Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was not only an Augustinian monk, but also a founder of genetics and a teacher of high school students. The results of Mendel?s research were summarized in the monograph - Experiments with Plant Hybrids.
Genes work in different variants - called alleles - which can be dominant or recessive and just the dominant ones are expressed in a phenotype. Text is available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license, additional terms may apply. It is certainly true that critical theory focuses on society, wants to foster political engagement, and wants to show the difference between potentiality and actuality in society. Second, there are definitions that are so specific that they only consider one approach or a few approaches as critical theories and exclude other approaches.
Axel Honneth puts two concepts at the heart of critical theory, disrespect and malrecognition.
Critical Theory analyzes “social relations of communication (…) primarily in terms of the structural forms of disrespect they generate”, it focuses on “the damage and distortion of social relations of recognition” (Honneth 2007: 72). So on the one hand, if one defines critical theory in very broad sense, then the normative aspect of critical theory as critique of domination becomes lost. A third way of defining critical theory is to see it as analysis and questioning of domination, inequality, societal problems, exploitation in order to advance social struggles and the liberation from domination so that a dominationless, co-operative, participatory society can emerge.
Fred Rush sees critical theory as the analysis of domination and inequality for fostering social change: ”It is an account of the social forces of domination that takes its theoretical activity to be practically connected to the object of its study. David Held argues that the critical theorists Adorno, Habermas, Horkheimer, and Marcuse have aimed at establishing a free society and at exposing the obstacles for this development: “Following Marx, they were preoccupied, especially in their early work, with the forces which moved (and might be guided to move) society towards rational institutions – institutions which would ensure a true, free and just life.
Douglas Kellner defines critical theory as a project that confronts societal problems and domination and seeks liberation from these conditions: “Critical Theory is informed by multidisciplinary research, combined with the attempt to construct a systematic, comprehensive social theory that can confront the key social and political problems of the day. Alvesson and Deetz define critical studies as the disruption of domination that provides impulses for liberation from it: ”Critical research generally aims to disrupt ongoing social reality for the sake of providing impulses to the liberation from or resistance to what dominates and leads to constraints in human decision making. Karl Marx provided a definition of critique that allows us to define critical theory not just as critique and analysis of capitalism, but of domination in general. If we conceive ontology as the philosophical question about being (What exists?), epistemology as the philosophical question about the cognition of being (How do we conceive and perceive reality?), and axiology as the philosophical question about human praxis as the consequence of the cognition of being (What form of existence is desirable for humans?), then we can say that an academic field has three dimensions.
Realism assumes that a world exists that is larger than the human being and its imaginations.
Dialectic analysis in this context means complex dynamic thinking, realism an analysis of real possibilities and a dialectic of pessimism and optimism. Critical theory is materialistic in the sense that it addresses phenomena and problems not in terms of absolute ideas and predetermined societal development, but in terms of resource distribution and social struggles.
To make a materialistic analysis also means to conceive society as an interconnected whole (totality) and as negativity, to identify antagonisms means to take a look at contradictory tendencies that relate to one and the same phenomenon, create societal problems and require a fundamental systemic change in order to be dissolved.
In order to address the negativity of contemporary society and its potential, research also needs to be oriented on the totality.
All critical approaches in one or the other respect take the standpoint of oppressed or exploited classes and individuals and make the judgement that structures of oppression and exploitation benefit certain classes at the expense of others and hence should be radically transformed by social struggles. Critical theory does not accept existing social structures as they are, it is not purely focused society as it is, but interested in what it could be and could become. Critical theory is a transdisciplinary project that at the epistemological level employs methods and theoretical categories that are employed for describing reality as dialectical contradictory field that poses risks and opportunities so that at the ontological level reality is grasped in terms that address ownership, private property, resource distribution, social struggles, power, resource control, exploitation, and domination so that at the axiological level dominative structures are judged as being undesirable and potential ways for alleviating suffering and establishing a co-operative, participatory society are identified that can enter as impulses into into political struggles and political transformations of society.
Two central texts of Critical Theory, Horkheimer’s Traditional and Critical Theory and Marcuse’s Philosophy and Critical Theory, can be interpreted for not being constitutive for Frankfurt School Critical Theory, but for critical theory in general. This emancipation in positive terms would bring happiness and self-determination for all: “Its goal is man’s emancipation from slavery” (249) and “the happiness of all individuals” (248).
