The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.
The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000.
An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.
In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation.
The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary.
The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South.
The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes.
With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v.
Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963.
The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation.
In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S.
During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W.
As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L.
Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.
21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations".
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay.
Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. ACTUALLY DIED AT AGH, WHICH OF COURSE THEY ACCOMPLISHED (even though Canonsburg General Hospital is the rehab's NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR!). For the past few semesters the students taking a Master’s degree in Constitutional or Fiscal Law at the Universidad Regional del Sureste in Oaxaca, Mexico have complained about the difficulties involved in having a Legal English F2F (face-to-face) course from 7 to 9 on a Saturday morning. The reason for the change from F2F classes to a blended learning model was based on the needs of the students, most of whom were professionals and had time constraints. In January 2011 the university offered students taking the Master’s degree in Constitutional Law and Fiscal Law the opportunity to study the obligatory legal English component as a blended learning course. Recent research on the use of blended learning and its benefits for students has mostly dealt with the teaching of subjects in the students’ mother tongue. Furthermore, we were aware that some of the affective barriers which impede a student’s learning can be overcome by the use of a BL course (Keengwe and Kidd, 2010). The students in the Legal English course are on the whole professionals, although there are a few recent graduates from our university Law School. The results of the survey showed that the students perceived that a blended learning course in Legal English was of use in overcoming the problems of relevance and time constraints previously faced by Master’s degree students.
The majority of the students (82.35%) felt they were competent in the use of technology and only three students had a very basic knowledge of computers. However, only one student acknowledged having taken a BL course and the majority of students (94.12%) had not taken this type of course previously. The students’ opinions about the relevance of the legal cases ranged from regular to very relevant and refer to Questions 3-5.
However, a large number of students (67.71%) stated that they preferred the F2F classes rather than the online classes. The students also answered that they did not find it too difficult to organize their time, although their F2F teacher did not agree as some of them had to be constantly reminded to finish the online activities. Moreover, a lot of the students admitted that they left the online work until the last minute.
All of the students liked the fact that they received immediate feedback online and felt that it was useful. Finally the majority of the students (94.11%) appreciated being able to choose how much time they spent on each task.
Concerning the fourth section, all of the students agreed that the online component allowed them to study at their own rhythm and according to their level of English. The answers also show that the students believed that the material used on the platform was both useful and relevant to their needs. Nevertheless, the majority of the students would have preferred to solve the case studies in the F2F classroom based upon the results of Questions 14 and 15. Most of the students found the online evaluation and feedback either excellent or very good; however, two students were less satisfied with the online method of evaluation and feedback.
Almost all of the students felt that taking the Blended Learning Course in Legal English online had been an excellent or a very good experience.
The majority of the students stated that they would recommend a blended learning course in Legal English to future generations. They suggested adding more grammar exercises, general and legal vocabulary and more legal case studies (see Appendix 3).
As a reflection, almost all of the students finished the blended learning course in Legal English, which was an improvement over the previous course in which the same teacher was aware that eight students out of her group of 25 had dropped out of the course. Concerning the content of the course, the students were satisfied with the legal terminology and content although some of them mentioned that they preferred to work on case studies in the classroom.
We also noticed that it was very hard to get students to participate in collaborative tasks online.


Furthermore we found in the results of the survey that students asked for more basic grammar and vocabulary exercises. This investigation was carried out with a small group of students, but it demonstrates that although a lot has been written about using blended learning in the classroom, there is a dearth of literature about using blended learning in ESP classes and especially for students with a basic level of English. Liang and Bonk (2009) assure us that “Language instructors benefit from a wealth of learning and communication strategies added to their arsenal. After analyzing the results of the survey we found that on the whole a blended learning course in Legal English is able to overcome the time constraints faced by many of our students and that it does permit slower learners to study at their own pace. During the investigation we became aware that little research has been done in the area of blended learning in ESP.
The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process.
The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation.
Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis.
A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him.
Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.
On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012.
The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved.
The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. The course which is generally scheduled for 30 weeks frequently lasts over a year due to schedule changes on the part of the students, vacations and training commitments on the part of the professor. There has been very little research about how a blended learning course can be used with beginners in a foreign language. Creating learning tasks which allow students to communicate in their own time, to use technical dictionaries or online translators and to remove the pressure of performing in front of one’s classmates are some of the most effective online techniques for lowering stress.
At the beginning of the Legal English course there were 26 students (17 students from Fiscal Law and 9 students from Constitutional Law), all of whom were invited to take the course in the blended learning mode. The survey was applied online to the students at the end of the blended learning course by means of Lime Survey software. The first section was concerned with how students viewed their computer skills at the beginning of the course and whether they had taken an online course previously or not.
In regard to timing all of the students agreed that the use of the blended learning course in Legal English gave them the freedom to choose their own learning schedule. All of the students felt that the instructions and the description of the course on the first day of class were clear. Some students wanted more audiovisual material and texts focusing on legal matters, whereas only a few students asked for more group activities and F2F classes and only one student asked for clearer instructions.
However, a careful analysis of their answers shows that in reality there were certain areas in which the students might have preferred to study in a traditional F2F class. The survey shows that the students felt that the course overcame the problems of scheduling and it is true that the course was completed in the prescribed time period of thirty weeks, whereas previous courses had taken up to fifty weeks to finish.
It was interesting to note that the students who had lower levels of English at the beginning of the blended learning course finished with higher grades than the students who had demonstrated a better command of English at the start of the course.
Some of the students during their F2F class mentioned to their teacher that they had difficulties understanding the instructions which were in English. This may be due to the difficulties faced by students who do not have sufficient English to understand instructions and to participate in an online dialogue. This was unexpected as one of the reasons for designing the blended learning course was because the students had asked for more Legal English and had said that they did not want to study Basic English grammar in their F2F classes. Many of the suggestions about fomenting group work and promoting collaborative peer interaction (Mesh, 2010) were impossible to implement due to the students disparate levels of English. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education.
Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules.
Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions).
Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins.
They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law.
On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12.
Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.


The students had suggested that the Legal English course should be more related to authentic legal problems rather than a review of Basic English structures as had been offered in past courses. This modality seemed to be the best possible option for dealing with the aforementioned problems expressed by the students.
Online exercises, which permit unlimited attempts, offer hints and immediate feedback, are an example of formative tasks in which the students are empowered to make their own decisions about their learning.
Of these students only 12 Fiscal Law students and 8 Constitutional Law students signed up to take the course. The students were asked to complete the survey in the computer center of the university during the last F2F session of the course.
The second section dealt with the relevance of the materials in relation to their profession and whether they found online or F2F classes more useful. During the course the teacher became aware that very few students were able to organize their time efficiently and the majority tended to leave everything until the last minute, however they noted in the survey that the online course enabled them to organize their time more efficiently. This may have been because the online tasks permitted unlimited attempts and the weaker students often repeated an exercise until they had a perfect score, while the more capable students tended to attempt each exercise one time and were satisfied with a passing score (80% or more). Blended learning can be a challenge for students learning a foreign language however by making use of new technologies and changing our pedagogical approach, teachers of Legal English can offer students the opportunity to become more autonomous language learners, capable of using their new language in authentic legal situations. In the classroom the teacher noted that the weaker students who had spent more time online and who had made several attempts at each of the online tasks began to participate more in the classroom. Therefore our first recommendation would be that more research should be carried out as “There is not one adult learning theory that successfully applies to all adult learning environments. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000.
More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama.
He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy.
Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. Previously the University had offered a sixty hour face-to-face (F2F) Legal English class on Saturday morning however the course often took more than a year to complete because of scheduling difficulties and students had complained about a lack of relevancy. Finally due to the widely different levels of English among the students, some of them complained of being bored, whilst others found the class was too rapid for them to follow.
