Defining the various parts of a leader's role can be difficult, especially because much of the training given often focuses on the management part of the role. At skillbuild, we believe that essential management skills are best trained in the context of real business problems. Very often participants can present their insightful findings to senior management during the final module while also having reached a new level of self-awareness and a more productive mindset.
The earliest approach to the study of leadership sought to identify a set of traits that distinguished leaders from nonleaders.
General mental ability, which psychologists refer to as a€?ga€? and which is often called IQ in everyday language, has been related to a persona€™s emerging as a leader within a group.
Psychologists have proposed various systems for categorizing the characteristics that make up an individuala€™s unique personality; one of the most widely accepted is the Big Five model, which rates an individual according to openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Self-esteem is not one of the Big Five personality traits, but it is an important aspect of onea€™s personality. Research also shows that people who are effective as leaders tend to have a moral compass and demonstrate honesty and integrity.[440] Leaders whose integrity is questioned lose their trustworthiness, and they hurt their companya€™s business along the way. Condoleezza Rice had different responsibilities as the provost of Stanford University compared with her role as secretary of state for the United States. There are also some traits that are negatively related to emerging as a leader and being successful as a leader.
Many studies searched for a limited set of personal attributes, or traits, which would make someone be viewed as a leader and be successful as a leader. Welcome to the Art and Science of Leadership, a comprehensive collection of articles and activities for developing leadership skills and knowledge. You can also use the Leadership Mind Map to select an article, or use the search bar at the top of the page. For a list of learning activities that help to develop leadership skills, see the Leadership Development Outline. There is no such thing as a perfect leader, either in the past or present, in China or elsewhere. The Leadership Development Outline contains the above leadership guide, plus a variety of developmental tools, such as surveys, case studies, and reflective activities for each chapter. By improving leadership skills and applying them to specific organizational change challenges, WSA has been able to achieve an exceptionally high rate of success in assisting organizations to achieve successful implementation of improvement in organizational competence and performance.
WSA has been offering this unique Leadership Development Program for more than twenty-five years with thousands of managers and leaders across the globe.
The program typically includes seven formal one-day modules offered over seven months, along with a wide variety of supporting informal learning activities and on-the-job applications between the instructional modules. Companies sponsor this program when they have a cadre of leaders that they wish to develop, and would also like their development to be immediately applied in the work environment, addressing organizational needs. The business and economic climate is more challenging today than ever before and not likely to get any easier. Knowledge workers require a different way of being managed, and respond to a different type of leadership. Financial pressures require that organizations do more and more with less and less every year. Leadership and management skills are among the most critical resources for facing these challenges. This program has been designed for individuals who have significant management or leadership responsibilities. For smaller organizations, the program is best suited to Presidents, Vice Presidents and Directors. Availability of one-on-one coaching or personal development for any participants in need of extra support. Develop leadership and management skills to complement the technical competence of your organization.
Increase the leadership bench strength your organization will need to continue its success in the future. Solve some of your company's persistent problems as program participants apply the program elements to real-time company situations under the guidance of the group consultant. Develop strong learning teams (functional or cross-functional team building) for companies that choose to send a learning team. Give your next generation of leaders the skills they need to help prepare your company for the challenges that lie ahead. This program contains a number of elements designed to provide fully integrated, self-reinforcing learning experiences. The integrating vehicle for the program are the seven one-day facilitated sessions delivered in an action learning (workshop) style. The sessions evolve in complexity as the leadership model is developed through the program.
To ensure that learning is highly interactive, a maximum of 30 participants may be enrolled in a program.
In addition to the highly developed program content, each group applies the content through real-time organizational issues and problems. In addition to the information required for the workshops, other related materials are included as well for reference.
To help ensure application of the concepts and skills developed in the program, learning teams are formed to reinforce personal action plans and on-the-job applications. Learning teams may represent existing segments of the organization, or they may be designed as cross-functional teams.