If we assume that information, media, communication, culture, and technology play an important role in contemporary capitalism, then the critique of these phenomena in contemporary society becomes one of the tasks of a critical theory of society.
Critical studies of information, media, and communication should be embedded into a broader social science perspective in order to show which position they occupy in the overall field of the social sciences.
Anthony Giddens sees the “division between objectivism and subjectivism” (Giddens 1984, xx) as one of the central issues of social theory.
Burrell and Morgan (1979) have combined the distinction between subject and object with the distinction between continuity and discontinuity in order two identify two axes that set up two dimensions so that four different approaches can be identified in social theory: radical humanism (subjective, radical change), radical structuralism (objective, radical change), interpretive sociology (subjective, continuity), and functionalism (objective, continuity). Figure 1: Four paradigms of social theory identified by Burrell and Morgan (1979)The problem with this approach is that in contemporary social theory there are approaches that cross the boundaries between the four fields and that the four paradigms therefore can no longer be strictly separated.
Figure 2: A refined version of Burrell’s and Morgan’s typologyA number of communication scholars have stressed that it makes sense to use the typology by Burrell and Morgan for identifying different approaches in communication studies and communication theory (Deetz 1994, McQuail 2002, Rosengren 1993, 2000).
Figure 3 shows that critical communication studies are primarily characterized by their radical change perspective, i.e. For Craig, the characteristic that distinguishes critical communication studies from rhetorical, semiotic, phenomenological, cybernetic, sociopsychological, and sociocultural traditions of communication theory is that for “critical communication theory, the basic ‘problem of communication’ in society arises from material and ideological forces that preclude and distort discursive reflection. Representatives of the commodity hypothesis argue that the media are not primarily ideological means of manipulation, but spheres of capital accumulation. Andrew Feenberg argues in his critical theory of technology that technology is an ambivalent process: “Critical theory argues that technology is not a thing in the ordinary sense of the term, but an ‘ambivalent’ process of development suspended between different possibilities. The dialectical critical theory of technology is grounded in the works of Karl Marx, who said that technology has contradictory potentials and that under capitalism the negative ones predominate: “The contradictions and antagonisms inseparable from the capitalist application of machinery do not exist, they say, because they do not arise out of machinery as such, but out of its capitalist applications! Young people in any country will indulge in inebriating activities excessively and recklessly by whatever means is available to them: negotiating laws with devious enthusiasm, aging fake IDs in the toaster or mastering the art of cut-and-paste forgery.
But while Dartmouth College is proposing a ban on hard alcohol in an effort to mitigate the worst effects of binge drinking to little applause, accepting their solution or blindly dismissing the severe problems currently faced by American campuses by suggesting simply that "all college kids drink!" is to deny the deeper cultural issues at play. When I was a 13-year-old living in Britain's West Country, my friends and I would raid our parents' booze cabinets, replacing an inch of vodka with water or pilfering a dusty bottle of peach Schnapps. For me, growing up straddling the two worlds between parental visits, the real difference between American and British drinking cultures emerged around age 16: in the UK I started going to pubs, having a pint amongst adults with their relatively normal drinking habits. Take the Fraternal Information and Programming Group-approved Bring Your Own policies for house parties (as outlined brilliantly by Caitlin Flanagan in The Atlantic); they describe Kafka-esque levels of bureaucracy required for boozing, but ultimately result in the only system in America whereby selling alcohol can be monitored and managed by those legally too young to partake. But regardless of the differences in law and in practice, both Americans and British are among the worst binge-drinkers in the developed world a€“ and the problems associated with this are manifold. People often cite the liberal laws of Italy and France as an example of how to raise children into healthy adult drinkers who enjoy an aperitif or two rather than rounds of power hour or vodka eyeballing. But while introducing alcohol to children at a younger age in moderation works on the continent, neither America nor Britain share their long history of cultured and civilised drinking.
Banning hard liquor on campus may only exacerbate the rituals of secrecy and obscurity surrounding college-age drinking in America and insulate these pockets of violent amorality from public censure or control. This article was written by Tyler Wetherall from The Guardian and was legally licensed through the NewsCred publisher network. The Manifestation Mastery E-Course consists of over 3 hours of video presentations and is split into 14 different videos. Although his main field was natural science, he became famous because of his sweet peas research. At the beginning was the foundation of an atypical variant of flower, which Mendel planted with the typical one.