However, in the future “Online learning will continue to grow in importance for adult learners. However, those students who were not able to attend the last session were offered the option of completing the survey online at a time and place of their choosing.
The discrepancy in the students’ perception of how they organized their time and the reality as shown by the records could be due to cultural factors.
Another unexpected benefit was the increased participation of weaker students in the F2F sessions.
This may be the reason why many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) students may find it easier to practice drill style grammar and vocabulary activities online individually rather than participate in collaborative activities.
Nevertheless, the more proficient students tended to act as leaders or guides in all of the collaborative tasks. The majority of theories were developed twenty years ago for adults learning in traditional settings” (Frey and Alman, 2003, p. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts.
White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks.
This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
This study explores the implementation of a blended learning course for these postgraduate students whose level of English is beginners. This research was intended to see whether changing from a F2F course to a blended learning (BL) course could overcome the problem of relevance and also the time constraints for the Master’s degree students.
In our opinion these characteristics, specific to a blended learning course, seemed to be the most appropriate to overcome the problems faced by the students in the areas of relevance, time constraints and differing levels of English.
During the first session the tutor evaluated the students’ computer skills and explained how to enter the Moodle platform.
Each student was asked to fill in a consent form (see Appendix 2) and only the information of the students who accepted to be a part of this study is included in the results. The questions were designed to check the students’ perceptions of working asynchronously, having the freedom to choose when and how long to work on the platform, meeting deadlines and receiving immediate feedback.
In the F2F sessions, the weaker students often corrected other students or were able to explain and use what they had learned in a variety of contexts, whereas the more advanced students seemed to find it more difficult to apply what they had learned out of its original context.
The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks.
He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996.
A survey with a Likert scale and open ended questions was used to evaluate the blended learning course.
The two researchers from this university carried out this study and one of them is the blended learning teacher.
We tried to overcome the language difficulties by designing online activities using common legal terminology so as to ensure that all of the class can interact in the BL mode without facing undue stress. Most of the students were computer literate, however, two of the older students were found to have almost no experience with using the Internet. The second session was to explain how each of the activities such as Hot Potatoes, forums, case studies, glossaries and quizzes worked. The fourth section was more focused on linguistic aspects verifying if the instructions were clear and whether the material was sufficient and appropriate to their needs. Next an analysis should be made of the different needs and capabilities of ESP adult learners with the aim of verifying if a blended learning course would need to be adapted to their needs or if it is a viable option for this type of student. Only seventeen students filled out the survey (see Appendix 1) at the end of the course, as two students dropped out of in the middle of the course because of work commitments and one student declined to respond to the survey.
An extracurricular session was also given for the students who had experienced difficulties in the first two sessions either because of their language skills or their computer skills.
The fifth section checked specifically if the students preferred to solve case studies online or in a F2F class and how the students felt about the type of feedback they had received during the course. We also believe that more research needs to be carried out to verify the optimum online teaching method for professional adults, who are at the same time basic learners of a foreign language. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come.
Anteriormente, la Universidad habia ofrecido un curso presencial con la misma duracion los dias sabados por la manana, sin embargo, dicho curso duraba mas de un ano para completar el contenido programado debido a la dificultad en los horarios y quejas sobre la relevancia del curso.
The majority of the students had previously stated that they were not interested in a traditional Basic English course as they preferred to study English for specific purposes in the area of law. We would strongly recommend that more research on how collaborative tasks could be successfully incorporated for students who are basic level language learners. Esta investigacion explora la implementacion de un curso semi-presencial a los alumnos de postgrado con nivel basico del idioma ingles.
Therefore we designed a blended learning course to cover the sixty hours within a thirty week schedule, which would allow students to decide where and when they would study and how much time they would dedicate to each of the activities. Para evaluar el curso, se utilizo una encuesta con la escala basado en Likert y preguntas abiertas.



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