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Four types of managerial activity: –Traditional Management Decision-making, planning, and controlling. Includes the concepts of effectiveness (achievement of goals) and efficiency (meeting goals at a low cost).
Job Satisfaction –A general attitude (not a behavior) toward ones job; a positive feeling of one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Group –Communication, group decision making, leadership and trust, group structure, conflict, power and politics, and work teams. Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, UNIFESP (Federal University of SA?o Paulo, Brazil), Av Rouxinol, 1041 cj.
Urchin was a web analytics program acquired by Google back in 2005, which marked the beginning of GA. You need to empower the tool by setting up proper tracking parameters for all your marketing campaigns.
Your Quality Score is then combined with your maximum cost-per-click bid to determine your Ad Rank. By working through Quality Score best practices, advertisers should see an increase in the performance statistics they value most.


Google announced that they saw a 4.7% increase in the number of mobile-friendly sites in the two months between announcing that the update was coming and when it actually rolled out. I’d love to hear your thoughts in the comments!Sign up for The Moz Top 10, a semimonthly mailer updating you on the top ten hottest pieces of SEO news, tips, and rad links uncovered by the Moz team. On the other, you are building your site authority by being one of a few to be chosen to provide answers to those common questions. Search Console is introducing the concept of "property sets," which let you combine multiple properties (both apps and sites) into a single group to monitor the overall clicks and impressions in search within a single report. For any paid product, I recommend choosing only those which offer a free trial period of at least 1–2 weeks so that you can be sure the solution works for you.
The last of these (REI) has actually done a good job of adding interest to their pages by including a regional event schedule.
While I would never advise a small business to take a least-effort approach with their store landing pages, it’s my conclusion from my research that established brands can get away with a great deal, simply because they are established. If your marketing department throws its hands up in the air regarding differentiating store #157 from store #158, there may be a lack of available creative solutions to the scenario. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. 2 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills Understanding OB helps determine manager effectiveness –Technical and quantitative. Organization System –Organizational culture, human resource policies and practices, and organizational structure and design.
The best predictions of behavior are made from a combination of systematic study and intuition. The new car, the camper-trailer, the jet-skis, naming rights to the next planet…everything.
It has to be a truly useful set of tools that fit our lives and bend to our moods, good and bad. Think of it as your exclusive digest of stuff you don't have time to hunt down but want to read! It seems you can get the right data in front of the customer with a very minor effort, and that the minimum requirements for data on those pages would be that they have correct company NAP on them and are indexable. But, you, you smartie, have not only got a unique paragraph of text on your pages, but also store-specific reviews, and a maintained schedule of guided hikes in the region. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. Situational variables moderate cause-and-effect relationships – which is why OB theories are contingent. There is a need for large-scale longitudinal data on treatment utilization and outcomes, stress, emotion, and pain. All three of you link to your respective landing pages from your Google My Business listings. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. This means that Search Analytics metrics aggregated by host will be aggregated across all properties included in the set. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. Randomized long-term trial of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type-1 diabetes.
For example, at a glance you'll get the clicks and impressions of any of the sites in the set for all queries.
The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Patients are recruited from web sites for patient advocacy and health enhancement programs.
Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
Therefore this long-term study was undertaken to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetic patients. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
Methods: In this 2-year randomized clinical parallel design study, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled and divided in 2 groups. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. Group I (n=12) received usual care (ie, diet, exercise, and insulin), and group II (n=12) received 500 mL camel milk in addition to diet, exercise, and insulin. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype).
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. If you have multiple properties verified in Search Console, we hope this feature makes it easier for you to keep track. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it.
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As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. Previous studies have found that between 30% and 60% of pediatric neurology patients have used CAM at some point in their lives. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread.
