I knew I wanted to make another book for him, but I didn’t know where to start or what to include. There are tons of baby book ideas out there, but it’s hard to find books focused on the second year of life (or the third, fourth, fifth, and so on). Monthly Milestones I included a two page spread for each month and recorded his height and weight, milestones, our schedule, his new words, favorite foods and favorite toys. Seasonal Photos I also included a spread for each season with photos of my son playing outside. Cards and Letters I scanned all of the cards and letters my son received throughout the year and included them as well.
A woman named Jillian (last name withheld on request), from Milwaukee, Wis., learned just that after she donated bone marrow to a complete stranger in July this year. City bus drivers may not always have the most compassion for those who aren’t watching where they’re walking, but then again, some will leave their vehicle to save a life. This moment incited a question within me: Is this child rude or has she never been taught how to behave in an assembly or performance? My belief is that we will never achieve academic proficiency until we address the whole child. Urban education has lost focus on emotional and social development as a result of No Child Left Behind. Teaching emotional development and character education will come naturally to many teachers. The first step in assessing "How do my actions and decisions affect myself and others?" is, paradoxically, for a child to look outside him or herself. To many, a reliance on the goodness of others may seem obvious as we have always had to rely in some way on others and their opinion of us. The lack of empathy for others may not strictly be a trait of an underprivileged citizen, however. Explicit character education through emotional and social development may be achieved by integrating citizenship education with literature because the dynamic, classic characters of Shakespeare echo human behavior. The need to teach the complexities of good intentions versus actions was underscored during a recent conversation with a freshman student.
Also on the rise in research is the inclusion of performance and improvisation into school settings. It is important to note that the research relating emotional development to classroom behavior is incomplete. This unit is written for lower-level and struggling learners whose behavior and under-development hamper their learning. In order to build character, which is the ultimate goal of this unit, students will have the opportunity to improvise social situations.
To address the need for social and emotional development, the unit incorporates performance and writing centered around character voice and the impact of decisions and actions on other characters.
This sequence can be easily used with a data-driven approach that assesses and tracks skills during the unit. Teachers must take care to match students with lines that are appropriate for the reader both in length and content.
The author of this unit tried various pairings with two classes of low-level learners in an urban district.
Before the performance, students will be furnished with a reflection sheet to complete for each performance to be given to those performers, as well as a reflection on their own behavior. The scenes given above are not necessarily the most famous of the play, though they are likely to be in any stage or film production of it. To prepare and rehearse, students will set up individual Company Houses where they will come each day to work on their projects. Prior to rehearsals, each student will need to respond to the following questions provided by the model in Lesson Plan 3: Thinking About Character. For the performance, have students set up the desks in "a round" as the Globe Theatre is assembled.
Prior to the performance, students need to know how to behave when their peers are performing. After the performances, have a leader of each company compile and distribute the slips to the other groups.
Strategy note: With such a stratified field of learners, I find it useful to give different students different word goals. In another scene, a very close friend, close like a brother, asks you for something you know you should not have. For struggling learners, all these questions will be answered on paper first, then discussed. The mark of progressive urban education is to ground student work in a relevant, rigorous, community-conscious, and engaging way. From these publications, model how to choose "important words" that will be called "strands." Words in a strand will give a cohesive meaning. Depending on your preference, students can compile these words into strands on their own on worksheets, or you could create a student-centered board in the classroom, beginning with charts of "text evidence" words leading to "tone words." The relationship between evidence and tone will be used in the final journal response. To close the lesson, give students one more line, possibly from a scene you read already but with which you did not already assess tone.
As a first approximation, the volume of rock removed was the length of the rupture (46,000 miles) times its average width (about 1400 miles as seen in Figure 52 on page 120), times the unknown depth to the subterranean chamber.
To the RAF aircrews, the sight of the eastern German city ablaze looked like a terrifying vision of hell.
The son of a civil engineer based in imperial India, Harris had developed his spirit of aggressive independence while at English boarding schools. It was a campaign that would never have been possible without either the brilliance of the Avro Lancaster or the heroism of the aircrews. The strategic air offensive brought the war to German homeland, weakening its ability to carry on the fight. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.
