Different cultures can have radically different leadership styles, and international organizations would do well to understand them.
Lewis acknowledges the risks of dealing in stereotypes:A "Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception. AmericanA managers are assertive, aggressive, goal and action oriented, confident, vigorous, optimistic, and ready for change.
French managers tend to be autocratic and paternalistic, with an impressive grasp of the many issues facing their company.
East Asian countries tend to have a Confucian hierarchy, where the group is sacred and leaders are seen as benevolent. In Latin and Arab countries, authority is concentrated in the chief executive, and family relations are very important, with ubiquitous nepotism.
Under the auspices of an autocratic government, Indonesia's business leadership is often entrusted to a resident Chinese professional class.
Japanese top executives have great power in conformity with Confucian hierarchy but actually have little involvement in the everyday affairs of the company. Efforts made by Russian managers to promote business through official channels may founder on the rocks of bureaucracy and Russian apathy. Finnish leaders exercise control from a position justA outside and above the ring of middle managers, who are allowed to make day-todayA decisions. In democratic Norway, the boss is very much in the center of things, and staffA enjoy access to him or her most of the time.
Lacking an aristocracy, Israeli society attaches importance to achievement andA dynamism when looking for leadership.
Estonians are very individualistic.A Status is gained by achievement, decisiveness, and energy.
Charts taken and text summarized from "When Cultures Collide" with permission from author Richard Lewis. Following the flow of the cycle, the learning style in upper right quadrant Kolb labelled the diverger. The converger in the lower left quadrant has the learning style that prefers to apply rules and to test them.
Most definitions of the entrepreneur also stress the ability to organise and combine as the key distinguishing features. Complete the Management styles questionnaire, noting your score on each of the five styles.
Like all tests of this kind, do not look for 100 per cent accuracy or a picture of yourself that is set in stone. Taking your scores on Activity 7 and your own reflections into account, where would you place yourself on the leadership grid? Considering the needs of the firm that will launch your entrepreneurial idea, where do you feel you should be on the grid? Entrepreneurs may well be able to identify crucial skills and tasks more accurately than other small business managers. This should help you identify both your own capacity for team working as well as areas in which you need to develop or delegate. If you have a vision for yourself and your horse and you want to have a good relationship, achieve something or reach some level in your chosen discipline, then you have to be a good leader to your horse. Now if you feel uncomfortable with the use of the words 'leader' and 'leadership' feel free to replace the word 'leadership' for 'guidance', or 'respectful partnership' and the word 'leader' for 'teacher' or 'guide' or 'partner'.
It’s the capacity to create a safe and comfortable environment where your horse is able to learn new things. It's the ability to improve his skills and to develop his talents in your chosen discipline. A leadership style is a manner and approach of providing purpose and direction in the training with your horse. It has been my observation that good horse trainers use all three styles, and less successful leaders tend to stick with one style. This style is used when you tell your horse what you want him to do and how you want it accomplished.
Your idea is leading, you define purpose and direction and provide the what, how, why, when and where the horse has to do the task or exercise. The 'telling' style is more like a monologue with only you expressing your thoughts and wants.
When you establish the boundaries and limitations between you and the horse in a positive manner.
When you have to protect your 'herd of two', in case of a dangerous situation or an emergency. Positive leaders appreciate the efforts of the horse, use rewards to motivate the horse and to reinforce behavior, neglect the things they don't like and try to avoid force and penalties. If you want your horse to be obedient, but you don’t want your well-trained horse to be a robot and if you want to gain more commitment and motivation from your horse, then you should also use the ‘coaching’ style.
In this style, you set the goals, however you encourage a healthy dialog to facilitate exchange of ideas.