Nowadays we know, that the last sentence was true at the time of Mendel, but later was discovered the exception - genetic linkage.
Critical theory as a general term means theories that are critical of capitalism and domination.
So for example Rainer Forst gives a definition of critical theory that is clearly focusing on a strictly Habermasian project.
Honneth says that all Critical Theorists share the assumption that “the process of social rationalization through the societal structure unique to capitalism has become interrupted or distorted in a way that makes pathologies that accompany the loss of a rational universal unavoidable” (Honneth 2004: 349).
On the other hand, if one defines critical theory in a very strict sense focusing on specific theories, scholars, or single concepts, then one risks advancing a narrow-minded definition that weakens the academic and political power of critical theory by isolating approaches. In other words, Critical Theory is not merely descriptive, it is a way to instigate social change by providing knowledge of the forces of social inequality that can, in turn, inform political action aimed at emancipation (or at least at diminishing domination and inequality)” (Rush 2004: 9). But they were aware of the many obstacles to radical change and sought to analyse and expose these. The work of the Critical Theorists provides criticisms and alternatives to traditional, or mainstream, social theory, philosophy and science, together with a critique of a full range of ideologies from mass culture to religion.


Critical information theory as critique of domination in the context of media, culture, and communication correspond perfectly to the understanding of critique given by Marx in the Introduction to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right in 1844: “Theory is capable of gripping the masses as soon as it demonstrates ad hominem, and it demonstrates ad hominem as soon as it becomes radical. The material world is seen as primary and it is assumed that humans are able to grasp, describe, analyze, and partly transform this world in academic work.
In a dialectical analysis, phenomena are analyzed in terms of the dialectics of agency and structures, discontinuity and continuity, the one and the many, potentiality and actuality, global and local, virtual and real, optimism and pessimism, essence and existence, immanence and transcendence, etc. Reality is seen in terms that address ownership, private property, resource distribution, social struggles, power, resource control, exploitation, and domination.
To analyze society as contradictory also means to consider it as dynamic system because contradictions cause development and movement of matter. That dialectics is a philosophy of totality in this context means that society is analyzed on a macro-scale in order to grasp its problems and that reasons for the necessity of positive transformations are to be given. It deconstructs ideologies that claim that something cannot be changed and shows potential counter-tendencies and alternative modes of development. In these works, Horkheiemr and Marcuse on the one hand stress the limits and one-dimensionality of positivism that they consider as stabilizing forces that neglect potential alternatives to capitalism in their analyses.
Critical theory advances “the idea of self-determination for the human race, that is the idea of a state of affairs in which man’s actions no longer flow from a mechanism but from his own decision” (Horkheimer 1937: 229).
In turning negativity into a potential positive result, Marcuse (1937: 135) says that critical theory is concerned “with human happiness, and the conviction that it can be attained only through a transformation of the material conditions of existence“ is a central element of critical theory. A critical theory of information, communication, and media therefore is a sub-domain of a contemporary critical theory of society. Given such a definition, critical communication and media studies are inherently normative and political.
Subjective approaches are oriented on human agents and their practices as primary object of analysis, objective approaches on social structures.
The basic contention underlying the manipulation and ideology hypothesis is that the media are used as tools that manipulate people, advance ideologies, forestall societal transformations, create false consciousness, false needs, and a one-dimensional universe of thought, language, and action.
This ambivalence of technology is distinguished from neutrality by the role it attributes to social values in the design, and not merely the use of technical systems. However, Europe and the US tackle underage and binge drinking completely differently a€“ and with fairly different results. We would combine our spoils into one vessel, and unceremoniously down it amidst the damp shrubbery of a local park, where we would then a€“ in all probability a€“ be sick. In America, however, my peer group continued their car parking lot antics with little influence from adults. As an 18-year-old at a British university, I latched onto the most normal-looking cohort available and made a beeline for the pub.
When the National Minimum Drinking Age Act increased the drinking age to 21 in 1984, it effectively relocated boozing from the public spaces of bars into private homes, where a world of pre-gaming, hazing, keg parties and pledging (ranging from the bizarre and sadistic to the downright criminal) became normal.