The goal is to watch him grow into the jersey over time. I decided to put this photo on the cover. I tried to write down special occasions, play dates, milestones, holidays and family celebrations. I wrote him a letter each month for his baby book and I didn’t want to stop recording the memories! We ran quite a few road races with our son, so I included race bibs and the newspaper results. She told The Huffington Post in an email that she'd originally signed up as a donor in hopes of being a match for a coworker. Bernard (who, naturally, has a license plate that reads “Saint”) was driving along when he noticed a seven-year-old autistic girl standing atop an air conditioning unit three stories high. Please let me catch her is all I could say,” he told reporters after suffering a torn bicep tendon — something he says was a small price for saving a life. African American community leaders were on stage in their business suits clicking pleasantly through overhead slides. Also: What makes that phone call so important that she would interrupt an auditorium with it?
Nearly ten years out, there is little evidence to suggest that the difference in test results leads to more thoughtful and intelligent citizens who are better able to participate in an American democracy. There exists a trend in education called "affective teaching1." In this model, teachers address a child's emotional, social, and personal needs and see this as the primary role in his or her profession. This unit enables students to look at the character traits of fictional characters from Romeo and Juliet and assess their choices first before diving into the difficult enterprise of personal introspection.
Today's youth, however, can very concretely achieve their goals through what seem like personal actions and minimal reliance on others. A recent study by Sara Konrath, a researcher at the University of Michigan, shows that this generation of American college students has lower empathy than previous generations. Romeo and Juliet were very much concerned with their own well-being and yet were directly affected by the actions and reactions of others. Psychologist Lev Vigotsky's Social Development Theory was written during the Russian Revolution but is widely accepted in child psychology today.
Roundtable discussions in 2005 and 2006 by leaders in the education field, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) came to this conclusion.
Their reading levels can be loosely defined as at least two grades below level according to a STARR Test, a vocabulary and reading assessment. They will be put into situations where they get the opportunity to employ positive behavior and positive outcomes for others. His decision is to pursue the daughter of his enemy; his action is to marry her and then commit suicide to be with her. These are: 1) Interpreting the literal meaning of the chosen lines and the context of these lines. Data-driven instruction requires frequent tests that assess specific skills, then the re-teaching of any unlearned skills.
For students with poor attendance, monologues work best because if the student is often absent, his or her absence will not harm the whole acting company. When students are grouped around various reading and comprehension levels, they can help each other with the context and content of the lines. The best performances were done by mixed-ability groupings of students with two or more students in a scene. This may be a focus of the initial unit for Romeo and Juliet, and there are interpretations offered side-by-side with the original text both online and in printed resources.
This is because social development precedes cognitive development, as discussed in the Rationale. The most famous parts of these scenes were not chosen because they are more likely to be studied during class and the interpretation of them will already have been done.
Provide students with the model answers on one sheet and the questions with space for answers on another sheet. Show students an image of the layout of the Globe and have them decide where the seats will be, directing them towards an arc. Have those groups discuss the reflections from their peers using the questions that follow.
Sometimes it is a minimum, while other times I use a grading scale, like 200 words = B, 250 words = A.
One student is a C who sees the head of the M's sneaking around, eating their food, dancing with their ladies, and enjoying everything the party has to offer. One strategy to address the skill of evaluating tone is to bring students a collection of newspapers, fliers, newsletters, church pamphlets, obituaries, horoscopes, magazines, and any other community publications. For example, a horoscope with "future" "beware" "rocky" and "look out for" would clearly give a tone of caution or weariness.
For example, when Romeo is questioning his recollection of past experiences in his final soliloquy, he asks several questions of himself, then of Juliet, and then of fate.
Once he has killed Tybalt, though, he says, "Oh, I am fortune's fool!" This shows that he feels confused and tricked. Romeo threatens Tybalt saying, "Either thou, or I, or both must go with him." These words mean that Romeo will kill Tybalt if Tybalt does not kill him first. For example, Romeo wants to make peace with Tybalt because they are now related by marriage. Child and adolescent development research and teacher education: evidence-based pedagogy, policy, and practice.
Click on "Teach and Learn" on the homepage to access lesson plans centered around the production of Shakespeare.


Shakespeare Set Free: Teaching Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, edited by Peggy O'Brian.
Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Achievement Gap. With just a library card, students can download thousands of books, including Romeo and Juliet, and listen to them. In one post-war lecture, Sir Charles Portal, the Chief of the Air Staff throughout the campaign, said it was 'a fallacy that our bombing of the German cities was intended to kill Germans, and that we camouflaged this intention by the pretence that we would destroy industry.