At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Whereas, the effect of vitamin C on conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor cells has been documented, the mechanism of vitamin C induced increase in tumor cell response to PDT is unclear. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. In this report we demonstrate the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 significantly increases its apoptotic activity in tumor cells. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
Interestingly, we observed that the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 only and not its addition to a prior photo-exposed mixture to MC540 is critical for its enhanced sensitivity.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
These findings provide impetus to the approach in developing ROS generating small molecule compounds with potent apoptosis inducing activity.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. These data could have implications in the use of vitamin C in photo-sensitizer-mediated reactions with the view to favorably tailoring the cancer cell milieu for efficient apoptotic execution. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Many patients are still not discussing their CAM use with their doctors and are using CAM alongside their conventional medicines, thereby increasing the likelihood for potential interactions. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. One limitation of this study is that our ability to determine between-site differences is limited by the difference in sample size.
Electrodermal measures as clinical markers: Jing-point electrical impedance in adolescent women with chronic pelvic pain.
Consequently, skin electrical measures at Jing points are commonly obtained and interpreted for diagnostic purposes. Denise Adams, University of Alberta, 1047 RTF Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada. The objective of this study is to determine whether electrodermal measures at Jing-points are associated with clinical outcomes in adolescents with chronic pelvic pain in a randomized, sham-controlled acupuncture trial. Methods: We recruited 18 adolescent women aged 13 to 22 years of age suffering from chronic pelvic pain and laparoscopically diagnosed with Stage I-III endometriosis.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. Using a Hibiki-7 device, normalized electrical impedance values were obtained at all 24 Jing-points for each treatment session. Phase II: CAM research networks in Canada and the US will notify CAM providers of this study, so they may alert patients. Left-right asymmetry and measures for statistical dispersion (standard deviation and Gini coefficient) of Jing-point impedance values were calculated. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Parents or legal guardians may self-identify and reply on behalf of patients under 18 year of age if they meet the criteria for Phase I. With a generalized estimating equation method, we evaluated the association between the electrodermal-derived measures and clinical outcomes while accounting for treatment designation and time.
Phase III: The methods for phase II were utilized but CAM associations and training organizations were substituted for CAM research networks. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
The majority of the cases involved the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve quality of life. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Preliminary analyses indicate that, over time, subjects in the active acupuncture arm were more likely to have reduced left-right asymmetry and statistical dispersion of Jing-point measures compared to subjects in the sham-control arm.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
Further analyses with multivariable models will be performed to assess whether this difference is statistically significant for each electrodermal measure.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
The chiropractic care of children with otitis media: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation and meta-synthesis. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 N Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. Key words were otitis media and related words (ie, acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, ear infections, etc) AND chiropractic.
A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with a meta-synthesis of the literature with a focus on chiropractic management and the application of a whole systems research (WSR) evaluation. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Results: Our systematic review revealed 20 articles consisting of 6 case reports, 5 case series, 1 retrospective cohort, 2 prospective cohorts, 2 reviews of the literature, 2 commentaries, 1 survey study and 1 prospective, parallel-group, observer-blinded, randomized feasibility study.
Due to the lack of higher-level research design, a meta-analysis of the literature was not possible. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. This included the use of otoscopy and tympanogram to provide objective pretreatment and comparative outcome measures. Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported treating pediatric patients; patients under the age of 17 made up 12% of chiropractic and 20% of both naturopathic and osteopathic patients. Activator, Gonstead, Toftness, Chiropractic Biophysics, and Diversified Techniques were utilized with an emphasis on the upper cervical spine (the C1 or C2 vertebral bodies). Approximately two-thirds of both osteopaths and naturopaths disagree or strongly disagree that immunizations are safe compared to one-third of chiropractors.
One paper described utilization of cranial technique, 2 papers described a dietary intervention, and 2 papers utilized soft-tissue massage to augment spinal manipulative therapy.
Fifteen studies were amenable to the WSR evaluation resulting in a score of 7.06 from a maximum of 11. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The immunizations of most concern to the 3 professions included MMR, varicella, influenza, DPTP, and hepatitis. The most common reasons for concern were related to safety, including that vaccines may contain dangerous ingredients, may produce side effects, and may be linked to future problems such as neurological damage. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the need for more higher-level research designs in addition to incorporating new methodologies (ie, whole systems research) reflective of the holistic and vitalistic clinical and theoretical framework of chiropractic.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor. The chiropractic care of children with enuresis: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation.
Significantly more naturopaths advised parents against vaccinations (27%), compared to 10% of chiropractors, and 12% of osteopaths (P=.0002).
Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 North Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063. There was no significant difference between groups for those advising parents in favor of vaccinations (15% C, 14% N, 6% O) (P=.1143).
Key words were enuresis, nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting as well as related words AND chiropractic.
A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with an evaluation using WSR evaluation. Results: Our systematic review revealed 7 articles meeting the eligibility criteria for review. Four of the 7 papers involve case reports describing the care of children aged 8 to 14 years with primary complaints of nocturnal enuresis.
Spinal manipulative therapy involved the use of Toggle recoil, Sacro-Occipital Technique, Activator Methods, Gonstead Technique, and Diversified Technique to address primarily segmental dysfunctions in the lumbosacral spine. We conducted a systematic review to assess the nature and severity of adverse events associated with pediatric acupuncture. A large prospective cohort study (N=171) demonstrated improvement in wet nights per week from baseline following 2 weeks of care. In a randomized clinical trial, within-group comparison of pretreatment and comparative rates of enuresis subjects demonstrated an improvement. However, the study was fraught with research design issues such as randomization and biostatistics.
Six of the 7 studies were amenable to WSR evaluation and resulted in a scoring of 7.33 from a maximum possible score of 11 points. One reviewer screened all articles, while the second reviewed all excluded articles to ensure that no article was inappropriately excluded.


Full articles of potentially relevant references were retrieved and assessed by two independent reviewers.
The use of Whole Systems Research provides promise in contributing to evidence-based practice and reflects the holistic and vitalistic chiropractic approach to patient care. Results: Seven thousand, two hundred sixty-two potentially relevant articles were identified. Eleven of these studies included adults as the majority of patients; for these studies the age of the patient experiencing the adverse event was never reported. Most of the adverse events that have been identified in children were mild and included pain, bruising, and worsening of symptoms.
The few adverse events rated as moderate or serious included one pneumothorax, 2 infections, and 2 cases of complications from needles left in the body. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Life University (Atlanta, Georgia). A 26-item questionnaire was sent to 9000 subscribers of an online newsletter from Midwifery Today Magazine. The first domain identified demographics (midwife credentials, age, years in practice, and place of practice). The second domain queried participants regarding their formal and postgraduate training on the subject of chiropractic.
The third domain attempted to identify their experience (ie, positive or negative experience) with chiropractic personally and professionally as it pertains to pregnancy and infant care. The fourth domain asked their opinion about the safety of chiropractic care for pregnant and pediatric patients. The fifth domain surveyed their knowledge regarding the scope of practice of chiropractic for pregnant and pediatric patients. The respondent ranged in age from 41 to 50 years with practice experience ranging from 6 to 10 years.
With respect to their training on chiropractic, 31% (n=57) reported receiving formal education (ie, during midwifery education) on the subject of chiropractic. Fifty-five of the 157 who did not indicated receiving some education on chiropractic through continuing education seminars.
With respect to the midwife responders’ experience with chiropractic, 95% (n=176) admitted to making a professional referral to a chiropractor with 73% (n=137) having referred an infant to a chiropractor. Ninety-two percent (n=171) reported being chiropractic patients with another 58% (n=124) presenting their child for chiropractic care.
Over 90% indicated experiencing a positive experience as patients and with their child’s care.
All of the respondents perceived chiropractic was safe for pregnant patients, while only 97% considered chiropractic safe for children.
An overwhelming majority of the responders (98%) indicated that chiropractors work with birth professionals, while 92% indicated that they were knowledgeable about the role of chiropractic in prenatal care. Lastly, 75% indicated interest in learning more about chiropractic, with 86% wanting more evidence-based practice chiropractic. From the 809 articles reviewed, 18 articles met the full inclusion criteria and proceeded to data extraction. Identified adverse events include local pain or soreness, swelling, mild fevers, and skin rashes.
Thus far, the majority of adverse events reported have been mild with few moderate or serious adverse events occurring in pediatric patients. Total weight and body composition changes in response to weight reduction diets of varied protein content in midlife women.