If learning teams are not pre-set, then the group will be divided into different teams each module, to further reinforce the cross-functional learning opportunities presented through the program design.
Before, during and after the program feedback sessions are offered to the managers of the participants and to the senior executives of the sponsoring organization. Because this program is conducted over seven months with multiple experiences to tie the learning together the program can focus on real-time action learning and implementation issues.
First, each participant maintains a personal Action Planner that serves as the glue between the sessions. Second, learning teams are created and used to identify and apply real-time work issues through collective action.
Third, assignments are given to both individuals and learning teams for real-time work applications between the learning sessions.
The first segment - Modules 1-2 - focuses on personal and interpersonal leadership skills and styles. The middle section - Modules 3, 4 and 5 - addresses concepts and skills related to performance management and team development.
The team development module builds universal teambuilding competence, and may also be designed around specific real-time teams under development or in need of enhancement. The final section - Modules 6 and 7 - broadens into organizational design and strategic skills.
An organizational change challenge needed as lab work for application of the skills taught in the leadership development program. The energy, focus and leadership of Top Management are a critical success factor for organizational change.
To begin discussions on how the WSA leadership development program can enable your Top Management team, contact WSA. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. What were the personality characteristics and physical and psychological attributes of people who are viewed as leaders? Specifically, people who have high mental abilities are more likely to be viewed as leaders in their environment.[434] We should caution, though, that intelligence is a positive but modest predictor of leadership. Several of the Big Five personality traits have been related to leadership emergence (whether someone is viewed as a leader by others) and leadership effectiveness. For example, to celebrate Microsofta€™s 25th anniversary, Ballmer enthusiastically popped out of the anniversary cake to surprise the audience. Conscientious people are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate persistence in their endeavors. The degree to which people are at peace with themselves and have an overall positive assessment of their self-worth and capabilities seems to be relevant to whether they will be viewed as a leader.
For example, agreeable people who are modest, good natured, and avoid conflict are less likely to be perceived as leaders.[442] The key to benefiting from the findings of trait researchers is to be aware that not all traits are equally effective in predicting leadership potential across all circumstances. Some traits are consistently related to leadership, such as intelligence (both mental ability and emotional intelligence), personality (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, self-esteem), and integrity. Becoming a good leader is not easy, but by learning the correct leadership skills and knowledge, putting them into practice through quality learning activities, and then adapting them to different situations, will put you well on your way to becoming a leader. If there is one, he is only pretending, like a pig inverting spring onions into his nose in an effort to look like an elephant. Validated in use by small and large companies alike, the program enhances the skills of active leaders and managers while developing organizational competence through the real-time problem-solving exercises built into the program design. While the overall content is based on a validated development model, both content and application may be customized to meet the unique needs of each sponsoring organization. This model is particularly effective during times of organizational growth, organizational change, or in response to significant shifts in the external market or business environment. This may include functional (departmental) management responsibilities, cross-functional team responsibilities or other similar leadership roles. The following is a brief description the core program elements included in this total learning experience. These sessions are typically held one month apart, and are all conducted personally by Seasoned WSA consultants.
A detailed description of the program content is provided in subsequent sections of this brochure. The participants receive a valuable set of resource materials that can be used in many aspects of their work.
Sometimes they are selected to address a particular organizational challenge, or address common customer issues. Individuals may call for personal discussion or coaching, or share materials for feedback via fax or email.
These sessions include ways to enhance the learning and application of each of the participants, and also provide feedback regarding any organizational issues or opportunities that are identified in the program. This action planner is used to record both personal notes and plans at key points in every workshop session. The class becomes a fully integrated real-work action laboratory in which ideas and activities are developed in the workshop, tried out on-the-job, and feedback is provided both between sessions and in the next formal workshop experience. Recent research has validated the primal nature of emotional intelligence as fundamental to successful leadership. Performance management has been proven to be the single most highly leveraged system for increasing individual productivity and organizational performance.
Leadership skills in developing a vision, setting strategy and guiding large scale organizational change to achieve that vision are included in this higher level segment of the program.


Specific, targeted organizational change challenges create the learning lab for application of the skills being taught.
A well developed leadership development program acts as a catalytic force to drive the success of any leadership team wishing to achieve substantial improvements in organizational performance.
Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982).
This definition is similar to Northouse's (2007, p3) definition - Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
Because of the problems in measurement of personality traits at the time, different studies used different measures.
In addition to having high IQ, effective leaders tend to have high emotional intelligence (EQ).
Leaders with high self-esteem support their subordinates more, and when punishment needs to be administered, they punish more effectively.[438] It is possible that those with high self-esteem have greater levels of self-confidence and this affects their image in the eyes of their followers.
Some organizational situations allow leader traits to make a greater difference.[443] For example, in small, entrepreneurial organizations where leaders have a lot of leeway to determine their own behavior, the type of traits leaders have may make a difference in leadership potential. The main limitation of the trait approach was that it ignored the situation in which leadership occurred. WSA has developed the program and implemented it successfully with executives at all levels throughout North and South America, Europe and the Middle East. Examples have included performance management systems, continuous improvement systems, development of organizational culture, customer feedback and satisfaction systems, implementation of major change initiatives, implementation of enterprise-wide software systems, etc.
They have been validated and continuously refined over a twenty-five year period, applied with more than five hundred corporations throughout North America and Europe, and used directly by more than 20,000 managers and leaders. This section helps the participants examine their personal and interpersonal leadership styles and develop additional skills and tools for their leadership roles. Content in these modules includes setting expectations, developing performance measures, providing feedback, coaching and counseling, and conducting reviews that enhance performance. Other topics may also include project management, continuous improvement, or creating a customer-focused organizational culture.
To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. This is called Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), in that it was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made.
People with high EQ demonstrate a high level of self-awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Because they are both dominant and sociable in their environment, they emerge as leaders in a wide variety of situations. Finally, people who have openness to experiencea€”those who demonstrate originality, creativity, and are open to trying new thingsa€”tend to emerge as leaders and tend to be effective as leaders. Self-esteem may also explain the relationship between some physical attributes and emerging as a leader. In large, bureaucratic, and rule-bound organizations, such as the government and the military, a leadera€™s traits may have less to do with how the person behaves and whether the person is a successful leader.[444] Moreover, some traits become relevant in specific circumstances. Therefore, it is more useful to specify the conditions under which different traits are needed. In recent years, though, after advances in personality literature such as the development of the Big Five personality framework, researchers have had more success in identifying traits that predict leadership.[432] Most importantly, charismatic leadership, which is among the contemporary approaches to leadership, may be viewed as an example of a trait approach.
The psychologist who coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes that IQ is a threshold quality: it matters for entry- to high-level management jobs, but once you get there, it no longer helps leaders because most leaders already have high IQ. Out of all personality traits, extraversion has the strongest relationship to both leader emergence and leader effectiveness.
For example, research shows a strong relationship between height and being viewed as a leader (as well as onea€™s career success over life). For example, bravery is likely to be a key characteristic in military leaders but not necessarily in business leaders. The effect of physical height on workplace success and income: Preliminary test of a theoretical model. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels.
Regardless of the specific content, the flow of the modules reflects the expanding circles of competence required by managers and leaders.
This is not to say that all effective leaders are extraverts, but you are more likely to find extraverts in leadership positions. Individual attributes and leadership style: Predicting the use of punishment and its effects.
Individual differences in leadership emergence: Integrating meta-analytic findings and behavioral genetics estimates.
Self-esteem: Relationship with leader behavior perceptions as moderated by the duration of the superior-subordinate dyad association, Personality and Social Psychology Buletin, 10, 51a€“59. A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures.



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