A grizzled veteran of World War I, he had risen through the ranks of the RAF through his dynamism and natural authority. Created by the visionary Avro designer Roy Chadwick and first entering RAF service in December 1941, the Lancaster transformed the performance of Bomber Command. Thanks to the RAF's heavy bombers, the Reich was forced to divert colossal resources into air defences. I tried to include funny stories, milestones, phases he was going through, and lessons I’d learned from parenting.
But when that didn't work out, she decided to stay on the list anyway to help someone else.
The girl’s mother had stepped out of the room for a moment, but luckily, the 52-year-old father of four was there to catch her. With the exception of fidgeting, the five hundred or so students were respectful and quiet. Additionally, they will keep a journal of their goals, motivations, obstacles, and actions, finally composing a polished journal response describing a choice they made based on their goals, motivations, and obstacles. However, a curriculum built on emotional development as a pathway to cognitive development shows promise and results. This is opposed to the teacher who sees his or her primary role as providing content and concepts. Indeed, this is one of the tenets of poverty: parentalization of youth, or taking care of yourself as well as those older than you. The study found that students today are 40 percent less empathetic than students 30 years ago, with the biggest turnaround beginning in 2000. Of course, when new problems arise, how does a person deal with them if they have never encountered them before?
One study that was cited in their report compared the aspirations of parents with and without college degrees. His motivation is true love, deep emotional love, rather than the carnal love of his best friend and foil, Mercutio. It could center on literary elements, character development, the historical aspects of the Renaissance, or anything else. 2) Improvising to infer from voice and relationships (Inference is integral to the New Haven English Language Arts Curriculum.) 3) Performing and evaluating character and self. Also, these tests are given across classrooms so that best practices can be shared among teachers. Examples of these include Romeo's monologue in the Balcony Scene, Juliet's musings after the death of Tybalt, and Prince's closing monologue at the very end of the play.
These include Tybalt's sighting of Romeo at the Capulet Ball, or Juliet and Capulet's falling out. Monologues were well performed by several learners, but they clearly did not understand their lines as well, probably because they did not have to react to other characters. There are role-playing games involving scenes from Romeo and Juliet that will get students thinking about the right thing to do. For example, the Balcony Scene is often taught because of its imagery, symbolism, opposites, and so forth. Students working individually will be in their own Company House with the rationale that students who miss class often or are unable to cooperate in a group would be further discouraged and ostracized by being placed in complete separation. In a pilot of this lesson, students said that they would have used the model more if the pages had been next to each other and not front-and-back. What speech, tone, effects on others, actions, and looks could change to make the outcome better? The friend is crying, threatens you, and says that he or she cannot live without this thing.
After sufficient models for your students, allow them to dive into their own choices of publications. A series of question marks alone could show conviction or a confusing, puzzled, challenging, passionate, angry, or worried tone.
If you choose to give students this scene for performance, do not give it as a model for this lesson.
If he had not killed Tybalt, he would not have been banished, and he would not have missed any information. However, when Tybalt kills Mercutio by accident, Romeo goes into a vengeful rage and kills Tybalt.
The Folger Shakespeare Library is an internationally recognized library holding hundreds of thousands of the most important Renaissance documents in the world, including original Folios by Shakespeare. During the flood, sediments deposited on the continents averaged slightly more than a mile in depth.
Because it is sandwiched between the plate and the mantle, the layer also forms a barrier between the two.
As the blaze intensified, huge crowds made for the city's reservoir and dived into the water.
Churchill regarded him as a philistine, but he was not without humour and could poke fun at his own image as a bloodthirsty autocrat. Its huge bomb bay, stretching twothirds of the fuselage, allied to the strength of its ultra-reliable Merlin engines, meant it could carry far greater loads than any other bomber in the European theatre. By 1944, two million Germans were engaged in anti-aircraft duties, while a third of all artillery production was devoted to antiaircraft guns, when such weaponry was in desperately short supply. He also learned how to color this year, so I included his first pieces of art and a brief description of each piece. So I took all the photos that didn’t make the first cut and made a two-page collage for the end of the book. Since the donation, she hadn't heard from her recipient and worried that the transplant had not gone well. Then, in the midst of a slide about the most lucrative careers, a young woman several rows in front of me popped up with her phone to her ear.
From my experience as a teacher, I think this student probably has not been taught how to behave in an assembly, but more than that, she has not been taught how to think of the comfort and needs of others and how her actions impact others.