The British look upon the rituals, rites and Masonic jargon of the Greek college system with the same utter bafflement that Americans might look upon Morris Dancers; the key difference is that when Morris dancers get out of hand, people don't wind up the victims of abuse and torture. While the laws policing drinking in the US are certainly more puritanical, the higher minimum-drinking age is correlated with fewer alcohol-related deaths than before it was implemented. Southern Europeans drink more often but at less volume, with a far lower rate of binge drinking. We drink to get drunk, and we glorify our past drunken misdemeanours like the trophy skins of a hunter. Binge drinking has become normalised to such a degree that college kids are expected to get wasted and break themselves a€“ whole movies are made about it a€“ and yet, it has gone so far beyond society's control we don't know how to turn back the clock. Imposing such a measure only creates the illusion of tackling a problem far greater and more deeply ingrained than a simple ban can address. Their offspring get traits from both of the parents and this was the first step on the genetic way. Critical Theory as a more specific term means the work of the Frankfurt School, and particularly of Theodor W. Further characteristics need to be added in order to avoid for example that theories, which argue for right-wing extremist or nationalist goals, can be considered as critical.
At least some versions of Critical Theory are motivated by an interest in relating theory to politics and an interest in the emancipation of those who are oppressed and dominated. Critique explores if and how these constrain human imagination, autonomy, and decision making. Analyses are conducted that are looking for the essence of societal existence by identifying contradictions that lie at the heart of development.
Such an analysis assumes that the world is not as it is presented to us, but that there is a larger essence underlying existing phenomena. That the negative antagonisms are sublated into positive results is not an automatism, but depends on the realization of practical forces of change that have a potential to rise from the inside of the systems in question in order to produce a transcendental outside that becomes a new whole.
On the other hand, the most important uniting feature of the two works that makes them grounding works for critical theory in general is the axiological questioning of domination and the focus on the necessity of the establishment of a non-dominative society. Critical theory strives for “a state of affairs in which there will be no exploitation or oppression” (241), a “society without injustice” (221). Such a society is shaped by “reasonableness, and striving for peace, freedom, and happiness” (222) and the “the establishment of justice among men” (243).
Structures in this respect are institutionalized relationships that are stabilized across time and space (Giddens 1984, xxxi). So for example the approaches by Roy Bhaskar (1993), Pierre Bourdieu (1986), Anthony Giddens (1984), and Margaret Archer (1995) have in common that they are based on a dialectical subject-object-integration, but Bhaskar and Bourdieu are overall critical of class society that they want to abolish, whereas Giddens and Archer want to transform modernity, but overall aim at its continuation. This also means that there are subjective, objective, and subject-object-dialectical approaches within critical communication studies. Craig works out the specifics of critical studies and other traditions in communication studies. Scholars who argue that there are alternative ways of doing and making media for critical ends and for fostering participatory media practices advance the alternative media hypothesis. Thus her manages to avoid racking his brains any more, and in addition implies that his opponent is guilty of the stupidity of contending, not against the capitalist application of machinery, but against machinery itself” (Marx 1867: 568f).
I'm not proud of this, but I'm pretty sure it's normal because, when I went to visit my father in California over summer holidays, I would do almost exactly the same thing, except it would happen in a shopping mall or a parked car. Three years of heavy drinking ensued, but the majority of it was done in bars or clubs where there was a degree of interaction with a more mature drinking culture. The Greek system of self-policing creates a world akin to Lord of the Flies a€“ the post-watershed version, in which a Bacardi plane crashes alongside the children. The higher drinking age has done little, however, to address the endemic culture of excessive drinking (and the violent behaviour associated with excessive drinking). In France, "le binge drinking" only officially entered the lexicon as beuverie express in 2013. Certainly, regulators can look to southern Europe for inspiration, but mimicking their legal system isn't going to fix the problem at this point a€“ the difference is cultural, not merely legal. Certainly if they were to try this in a British university, the classrooms would quickly grow empty, and the kids would remain just as filthy drunk.
It took him more than seven years of his life and thousands of experiments in mice, plants and sweet peas, before he finally discovered the law of inheritance. Critical Theory is thus informed by a critique of domination and a theory of liberation” (Kellner 1989: 1). Attention is paid to asymmetrical relations of power, taken for granted assumptions and beliefs. Critical theory analyzes social phenomena not based on instrumental reason and one-dimensional logic, i.e. Mankind will then become conscious of its existence: “In the transition from the present form of society to a future one mankind will for the first time be a conscious subject and actively determine its own way of life” (233).