Age-related changes in body composition for women include loss of lean mass and gains in total weight, fat mass and central fat deposition. There is growing evidence that diets with low-to-moderate carbohydrate and fat content and increased levels of high-quality protein are effective for weight loss. Greater subjective satiety is reported by subjects following test meals containing whey protein compared to other protein sources.
The beneficial effects of whey protein on satiety, thermogenesis, and lean body mass protection suggest that whey may be a preferred protein source for weight loss treatment. The specific aims of this study are to assess weight loss in subjects receiving energy-reduced dietary regimens and to evaluate parameters of weight and body mass change between the 3 treatment groups. Study Design: We are conducting a randomized, controlled pilot feeding study to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein sources on weight loss. Endpoint measures include body weight and body composition data obtained at baseline and at 8 weeks for dietary treatment. The HP diet and the WP diet produced greater total fat loss and less total lean tissue loss than the CD. Conclusions: Preliminary data shows that across treatment groups, the high-protein diets conserved lean tissue and promoted reduction of fat tissue. Trials investigating TCM must be conducted with increased methodological rigor to be of value in evaluations. The single included study suggesting that acupuncture may be safe and efficacious in CFS is limited in applicability by the use of sham acupuncture as the control. Integration and interface between naturopaths and conventional rural care: empirical findings from a grass-roots research project.
The worsening epidemic of DM in the United States, along with the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and IGT, render the identification of promising interventions for these states a matter of some urgency. Jon Adams, University of Queensland, School of Population Health ,University of Qld, Herston, Queensland, 4006, Australia. While lifestyle interventions based on dietary pattern and physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes and reduce cardiovascular risk, adherence at the population level is severely limiting. Pharmacotherapy offers promise for diabetes prevention, but with associated high costs, unacceptability to many patients, and potential toxicity.
In this context, the potential role of chromium (Cr), an insulin cofactor, in IGT is of great interest. Proposed, therefore, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial conducted at the Yale Prevention Research Center to investigate the effects of daily Cr for 6 months at 2 dose levels on serum measures of glucose tolerance and on endothelial function in adults with IGT, IFG, and IR.
The study is powered to detect a clinically meaningful effect of Cr supplementation at either dose on glucose control, and to compare the two doses for equivalence.
The study will investigate effects of Cr on both measures of glucose tolerance (glucose, insulin, OGTT) and brachial artery endothelial function, thus combining serum measures with a physiologic test of Cr effects on the vasculature. The proposed study will generate much needed data regarding the efficacy of Cr in those at risk for type 2 diabetes and offers the promise of guiding practice, as well as directing future study. By contributing to knowledge related to potential diabetes prevention strategies, this study addresses one of the more pressing public health issues in the United States today.
Risk to human subjects in this study is a minor increment over minimal due to the administration of nitroglycerin as a control in BARS testing. Secondary outcomes: (4) It will show improved well-being, as measured by elevated melatonin and DHEA.
Unlike many relaxation therapies, energy healing requires no participation by the patient, a feature that makes it particularly attractive in the hospital setting, where patients are often anxious, depressed, in pain, or sedated. Despite the increasing use of energy healing, few studies have looked at its benefits and even fewer at its underlying mechanisms of action.
In this pilot study, we examined the effects of an energy healing modality known as Reiki on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both of which participate in the stress response and stress-induced pain and disease progression. Subjects rested for 10 min before baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured and blood was drawn to determine cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA levels, using commercial immunoassay kits. Subjects then received a 30- to 45-min Reiki or Pretend Reiki session followed immediately by post-session heart rate and blood pressure measurements and at 2h by blood draws.
When asked whether they thought they were in the Reiki or Pretend Reiki group, about 70% of the participants reported that they believed that they had received a true Reiki session. This suggests that the beneficial effects of Reiki on physiology, as compared to the Pretend Reiki, cannot be explained solely by the placebo effect. Issac Amponsah, Faculty of Pharmacy Kwame Nkrumah University of SC, Knust, Kumasi, 233, Ghana. Effects of ultra-low dilutions of sabal serrulata on human prostate cancer growth: mechanistic studies.
Hakima Amri, Georgetown University, Basic Science Bldg, 3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007. Finally, serum protein differential expression was carried out using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis.