These learning activities are designed for emotional and social development, which allows people to think about their effects on others. By having a framework to examine the effects of one's actions on oneself and others, young adults can learn the best way to approach a situation even though a model has not yet existed for them. The Essential Question for this unit, "How do my decisions and actions affect myself and others?" reflects the current trend of affective education because the question forces students to work on social skills. All this leads to personal reliance at the cost of a disdain for others, including elder others, and your relationship with them.
The children of college educated parents with high aspirations were able to succeed academically and socially due to parental involvement. McIntosh of the University of the District of Columbia finds that there is a cycle of learning that hinders an individual. Next, students will assess their reactions by defining and explaining their goals, motivations, obstacles, and actions.
Romeo's main obstacle is the feud between the two family houses, with more specific conflicts like the attempt to make peace with Tybalt, avenging Mercutio's death, returning to Juliet despite banishment, and getting through Paris into Juliet's tomb.
The final products, or summative assessments, will be the performance of a scene from this tragedy and a polished journal response to a student's own decisions and actions. With this unit as an example, students would be assessed daily and weekly on skills related to interpretation of Shakespeare. Remember, this unit is geared toward challenging the struggling learner and enabling him or her to perform lines in front of classmates. In this way, though they had greater memorization of lines, they had less knowledge of character motivation and voice. Students should be able to answer the following questions which ask about goals (1) , motivations (2) , obstacles (3) , and actions (4) : 1) What does your character want in this scene? If your character were your friend, what would you advise him or her to do in his or her situation? I reply, "If you can say 199 quality words, you can say 200." The reasoning behind word goals for struggling learners is that it forces them to say more. Furthermore, Romeo does not see this death as his own doing, he sees it as a result of destiny, claiming, "O, I am fortune's fool!" Therefore, we know that Romeo does not believe that he can control himself, even if he tried. This site details a social and emotional development program that was piloted in urban schools in New Haven, Connecticut in the 1960's. This book gives a comprehensive summary of factors contributing to the achievement gap as well as proposed solutions. But the sheer numbers, combined with the roaring heat and the lack of oxygen, made the place unbearable. Its average load was 12,000lb, but towards the end of the war it was lifting the Grand Slam bomb weighing over 22,000lb, or ten tons. A fifth of the non-agricultural German workforce was required to deal with consequences of bombing, such as clearing rubble, laying railway tracks or repairing damaged structures. There are so many details I would have completely forgotten if I hadn’t written them down! She seemed to want to leave, except that before she did, she had to playfully squat down on top of the four friends sitting to her left.
Social and emotional development precedes and is a prerequisite for cognitive development, which will be discussed later. Therefore, since factors outside of school lead to extreme individuality at the expense of empathy, empathy and responsible interactions must be explicitly taught in schools. Vigotsky also theorized that children see everything twice: first when they see another person behave and then when they do it themselves. However, parents who were not college-educated were no less involved in setting aspirations for their children, but their children were not able to change social behavior and academic outcomes.
The teacher conducts a lesson, and then the student acts out because he believes that he is incapable of doing the work. Then, before the Romeo and Juliet performances, students will define positive behavior for an audience, and then rate their own behavior during the performances.
Being a character in a play, and having to get across his point in less than three hours, he does not pay attention to the minutiae of a scene, simply barging ahead with his plans.
His single-minded pursuit of his love, even though it is guided by truth and purity, leaves death and devastation in its wake. Then, if that skill is mastered, and when it is mastered, students will be able to build upon this to infer relationships between characters. Do these before diving into the Romeo and Juliet games in order to get students more comfortable with movement. Also, Romeo and Juliet each have numerous lines at once in the Balcony Scene, which is prohibitively daunting to new performers.
However, the best method of ensuring that students are on task is to be sure that all materials are provided and organized, that there are clear models for all levels of the process, and that realistic goals are set. Many times these learners are inhibited because they think that we teachers understand everything they are saying and therefore they do not explain themselves. Without a list, students are often stuck at "happy," "sad," "upset," and other broad words.


School as a Context of Early Adolescents' Academic and Social-Emotional Development: A Summary of Research Findings. This article has links to three lectures given by educational researcher Richard Rothstein in which he outlines causes of and solutions to the Achievement Gap. It includes blogs with students around the world, images of Shakespearean sites, play guides, and background information. Unpublished papers I have unearthed for my new book on the Lancaster bomber reveal that the mass, indiscriminate killing of Germany's urban population was indeed the key goal of the RAF's campaign.