It struggles for universal freedom and can therefore be considered as a universalistic theory. Integrative social theories (such as the ones by Roy Bhaskar (1993), Pierre Bourdieu (1986), Anthony Giddens (1984), or Margaret Archer (1995)) aim at overcoming the structure-agency divide.
The approaches by Bhaskar and Bourdieu could therefore be described as integrative-radical change, the ones by Giddens and Archer as integrative-continuous.


Craig mentions several boundary-crossing approaches that can be considered as representing attempts at combining some of the four fields in figure 3: Kennth Burke, David S. However, I would add to Craig’s account of critical communication studies that it is not only about the analysis of those conditions that distort communication, i.e. It is a social battlefield, or perhaps a better metaphor would be a ‘parliament of things’ in which civilizational alternatives contend.
There was generally less alcohol involved, but, at least for a large number of teenagers, they would throw some prescription drugs from the family doctor into the heady mix to compensate.
If you don't want to get swiftly booted out, you need to subscribe to the accepted rules of civilisation.
In America, a study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine revealed that binge-drinking rates fell by 30% among 18- to 20-year-old men who didn't attend college, strongly indicating that campus culture perpetuates this behaviour.
Surely the farce of prohibition, the collective indulgence from 1919 to 1933 which was futility at great expense to both life and the nation's purse, should have taught America something about humanity's will to inebriate itself. It is based on the categoric judgement that a participatory, co-operative society is desirable. It claims that “all, and not merely this ort hat particular person, should be rational, free, and happy. This requires certain changes to the typology of Burrell and Morgan that are shown in Figure 2. Craig (1999) has identified seven traditions of communication theory that are based on how they communication is defined (See table 1). Representatives of the reception hypothesis argue that reception is a complex and antagonistic process that provides potentials for oppositional interpretations and actions.
For Horkheimer and his colleagues, critical theory “was a camouflage label for ‘Marxist theory’” (Wiggershaus 1994: 5) when they were in exile from the Nazis in the USA, where they were concerned about being exposed as communist thinkers and therefore took care in the categories they employed. With the assumption that phenomena do not have linear causes and effects, but are contradictory, open, dynamic, and carry certain development potentials in them and hence should be conceived in complex forms; 2. Although his approach is very relevant and his paper (Craig 1999) has been one of the most frequently cited papers in communication studies in the past decade, he does not specify an underlying distinctive criterion for his typology, which gives it a rather arbitrary character. Craig argues that “communication theory has not yet emerged as a coherent field study” and that this fragmentation can be overcome by constructing “a dialogical-dialectical disciplinary matrix” (Craig 1999, 120) that enables the emergence of a conversational community, “a common awareness of certain complementarities and tensions among different types of communication theory, so it is commonly understood that these different types of theory cannot legitimately develop in total isolation from each other but must engage each other in argument” (Craig 1999, 124). Day argues that information science has treated information mainly as a “reified and commoditized notion” (Day 2001: 120). Based on the insight that reality should be conceived so that there are neither only opportunities nor only risks inherent in social phenomena, but contradictory tendencies that pose both positive and negative potentials at the same time that are realized or suppressed by human social practice. It is at one with philosophy in maintaining that man can be more than a manipulable subject in the production process of class society“ (Marcuse 1937: 152f).
Therefore it makes sense to combine his seven traditions of communication theory with the refined version of Burrell’s and Morgan’s typology.
So for example David Macey provides a definition that is circular, it defines critical by being critical without giving a further specification what it means to be critical.
Critical theory’s task is “to demonstrate this possibility and lay the foundation for a transformation“ (Marcuse 1937: 142). Those approaches that see media, information, and communication primarily as embedded into repressive contexts, can be considered as more structuralistic-objectivistic approaches, they focus on how media structures negatively shape humans and society.
It is an ambivalent or ‘multistable’ system that can be organized around at least two hegemonies, two poles of power between which it can ‘tilt’” (Feenberg 2002: 87).
