Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Form 5X) este un chestionar scurt, de 45 de itemi, care poate fi aplicat in forma sa de autoevaluare direct persoanei evaluate, sau prin forma sa de heteroevaluare, colegilor, superiorilor, subordonatilor sau clientilor persoanei evaluate.
Chestionarul MLQ si raportul interpretativ MLQ au fost create pentru a extinde dimensiunile leadershipului, asa cum erau acestea masurate de teoriile anterioare A®n domeniu si pentru a oferi o forma de feedback computerizata si concisa, care sa poata fi folosita pentru dezvoltarea individuala, a echipei sau a organizatiei, dar si pentru consiliere individuala. MLQ este asadar un pas important A®nainte pentru cercetatori, dar si pentru practicieni, fiind reprezentantul celui mai modern si mai validat curent A®n masurarea comportamentului de conducere. Chestionarul MLQ are doua forme, anume o forma de autoevaluare si o forma de heteroevaluare. Dorim sa accentuam faptul ca existenta acestor forme paralele ale MLQ se constituie A®ntr-unul din cele mai serioase avantaje ale chestionarului, care astfel se transforma A®ntr-un instrument de evaluare de 360A°.
Bruce Avolio are o reputatie internationala exceptionala ca cercetator in domeniul leadershipului si este membru in comitetele editoriale a patru reviste stintifice de cel mai mare prestigiu: Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior and Leadership Quarterly.
Bruce Avolio a publicat cinci volume si mai mult de 100 de articole A®n probleme de leadership. Etaloanele rezultate din acest esantion normativ sunt de doua feluri: un etalon general national si un etalon specific pentru leaderi. Manualul romanesc al MLQ este adaptat dupa cel american, adaptarea fiind semnata de Dragos Iliescu, Felicia Beldean si Filaret Sintion.
Dragos Iliescu este doctor A®n psihologie si conferentiar universitar A®n cadrul SNSPA Bucuresti.
Felicia Beldean este psiholog, MSc in psihologie industriala si organizationala si consultant in cadrul filialei din Romania a unei prestigioase companii internationale de Executive Search.
Filaret SA®ntion este conferentiar universitar, doctor A®n psihologie, seful Catedrei de psihologie la Facultatea de Psihologie si Stiintele Educatiei, Universitatea Ovidius, Constanta.
Pat founded and successfully developed 3 companies, one of which he grew for 13 years from start-up to a regional consulting firm with 2 offices. Pat obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree, with honors, in Psychology and Philosophy from Pomona College. Pat has professional certification in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Lominger Voices 360, the Birkman Method, the Leadership Effectiveness Assessment 360, the Compass 360, Changeworks, and the Strong Interest Inventory, is a certified mediator, and is experienced with the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 360 and the Leadership Practices Inventory 360. MLQ este o proba psihologica de clasa A conform clasificarii APA (American Psychological Association), fiind accesibila tuturor specialistilor in resurse umane, dezvoltare organizationala sau psihologie industrial-organizationala.
Alte instrumente psihometrice care graviteaza A®n jurul leadershipului au ignorat, A®n general, un numar de factori cheie, precum motivatia inspirationala, prezenta A®n mod tipic A®n comportamentul leaderilor de succes. Forma de autoevaluare, este completat de o persoana care are o functie de conducere sau aspira la ocuparea unei functii de conducere sau de supervizare. A fost consultant pentru organizatii publice si private din America de Nord si de Sud, Africa, Europa si Asia de Sud-Est, dar si A®n Australia, Noua Zeelanda si Israel. Traducerea chestionarului a fost realizata pe baza unor finisari consecutive de catre un numar de 8 experti.
Dintre acestia, n=268 (11.14%) reprezinta leaderi care s-au autoevaluat, restul de n=2137 fiind reprezentate de diverse tipuri de heteroevaluare. Dintre leaderii evaluati, un numar de n=191 (71%) sunt de sex masculin si un numar de 77 (29%) sunt de sex feminin.