Thanks to this capacity, the Lancasters dropped 51 million incendiaries and 607,000 tons of high explosives during the war. One Nazi study in January 1945 revealed that, due to the bombing, the German economy had produced 25 per cent fewer tanks than planned, 31 per cent fewer aircraft and 42 per cent fewer lorries. Not ten seconds later, she was up the aisle and out of the auditorium, cell phone pressed against her head. Thus, I began to think about a school's responsibility for character education and social and emotional development and where my classes might fit into that. This unit seeks to improve the character of our students because cognitive development cannot take place until social and emotional development do. Students reading Romeo and Juliet are quick to place blame on the families, rightfully outraged at no explanation of their feud.
In this way, a child must interact with, not just analyze, a positive model in order to replicate it. Overall, "non-college educated parents could communicate a high level of aspiration but could not effectively change their child's behavior in ways that would prepare students to achieve their aspirations5". Therefore, even the most well-intended people may perform actions that can lead to ruin and an overall failure. Then, without reminding students that it is part of the play, or, ideally, before you begin to study the play, have students play several roles from Lesson Plan 1.
By using later lines when Romeo and Juliet are parting from each other, the actors will have to rely on each other more because the lines are shorter, and they will be able to apply their interpretation skills practiced in an earlier lesson. The Company House arrangements are meant to foster unity in a group and to lessen the amount of time used to move during class.
These could include "sits quietly," "sits up," "cell phones off," "stay seated," and "follow action with eyes." Write these on a large piece of poster paper and post it in front of the room so that students know what their expectations are. To remedy this, the terms "positive reactions" and "negative reactions" can be substituted for the desired thought process.
With a list, they are able to pick out appropriate words that they do not commonly associate with a feeling or are unlikely to come up with on their own.
With this game, students get to know a little about each other while learning to listen to each other. The website provides rationales, examples, and ideas for teachers, administrators, and parents. The merging of the fires sucked oxygen from the air and created a ferocious, howling tornado. During my research on the LancasterA  -A  the heavyweight plane that enabled the RAF to mount the bomber offensiveA  -A  I uncovered a wealth of archival material which exposes the truth about the Government's policy. For all its weight, the Lancaster was also a highly manoeuvrable aircraft, capable of reaching more than 300mph in a shallow dive. Critical examination of literature is not only an academic pursuit: it is a legitimate opportunity to scrutinize others and examine their goals, motivations, obstacles, and actions. This suggests that explicit education on good behavior is necessary to achieving the aspirations of many parents and their children. By deeply assessing a character in the play this way, students will then be able to take these skills of critical examination into their own lives. Then, when students are able to infer, they will be able to think about character decisions and their own decisions.
Students should not be made to think that the "consequences" of each scene are negative, and the use of this word will lead to only negative answers. Trees were pulled from their roots, buildings destroyed and people flung through the air like ragdolls.
The raid on Dresden is one of the most notorious episodes of Britain's war effort, a symbol of the ruthlessness of the RAF's strategic bombing offensive. Typical was one paper from the Air Ministry, written in August 1941, which urged that the focus of attacks must be 'the people in their homes and factories'.
It was also resilient, capable of absorbing large amounts of punishment and even of returning to England on just two engines. A contemporary performance event entitled "Performing the World" seeks to use this theory to bring together people of all backgrounds in an effort to create understanding and greater cooperation between nations and peoples.
McIntosh also shows that the relationship between low reading skills and poor behavior is recursive; one can lead to the other. Finally, students will be given a week, or another definite amount of time, to keep a journal of goals, motivations, obstacles, and actions they make on a daily basis and evaluate those actions. Capulet is drunk, but his superior rank is paramount and stands in the way of Tybalt achieving his goals. This unit recognizes the importance of building on prior knowledge and practicing of already-learned skills.
Furthermore, they are typically not concise, so they cannot say as much in 100 words as a more advanced student could. It has been estimated that around 25,000 people were killed that nightA  -A  compare that to the 568 deaths in the assault on Coventry by the Luftwaffe in November 1940, by far the worst individual raid that any British city endured during the Blitz.
Warming to this theme, the Directorate found inspiration in the Luftwaffe's bombing of Coventry, 'one of the most successful raids carried out by the German Air Force on this country', with a ton of incendiaries for every 800 citizens. Harris's complaint against the RAF top brass, highlighted in archive papers which have never been published before, was that the Government should be far more candid about its policy of deliberately targeting Germany's civilians.
