These topics are not the exclusive property of sociology and other disciplines share its interest in many topics. Modern interactionists such as Erving G off man (1959) and Herbert Blumer (1962) emphasize that people do not respond to other people directly; instead, they respond to whatever they imagine other people to be. According to functionalist perspective, the society is working in an organized way, and all the groups living in the society observe values and norms existing in the society.- Society is seen as a stable system and there is a tendency to establish and maintain a balanced and harmoniously operating system.
Social change disrupts the stable equilibrium of the society,, but before long a new equilibrium is regained. Although it stems from the work of many scholars, the conflict perspective is most directly based upon the work of Karl Marx (1818-1883), who saw class conflict and class exploitation as the prime moving forces in history.
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For example, its interest in communication and public opinion is shared by psychology and political, science,-Criminology is shared with psychology, political science, law, and so on. A theory is a statement that organizes a set of concepts in a meaningful way by explaining the relationship between them.
It is based on the work of August Comte (1798-1857) and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), and offers a satisfying explanation of how human societies originate and grow. In this perspective each group or institution fulfills certain functions and persists because it is functional.
For example, large families were desired when death rates were high, and large families helped to ensure some survivors. Largely ignored by sociologists for many years, the conflict perspective has recently been revived by C.


Each perspective views society from a different vantage point, asks different questions, and reaches different conclusions. Sociology is especially close to psychology and anthropology, and overlaps them so constantly that any firm boundaries would be arbitrary and unrealistic.
They might wonder, for example, whether industrialization will have the same effects upon the family in developing countries that it seems to have had in Western nations.
Whether a person is a friend, our enemy, or a stranger is not a characteristic of the person; that person is, to me, whatever 1 perceive him as being, at least until I change my perception.
Today, with a lower death rate, large families have become dysfunctional and threaten the welfare of the society. They note that people interact mainly through symbols,- which include signs, gestures, and most importantly, through written and spoken words.
Where functionalist see the normal state of society as one of stable equilibrium, conflict theorists see society in a continuous state of” conflict between groups and classes. For most topics of study, there are some aspects for which each of the perspectives can be useful. In order to study anything* one must begin by making some assumptions about the nature of what is studied. Thus, I create reality about him in my own mind,’ and then 1 react to this reality that I have constructed. For example, the ancient Greeks bejieved that the universe was run according to, the Whims of the gods. Thus, a value or practice which is functional at one time or place may become dysfunctional at another time or place.


The evolutionary perspective might focus upon the procession of scholarly needs and arrangements, extending over several thousand years, which eventually led- to the development of the modern university.
By contrast, all scientists assume that the universe is orderly, and operates in certain regular ways which we may be able to discover.
The interactionism perspective would not the ways in which scholarly needs have been defined at different times and the ways in which persons and groups dealt with one another in creating the university. Thus, Newton developed the laws of gravity after observing that apples always fall down, never up. The sun, moon, and Stars are real, and still would be there even if there were no humans to see them. The functionalist perspective would concentrate upon what changes made universities seem to be necessary, what purposes they fulfilled: for the society, and what effects universities have upon their students and upon societies. The conflict perspective would concentrate upon as to which groups and classes benefit from the university and how access to higher education operates to preserve the position of the privileged groups. The symbolic interactionist perspective concentrates upon what meanings people find in other people’s actions, how these meanings are derived, and how others respond to them.



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