Este un manual tehnic si interpretativ, de 180 de pagini, care trateaza atat (a) aspecte tehnice, precum fundamentele teoretice ale curentelor moderne in leadership, cu un accent asupra leadershpului transformational, generarea si dezvoltarea MLQ, aspecte legate de validitate, fidelitate, etalonare, administrarea testului etc., cat si (b) aspecte interpretative, care tin de interactiunea psihologului cu acest chestionar si de interpretarea profilurilor rezultate. Interesele sale graviteaza A®n jurul cercetarii aplicate si a psihodiagnosticului, cu trimitere spre sfera psihologiei organizationale, dar si spre cea a psihologiei consumatorului si reclamei. Interesele sale sunt concentrate asupra diagnozei organizationale, in special asupra analizei comportamentului managerial si a managementului performantelor.
Domeniile sale de interes includ psihologia militara, psihologia sociala, psihologia organizationala, psihologia navigatorului. Employees were also asked to report their perceptionsof organizational politics using the scale developed by Kacmar and Ferris.
He served for 6 years as Vice President of Career Management and Organizational Consulting with an international consulting firm providing executive coaching to CEOs, COOs, Senior Vice Presidents and Directors throughout northern California.
Teoriile si investigatiile mai vechi A®n domeniul leadershipului s-au concentrat pe identificarea si masurarea comportamentelor de conducere care se A®nscriu A®ntr-o arie preponderent rationala si destul de limitata, anume aceea a leadershipului tranzactional. Aceasta persoana se evalueaza pe sine si propriile comportamente, astfel A®ncA?t este concomitent si evaluat si evaluator. A fost de asemenea consultant pentru fortele armate din SUA, Singapore, Suedia, Finlanda, Israel si Africa de Sud.
Anterior a mai ocupat pozitia de director al Centrului de Cercetare A®n Management la Universitatea Pittsburgh (1965-68) si la Universitatea Rochester (1969-72). Nu s-a apelat la retroversiuni, caci indicatiile autorilor pentru traducerea chestionarului nu prevad acest lucru; de asemenea modalitatea A®n care MLQ a fost adaptat la alte culturi nu a fixat ca o necesitate sau un standard A®n adaptare traducerea pe baza unor retroversiuni consecutive. Comparat cu esantionul normativ al SUA, remarcam un procent ceva mai mare de evaluari de la un nivel ierarhic inferior, A®nsa patternul se mentine. Din A®ntregul esantion, 1090 de persoane (45%) sunt de sex masculin si un numar de 1315 (55%) sunt de sex feminin. In addition, supervisorsprovided objective evaluations of the levels of their employees’ in-role performance and OCB. Aceasta forma poate fi asimilata cu un test sau inventar clasic de personalitate, centrat pe caracteristici de leadership.
AZnainte de a se alatura UNL, Bruce Avolio a fost co-director al Centrului pentru Studii A®n Leadership de la State University of New York at Binghamton.
A fost de asemenea presedinte a Diviziei de Psihologie Organizationala a Asociatiei Internationale de Psihologie Aplicata (1978-82). Peste 50 de studii si cercetari de psihologie sociala, psihologie organizationala, psihologie militara, psihologia navigatorului A®n reviste de prestigiu din tara si strainatate (Italia, Croatia, Republica Moldova).


Theintra-structure of the leadership variable was examined by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) andconfirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with structural equation modeling. Forma de heteroevaluare este destinata colaboratorilor, superiorilor, colegilor si subordonatilor persoanei evaluate.
Acestia A®si exprima evaluarea persoanei A®n cauza prin prisma diferitelor sale comportamente. Bernard Bass este probabil cea mai prestigioasa personalitate A®n viata A®n domeniul studiilor de leadership.
Evaluatorii pot reprezenta patru niveluri organizationale diferite, de vreme ce pot fi plasati deasupra persoanei pe care o evalueaza (superior direct), la acelasi nivel cu cel evaluat (coleg), sub nivelul celui evaluat (subordonat), sau se pot afla A®n alt tip de relatie, cum ar fi, de exemplu, cea de client. 5, 2007The author wishes to thank Yinnon Dryzin-Amit for his help in conducting this study.