But none of these virtues would have mattered without the bravery and selfsacrifice of the heavy bomber crews. The event creators seek to discuss "the subject of performance and the transformation of the individual, the community, and the world4". The student with poor behavior and low social skills is the intended audience for this unit because the activities and rationale address both emotional and social needs, which are required for cognitive development. With the difficult decision of choosing passion or choosing to follow family, Tybalt is faced with a decision every student has to make at some point. Ideally, students will have many experiences with interpretation and inference by the time they finish reading Romeo and Juliet. Have each student monitor the behavior of another student, knowing that their audience grade, which should be graded because it is a skill, will be partly determined by this chart.
Yet, for all its infamy, the attack on Dresden was by no means the most savage of the RAF's bombing campaign. He never had any time for Portal's and Sinclair's denials, as he explained in a letter to them in October 1943: 'The aim of Bomber Command should be . Interrogated by the Allies after the Nazis' surrender, Hermann Goering, head of the Luftwaffe, admitted that the attack on Dresden was the most demoralising raid of the war. Several participants in the 2007 "Performing the World" event used acting and improvisation to encourage cooperation, self-esteem, and self-motivation in urban youth.
The interpretation and inference in this unit focus those skills thinking about decisions they make each day. If you ask them to write "one page," the most insightful, original ideas come out at the very bottom, and they stop because they have written a page! This article highlights the importance of social-emotional development in young adolescents, ages 10-14. In July 1943, a series of raids on Hamburg killed at least 45,000 people in a gigantic firestorm. Another 1941 Ministry report called for 'saturation by incendiaries' to break 'the morale of the population' and leave the German people 'conscious of constant physical danger'.
Of the 125,000 men who served in the Command, 55,700A  -A  or 44 per centA  -A  were killed in action, 8,400 seriously wounded and 9,800 taken prisoner.
By giving word goals, they constantly have to come up with more to say, and will practice expanding upon one of the ideas they have written in that original page. Little more than a week after Dresden, 362 Lancasters dropped 1,551 tons of bombs on the small town of Pforzheim in 22 minutes.
At the same time, the RAF's chief Sir Charles Portal privately promised Winston Churchill that a significant expansion in the heavy bomber force would ultimately bring about 'the destruction of six million homes' and 'civilian casualties estimated at 900,000'.
Since both Vigotsky's theory and the most recent events in research suggest that performance and social interaction precede cognitive development, the two will go hand-in-hand in this unit.
Finally, this allows you to tailor the assignment to different learners, asking appropriate lengths for learners.
The central area became a blazing crematorium, with the death toll reaching 17,600, a quarter of the population.
Indeed, senior RAF planners did not hesitate to use the term 'terror-bombing' to describe some of their raids.
We knew the end of the war must be near,' recalled Ben Halfgott, a Jew imprisoned in a concentration camp near Dresden. The further problem of "write one page" is that handwriting sizes vary so widely that the space is unfairly judged.
In total, at least 600,000 civilians are thought to have lost their lives in the RAF's remorseless pounding of German cities. The most passionate enthusiast of the strategic offensive was, of course, Sir Arthur Harris, head of Bomber Command from 1942.
But neither Portal nor Sinclair abandoned their rhetorical deceit as the campaign continued. During the war, the urban bombing had its detractors, not just from pacifists but even from figures within the Government itself, such as Tory Minister Lord Salisbury, who warned in 1943 that 'we are losing some of our moral superiority to the Germans'. So relentless was his determination to hit the German cities that he regarded any other operations as a distraction. Let the bastards die like the rats they are,' wrote Lancaster wireless operator John Byrne in late 1944. And in the end, despite the civilian death toll, that was the greatest moral triumph of all. He even regarded the famous Dambusters Raid of May 1943 as a waste of time, privately claiming that it 'achieved nothing'.
Bill Utting, an Australian who took part in the Dresden raid, said he 'felt disgust when I learnt of the numbers that had been killed.
Others have drawn an emotionally charged parallel between the urban firestorms and the horrors of the Nazi gas chambers. Defenders of the bombing offensive have long argued that such criticism is a gross injustice. But the overwhelming attitude of the airmen was that they were helping to destroy the Nazi war machine. The aim of the RAF, they maintain, was to destroy German industry and the military infrastructure. I would argue that, for all the ethical condemnation it has attracted, the bombing offensive was essential in defeating Germany.
The greatest moral crime of all would have been to abandon the campaign to hit back at the Reich, for that would have prolonged the war, and consequently the Nazis' genocidal oppression.



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