Effect of mind-body medicine skills on elements of emotional intelligence in medical students. Yet studies have reported that traits such as altruism and empathy tend to decline throughout medical school training.
In an effort to foster medical student self-awareness and mindfulness, which may improve their EI, Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) offers an experiential course to undergraduate medical students in mind-body medicine skills.
The purpose is to expose students to a variety of mind-body approaches including meditation, imagery, as well as group sharing and listening generously for self-awareness and reflection.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Mind Body Medicine Skills (MBS) course on perceived stress, mindfulness, and elements of EI including intrapersonal capacities (attention to feelings, mood repair, clarity of feelings) and interpersonal capacities (perspective-taking, empathetic concern, and personal distress in response to distress in others).
The intervention group (n=30) was comprised of first year medical students who self-selected to participate in this elective. The control group (n=36) included students from the first year class who completed the surveys but did not take the MBS course. Four questionnaires were completed at the start and end of the spring semester by all study participants: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and a survey of EI developed by Stratton et al (2005) comprised of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index.
ANCOVA was used to compare the MBS and the control groups at the end of the semester, controlling for beginning scores.
Patient perspectives of integrative and primary care management of back and neck paina€”qualitative findings from a randomized clinical trial. These conditions are additionally some of the most common reasons why patients use complementary therapies, often without dialogue with conventional care providers.
The focus groups were conducted separately for those in the integrative vs the conventional treatment groups. The interview data were transcribed ad verbatim and analyzed utilizing inductive content analysis technique.
Eliane Angst, UCLA Center for Excellence in Pancreatic Diseases, 675 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. A significant reduction in cell numbers was seen with quercetin concentrations of ~30 AµM and a maximum effect at ~75 AµM. In MIA PaCa-2 cells a ~65% reduction in cell number was seen with 75 AµM of quercetin after 48 hours. Starved BxPC-3 cells treated with 75 AµM quercetin showed a ~95% reduction in cell number after 48 hours.
Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin has a potent growth-inhibitory effect in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Additional experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism of growth inhibition and animal studies are underway. Flovanoids may reveal to be potent anticancer drugs found in our daily food, leading to specific diet recommendations. These can be taken together to qualify as an academic minor in many of the conventional MA or PhD programs, often forming the basis of a thesis or dissertation required for the terminal degree. In the fall of 2009, the university will launch a doctorate of nursing practice with a focus in integrative health and healing. Georgetown University developed a concentration of CAM within its Masters in Physiology program in 2003. We address the multicultural perspective, comparing data collected in Canada and Europe to those in the United States.
The reason for this is that results on the health-promoting effects of spirituality and religiosity cannot easily be transferred from the United States to countries with different cultural and religious backgrounds. Thus, one has to recognize different concepts of spirituality, different attitudes towards its utilization, and objections against the implementation of it in a particular medical system. In Germany, 3 colleagues have founded the Transdisciplinary Working Group on Spirituality and Health, and in Canada the Canadian Research Network on Spirituality and Health has been active for a couple of years. Data and approaches from these different networks will be combined into this symposium.Dr BA?ssing is an associate professor at the University of Witten, Herdeckea€™s Faculty of Medicine, where he directs the research group Spirituality and Health. The effect of a€?acupuncture for losing weighta€? on the level of blood sugar: a survey on the mechanism.
Hoda Azizi, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing, Beijing, 100029, China.
Material and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 66 patients were included in case and control groups. Blood sugar was examined just before inserting needles and immediately after withdrawal of needles. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the mechanism of acupuncture in losing weight is significantly related to making an increase in BS. John Balletto, Center for Muscular Therapy, Inc, 545 Pawtucket Avenue, Mailbox 304, Pawtucket, RI 02860-6046.
As with business startups that begin informally and successfully mature into larger enterprises, growth brings new organizational challenges, together with greater visibility and opportunity. The maturation of massage as a healthcare profession increases the need for a process to formalize the synthesis of massage therapy knowledge from clinical experience and research—to collect what we know and to make such baseline knowledge widely available to practitioners, consumers, and other healthcare stakeholders.