How to Buy and More Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) How to Buy Mind Garden Application Forms FAQ - Products FAQ - MLQ and Multi-rater Tools FAQ - Support Services Contact Mind Garden YOUR ROLE Students, Consultants, and More Repeat Customer Professor Business Consultant Individual Counselor HR Manager Researcher (Student) Researcher (Established) OUR PRODUCTS List of Psychological Assessments Products A-Z Authors A-Z Not Sure What Product You Need? AvolioThe Team Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (TMLQ) assesses the leadership style of a team. This perspectivereflects a generally negative image of workplace politics in the eyes of mostorganization members.
It represents an extension of the definition of transforming leadership from the individual to the collective.
Although treated as separate constructs, several studies havealso related organizational politics to the theory of fairness, equity, and justice in theworkplace (i.e. Three of these scales - inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration - measure an aspect of transformational leadership. This study proposes and tests twocompeting models for the relationship among leadership, politics, and performance.
Byso doing, the study expects to contribute to our knowledge in this area by examiningthe relationship between leadership and employees’ performance and arguing thatorganizational politics mediates in this relationship. According to their view, studieson leadership in organizations have moved in several directions, but two approacheshave dominated the literature.
Such a definition alsomakes a clear distinction between leadership and coercive rules. However, it relatesleadership with the processes of informal influence, power and to a lesser extent,formal authority, which comprise the political environment in organizations. Whenpeople act out of obedience to authority, it is difficult to decide whether they are actingof their own free will or out of fear of punishment by their superior. Thus, moderntheories on leadership are much more interested in transformational leadership than inany other type of leadership (i.e. According to this theory, there are two basic levels of influence evidentin the interaction between the leader and the led.
The second influence of the leader is an emotional excitement,which Burns called transformational or charismatic leadership. This style is based on arelationship between the leader and his employees that is inspirational and breaks thecycle of subordinates’ basic expectations. This leadership style can captivateemployees and urge them on to new and challenging objectives. Transformationalleadership raises the employees’ awareness of their need to grow, validates theirself-expression, and motivates them to perform at new and higher levels.
Atransformational leader influences the expectations of his subordinates, changes theirbeliefs and values, and raises them in the hierarchy of needs.
According to Burns(1978), the hierarchy of needs is the foundation of the transformational process. Themodel is based on the outcome of their research with 78 managers who were asked inan open-ended questionnaire to describe the most remarkable characteristics of leaderswho had influenced them personally.
Avolio and Bass expanded Bass’s (1985) originalmodel to what they called The Full Range of Leadership Model. In this model, transformational leadership ranks as the mosteffective style, followed by transactional leadership and then the laissez-faire style. Thebasic assumption of the Full Range of Leadership model is that in every leader allstyles can be found. This correlation was consistently higher than thepositive correlation between the leader’s transactional style and the organizationalperformance. This relationship results in the employees’basic agreement with the norms to which they are required to perform. Bass suggeststhat transformational leadership can create identification with and internalization ofdesirable values, as opposed to the limited goal of transactional leadership to create acompliant workforce. Parry (2003) specifically examined leadership styles in publicsector organizations and found that a transformational leadership style has a positiveeffect on the innovation and effectiveness of these organizations.
Recently, Wang et al.(2005) suggested the leader member exchange (LMX) theory (Graen, 1976) as a goodexplanation for a mediating role between leadership styles (especially transformationalleadership) and organizational performance as well as organizational citizenshipbehavior (OCB). According to these theories, better performance canbe achieved only when there is a reasonable level of expectation-fit and when the socialexchange between managers and employees is fair and equal. Lack ofminimal justice and fairness in these systems was found to be a major cause of higherperceptions of organizational politics and therefore of hampered organizationalperformance. All these studies relied on Kurt Lewin’s (1936) argument that peoplerespond to their perceptions of reality, not to reality itself.
Likewise, politics inorganizations should be understood in terms of what people think of it rather thanwhat it actually represents. The model examines perceptions of organizational politicsas a mediator in the relationship between leadership and performance.


A balanced relationship between leaders and members isessential, and the fair treatment of the individual must be advanced as anorganizational strategy. For example, Ferris andRowland (1981) argued that the leader’s behavior affects employee job perceptions,which then affect employee attitudes towards the job and performance. Thus,employees’ perceptions of the workplace, such as perceptions of politics, may bemediators between leadership and performance.