Coupled wit the dominant tendency of such research to be ‘practical’ in the service of professional and business organizations and in the service of military and industrial research projects, research in information simply shies away from critical engagement, as well as from foundational, qualitative, or materialist analyses, especially from that which is seen to employ ‘pretentious’, ‘political’, or, equally, ‘foreign’ vocabulary, let alone philosophical or Marxist analyses” (Day 2001: 116f). By critical theory he means “a whole range of theories which take a critical view of society and the human sciences or which seek to explain the emergence of their objects of knowledge“ (Macey 2001: 74).
It wants to bring “to consciousness potentialities that have emerged within the maturing historical situation“ (Marcuse 1937: 158). Those approaches that see media, information, and communication primarily as potential forms of liberation can be considered as more humanistic-subjectivistic approaches, they focus on how media structures positively enable human participation and liberation. Integration and unification does not mean that difference is abolished at the expense of identity. Day understands critical theory in a very general sense as “the deployment of concepts in critical and interruptive relation to the conceptual foundations of commonly accepted practices” (Day 2001: 116). Unspecific theories include those that do not define a certain normative project, but argue that critical theory is about political engagement or showing the difference between potentiality and actuality. Integrative approaches try to blur the boundaries between subjective and objective theories.
It rather means a Hegelian dialectical sublation (Aufhebung), in which old elements are preserved and elevated to a new level. The problem with such a contextual definition of critical theory is that it is purely contextual: In case that socialism becomes a commonly accepted practice, right wing extremist theory then becomes a “critical” theory. So for example Michael Payne sees political engagement as the central characteristic of critical theory. Feenberg says that the critical theory of technology is a dialectical theory of technology (Feenberg 2002: 176-183). Such a dialectical integration is a differentiated unity that is based on the principle of unity in diversity. A critical theory of information for day examines information’s “institutional, political, and social” context and its “reflexive relationships to material forces and productions” (Day 2001: 118). Craig Calhoun focuses on defining critical theory as a project that shows the difference between potentiality and actuality and argues for potential futures: Critical social theory “exists largely to facilitate a constructive engagement with the social world that starts from the presumption that existing arrangements – including currently affirmed identities and differences – do not exhaust the range of possibilities. Barnett Pearce (Sociocultural Studies-Rhetoric-Cybernetics), Rayme McKerrow (Critical Studies – Rhetoric), Robert Hodge and Gunter Kress, Norbert Fairclough (Critical Studies-Semiotics). According to this view, technology is an invariant element that, once introduced, bends the recipient social system to its imperatives.
Day (2007) argues that Rob Kling on the one hand has defined Social Informatics as empirical research, which brings forward positivistic associations, but that on the other hand he tried to deconstruct technological determinism as ideology. It seeks to explore the ways in which our categories of thought reduce our freedom by occluding recognition of what could be.
Fuchs (2010) mentions the following example theories for integrative critical media theories: Robert McChesney, Stuart Hall, Douglas Kellner, Shane Gunster, Vilem Flusser, Herbert Marcuse. These theories would bridge certain hypotheses of critical media and information studies to a greater or lesser degree, but an overall synthesis would still be missing. The pattern of technological progress is fixed, moving along one and the same track in all societies. He concludes that “the heart of Kling’s conception of social informatics was a critical informatics, and that the cornerstone for critical informatics were approaches that remained a minority in Kling’s overall work” (Day 2007: 582). One of the reasons why critical theory is important for analyzing media, technology, and information is that it allows to question and provide alternatives to technological determinism and to explain the causal relationship of media and technology on the one hand and society on the other hand in a balanced way that avoids one-dimensionality and one-sidedness.
Although political, cultural, and other factors may influence the pace of change, they cannot alter the general line of development that reflects the autonomous logic of discovery. Pyati (2006) suggests that critical information studies should be based on a Marcusean infusion because his notion of technological rationality allows explaining why information is primarily treated as a commodity and thing in contemporary society and contemporary library and information studies. Social organization must adapt to technical progress at each stage of development according to ‘imperative’ requirements of technology. Marcuse’s notion of one-dimensionality would allow deconstructing the neoliberal discourse that argues for the privatization and commodification of information and libraries as ideologies.
Techno-optimism and techno-pessimism are the normative dimensions of technological determinism.A critical theory of media and technology is based on dialectical reasoning. Which potentials are realized is based on how society, interests, power structures, and struggles shape the design and usage of technology in multiple ways that are also potentially contradictory.



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