The present paper lays out the motivations and framework for creating massage therapy guidelines that are informed both by research and by clinical experience. It also acts as a report to the massage therapy profession and to other stakeholders about the work of the Best Practices Committee of the Massage Therapy Foundation since 2006. And it has the additional goal of providing a healthcare literature basis for future academic discussions of massage. The discussion here is based on a definition from the Institute of Medicine and on research into the nature of expertise.
Topics addressed include guideline creation, credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, definition of competence, and the increasing role of technology (that is, informatics) in managing training and task-necessary competencies. The roles of transparency and a wide and open peer review are emphasized as essential to the usability and credibility of guidelines. Health Canada issues consumer advisories regarding the safety of marketed health products, yet the criteria for issuing advisories have not been evaluated for consistency or objectivity. The Causality Algorithm used by Health Canada was used to rate degree of association between the adverse events (AEs) and the products.
The Severity of Adverse Events Scale, developed by the National Cancer Institute, was used to determine the severity of the AEs. Most NHP AWRs were issued based on potential AEs from contamination and adulteration, whereas most of the AWRs for therapeutic drugs were issued due to actual AEs. Of the 6 NHP AWRs issued for actual AEs, 3 (50%) were unassessable for severity, whereas of the 28 AWRs issued for actual therapeutic drug AEs, 1 (3%) was unassessable for severity.
The origin of reports for NHPs tended to be from foreign sources or Health Canada, whereas reports for therapeutic drugs were mostly issued by Health Canada in conjunction with drug manufacturers. The potential of a mistletoe (Viscum album L) extract to alleviate adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy: an in vitro study. Stephan Baumgartner, University of Bern, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, Inselspital, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland.
We investigated the effect of a mistletoe extract on PBMC with and without concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and compared viability and replication of normal PBMC with that of a T-cell leukemia cell line. The results motivate further preclinical and clinical investigations of mistletoe extracts as an adjuvant medication in cancer therapy to alleviate side effects of conventional therapy.
Stephan Baumgartner, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Inselspital, Imhoof-Pavillon, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the potential of a commonly used plant pathogen–system, Arabidopsis thaliana infected with the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (pv tomato strain DC3000), regarding its response towards a homeopathic treatment.
Compared to Bion (a common SAR inducer used as positive control), the magnitude of the treatment effect of Biplantol was about 50%. None of the other tested preparations yielded significant effects in the overall evaluation.
The purpose of this study was to determine remedy effects on a common quantitative measure of complexity, the correlation dimension (D2), of human sleep electroencephalography (EEG).
High Hostile subjects increased complexity at C3 and Pz, but decreased complexity at O2 during stage 3 sleep on CC.
In the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects, CC caused significant increases in complexity at Pz and O1 during stage 3 sleep and at C3, C4, and Pz during stage 4 sleep. CC increased complexity significantly at Cz, C4, and O2 during REM sleep in only the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the objective measure of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings can distinguish verum homeopathic remedies from placebo in human subjects.
NV produced more marked effects on increased shifts in sleep stages, with a growth in effects from night 22 to 23.
This study examined the effects of olfactory administration of a polycrest homeopathic remedy Sulphur on heart rate variability (HRV).
The Sulphur was given at dilution factors used for preparing 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies (1 potency per session, with potency order randomized), but for each potency, the test solutions were succussed to different degrees (stirred without shaking, 10, 20, or 100 succussions). Homeopathic remedies increase spectral electroencephalographic power during sleep in healthy young adults. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of verum vs placebo homeopathic remedies on spectral qEEG measures of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings. Evaluating a nonlinear dynamical model for human flourishing: Relationship of PANAS positive-to-negative-affect ratio and global health and well-being. The purpose of the present study was to compare global physical health (GPH) and well-being ratings of young adults whose P:N mood ratios fell above vs below the Losada line.
Despite higher (MCSD) scores in PF, a small sex and age difference between groups, ANCOVAs controlling for MCSD, sex, and age still showed statistical significance of the above PF vs PL group differences.
Gurjeet Birdee, Osher Research Center Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Suite 22-A West, Boston, MA 02215. We identified the prevalence of CAM modalities used and the characteristics of users among the pediatric population.



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