A more recent study by Pillai et al.(1999) examined the relationship between transformational and transactionalleadership, procedural justice and distributive justice, and trust in organizationalobligation, OCB, and satisfaction from work. Findings showed thattransformational leadership has more influence on performance than transactionalleadership. Transactional leadership explainsa relatively low percentage of the researched performance criterion’s variance. It seems that in manyorganizations, especially public ones, transformational leadership is more effectivethan transactional leadership. Skilled transformational managers have the ability tosupport and educate employees, while challenging them to stretch themselves in orderLeadership styleto do their jobs.
This idea is much in line with the leader-member exchange theory (LMX) assuggested by Graen (1976) and others. The managerial strategy underlying the transformational style reinforcesmoral values, thereby contributing positively to feelings of fairness and justice andreducing feelings of inferiority that derive from a lack of recourse to politicalalternatives (Kacmar and Ferris, 1991).
In sum, transformational leadership hascharacteristics that can reduce perceptions of organizational politics among employees.Therefore, it is expected that a transformational leader will create a betterunderstanding among employees as to what is expected from them in the framework oftheir job.
This leadership style ischaracterized by negotiation skills that are suitable for a political environment, by thePRmanagement of exchange relationships, and a reward system that will increase36,5employees’ motivation. The transactional leadership style encourages the developmentof interest-based relationships between employees and managers, which is at the heartof the political process. This may lead employees to promote their interests more668aggressively in an environment that struggles over limited resources. Given that organizational politics is strongly related to fairness and justice in theworkplace, one may suggest that leadership style is also related to organizationalpolitics. Strong perceptions oforganizational politics may damage the organization’s performance in a number ofways. First, they are related to negative attitudes towards the organization such aslower levels of trust, satisfaction, or commitment (i.e.
Second, relationships have been found between perceptionsof organizational politics and various negative employee behaviors such as thewithholding of information, neglect of one’s work, tardiness, absenteeism, or turnoverintentions (Vigoda-Gadot, 2003). Parry (2003) showed thatorganizational climate is a mediating factor between leadership and performance in aLeadership stylepublic organization. In addition, a transformational leader tends to educate, guide,and treat every employee to personal attention in his effort to motivate them to performabove and beyond what is required of them. In contrast, a transactional leadershipstyle should strengthen perceptions of organizational politics among employeesbecause it does not emphasize these values.
The leader-member exchange(LMX) theory strongly supports this notion and suggests that interactions betweensupervisors and employees are frequently interest based (i.e. This theoretical rationale is also in line with Ehrhart’s (2004) research,which found that a climate of organizational justice mediates in the relationshipbetween leadership and OCB.
The agency is an independent authority with four major regionalheadquarters and nine branches nationwide. Between December 2002 and August2003, 233 questionnaires were handed out in the branches across the country andcollected directly by the researchers. The overall response rate was 86.4 percent, and201 questionnaires were used for data processing.
First, permission to distribute thequestionnaires was obtained from the organization’s management. Second, employeeswere asked by the researcher to cooperate in the study, and it was clarified to theemployees that participation was completely voluntary. The employees were also toldthat a certain degree of identification was needed and that their answers would bematched with other important data obtained from the managers. The employees did have the option toPRrefuse to take part in the study with no fear of retaliation by their supervisors, as the36,5management had no information about who decided to take part in the study and whodid not. Only the researchers had this data.The questionnaires were completed by the employees and collected at the samemeeting by the researcher. Slightly less than onethird, or 32.8 percent of the participants were low-level or middle-level managers andthe others were front-line employees. Thedemographic characteristics of the sample were quite similar to those of the totalpopulation in the organizations that participated in the study.MeasuresMLQ.
The study used the MLQ (Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire) for measuringthe full range leadership styles. This measure was first introduced by Bass (1985) andwas further developed by Bass and Avolio (1993). Ashorter version of the questionnaire was applied, as suggested by Bass and Avolio(1993), including four items for each one of the components of the full range, whichresulted in 32 items altogether. This variable was measured by a shorterversion of the Perception of Organizational Politics Scale (POPS) that was firstdeveloped by Kacmar and Ferris (1991) and later re-examined by Kacmar and Carlson(1994). POPS was defined as the degree to which the respondents view their workenvironment as political, and therefore unjust and unfair.




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