This is a useful style when your horse is skillful, capable, calm, confident and when he knows his job. A good coach develops the competence and commitment of the horse so the horse is self-motivated rather than dependent on the leader (and his tools and aids) for direction and guidance.
You can check if your horse wants to curve his body to the inside, or still have to make him bend with a rein or longe line all the time. What we strive for is the horse's ‘willingness’ instead of 'obedience', so that he will want to do what we want, rather then be made to behave.
You can check very well if your idea is adopted by your horse when you are working with your horse at liberty. The coaching style also supports the ideas of the horse: if he gets stronger and stronger and one day he offers something special like a levade or terre a terre you encourage this idea. When you want to increase the horse's willingness and self-motivation, so that he wants to do what you want to. When you like to share responsibilities, having the horse taking responsibility to remain gait, direction, posture and self-carriage. Like the 'telling' style, the leader's attitude is positive and the focus is to appreciate the efforts of the horse and to motivate and encourage the horse. The 'hand over' style is more like a monologue with the horse expressing his ideas and his wants. This style often occurs unconsciously when the owner of the horse isn't a clear leader and therefore the horse is taking the lead.
However, this style can be deliberately used if a rider uses too often the 'telling' style. This style can also be deliberately used if you feel that the horse is getting tensed during learning a new exersise.
If you really prefer to not lead your horse at all, allow your horse to live on a prairie, in a herd, keep sufficient distance and enjoy watching your horse. The most successful leaders are those that adapt their leadership style to the individual horse.
And effective leadership varies, not only with the horse that is being influenced, but it also depends on the exercise, task or job that needs to be accomplished.
Good leaders are also constantly observing and training themselves to be the best leader they can be.
When you teach a horse something new, you use the 'telling' style, but if you feel he needs a break to digest what he has just learned, then pause and use the 'coaching' style: you use two-way communication and allow him to express his feelings (chewing and licking his lips, lowering or shaking his head, blinking his eyes), and you wait until he is ready to 'check in' again (by looking at you with his ears forward). When you use the 'hand over' style during in-hand grazing, and the horse starts pulling you disrespectfully, then you can switch to the 'telling' style and teach him the rules, limitations and boundaries. If your horse uses the 'hand over' style all the time, by not paying attention to you, by stepping on your feet, by acting alert, nervous or aggressive, you have to switch to the 'telling' style. When you use the 'coaching style' at liberty, but your horse gets confused or doesn't understand you or drops out during the dialogue, you can switch to the 'telling' style and explain what you mean.
When you use the 'telling style' a bit too authoritarian, and you experience that the horse withdraws mentally, you can switch to the 'hand over' style to see what happens.
You can teach the horse new exercise by using tools like a cavesson, bridle, rein or longe line in the 'telling' style.
The entire time you work with your horse you have to be checking yourself, the horse and the situation and adapt your leadership style. The Learning Gardens Lab supports academic achievement, leadership development, and local sustainable food systems by providing multicultural, interdisciplinary, intergenerational, and experiential garden-based education for public school students and their families, university students, and community members. Courses and workshops for PK-12 educators about how to create garden-based sustainability curriculum.
Community events open to everyone: The fall Harvest Festival and the April Earth Day Festival. Bring a group to LGL for a garden-based education tour, a service-learning activity, or other educational experience. Christine Cress, Educational Leadership and Policy faculty, will receive the Oregon Campus Compact Engaged Faculty Award on April 13. LewisA charted these differences in his book "When Cultures Collide," first published in 1996 and now in its third edition, and he teaches these insights in seminars with major corporate clients. Unfortunately, their adherence to tradition can result in a failure to comprehend differing values in others. They are capable of teamwork and corporate spirit, but they value individual freedom and their first interest is furthering their own career. There is a clear chain of command in each department and information and instructions are passed down from the top. Managers are vigorous and decisive, but consensus is mandatory, as there are many key players in the decision-making process. Using key people and personal alliances, theA a€?systema€? is often bypassed and a good result achieved. Finnish top executives have the reputation of being decisive atA crunch time and do not hesitate to stand shoulder to shoulder with staff and helpA out in crises. Unlike the French,A they work less from logic than from intuition, and pride themselves on their personalA influence on all their staff members.


Middle managersa€™ opinions areA heard and acted upon in egalitarian fashion, but top executives rarely abandonA responsibility and accountability. A democratic republic is partially supported by the army, in a delicate balance with Islamic Fundamentalists. The diverger is able to see concrete experience from different perspectives and to pull different meanings from experience. In the lower right quadrant, the assimilator is attracted to creating models and concepts, an approach that would be a strength in consultancies and marketing firms. A horse needs to know that you are clearly setting the rules for your life together, so that you are safe and the horse feels safe and comfortable too. It's important that the leader is competent and a good teacher and that the horse is motivated to learn a new skill.
They know penalties have a place in a leader's repertoire of tools, but must be avoid as much as possible or used very carefully due to its high cost on the horse’s spirit.
The coaching style is a more participative style, however, you as the leader maintain the final authority. Using the coaching style you can check if your horse wants to do the piaffe together with you without tools, rather then to be made to perform this exercise. Using this style you can investigate how your horse responds to only your inner thoughts, feeling, energy and body language. You have consideration and are concerned about the horse’s needs and put these needs and the relationship between you and your horse first. Leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are much more higher performers and are much more satisfied with their work with their horses then leaders that are only task-oriented. In the absence of a clear leader, a horse will seek to fill what he see as the vacant leadership role. Authoritarian riders spend most times with their horse because they want to do something with him and make him do things all the time. Just follow or ‘shadow’ your horse’s breathing, his rhythm and his speed until you feel he relaxes and then continue with the learning process. Your clear leadership in the 'telling' style will teach him the rules, limitations and boundaries and provide the horse security and safety.
At the end of the session you can switch to the 'hand over' style and for example let him roll on the ground after work. If your horse's reaction is "Bye, I'm outta here", you need to change your approach and use more of the 'coaching' style.
You can check his willingness and self motivation by taking away the tools and use the 'coaching style' at liberty. In the developing expansion of capitalist-style companies, leaders are emerging with reputationsA of competence; also, locally elected officials are becoming influentialA in the business sphere and may have only loose ties with Beijing. Words are only symbols to define something, they form a linguistic representation of the world.
Sometimes they believe they get results by consistently giving horses 'orders' and urging them to deliver results. But a leader who becomes more considerate with his horse, does not necessarily mean that he has become less structured and that he doesn't have a goal or plan. This can lead to stress and behavior problems and can cause dangerous situations because the horse no longer pays attention to the rider while his ideas are leading. Sometimes that makes a horse suppressed, reserved, timid, shy, tense or completely shut down.
When you detect that the horse has a tendency to build tension, you can switch to the 'hand over' style by following his breathing and rhythm, so the perceived pressure drops. If your horse is hard to catch, you can use the 'hand over' style to improve your relationship with your horse. These groups work in concert, often develop closeA personal relations and come to each othera€™s supportA in difficult times.
This is not the 'telling' style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style and it has no place in a leader's repertoire.
The 'hand over' style improves the relationship between the rider and his horse, because the rider learns to spend some undemanding time with his horse, he learns to not want to do something and to just be with the horse and follow his ideas.
When the horse feels safe and comfortable, respects and trusts you, you can switch to the 'coaching' style.
If I make myself big and spread my arms to tell him I don't want him to bump into me (Is this the telling style?), he becomes very nervous and frightened.
She is well experience ed with Parelli natural horsemanship and we are learning the 7 games.
Leaders who continuously work out of the negative are ‘bosses’ to their horse, while those who primarily work out of the positive are considered ‘real leaders’. By using this style, the horse can change his negative perception of the rider and can open up.



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