In the early 15th century, there was a scientific school in Austria centered around the Augustinian monastery of Klosterneuberg. World maps from this school are circular and cover the eastern hemisphere from pole-to-pole rather than cutting off somewhere above the equator as most earlier mappaemundi do. Ptolemy was an important name to the German school, but it seems as though his work was not very well understood. The Vienna-Klosterneuberg geographers developed a novel method of map construction based on the circle.
The idea of scale was important to the mapmakers, even if they were not quite able to carry it off.
The Walsperger and Bell maps are placed within a cosmographical diagram showing the elements surrounding the earth (air and fire), the spheres of the planets, stars, angels, and primum mobile. Of course, this arrangement does not include most of the southern hemisphere, much less the south pole, and a mysterious inscription in the text adapted by Durand indicates that this area is uninhabitable, due to the extreme heat.
The maps are in Latin, except for Durand's reconstruction, which he perversely presents in Bavarian dialect and orients to the north, probably for our convenience as all the maps in this group are south oriented.
The configuration of Asia on the maps of the Nova Cosmographia is unusual: East Asia is almost completely cut off from the rest of the continent by a deeply indented gulf on the north, the Sea of Serpents, and another gulf, Ptolemy's Sinus Magnus, reaching north from the Indian Ocean. Both Asia and Africa show a number of place-names that appear to be imaginary, along with others that are well attested. Compared to Catalan and Italian world maps, the geographic productions of the Vienna-Klosterneuberg school show little influence from the sea charts, as far as geographical forms are concerned, although Walsperger claims to have used them. A refinement of Walspergera€™s map is the red dot placed by each city controlled by Christians; pagan-ruled sites get a black dot. The cartographers of the Vienna-Klosterneuberg school are interesting because of their brave attempts to establish mapping on a more scientific basis, and they were more successful in constructing a regional map of Germany.
Durand has put North at the top of this map, although the other maps of this school are South-oriented. Its denizens were especially interested in astronomy and geography and assembled a large collection of figures for latitude and longitude. They are oriented to the south, for reasons not made clear, yet paradise with its four rivers is still in the East.
An inscription on all the maps reads, a€?Ptolemy placed the inhabited world as 180A? from north to south.a€? Of course, Ptolemy did no such thing. Durand from table of locations in Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, CLM 14583, fols- 236r-277v.
Paradise is at the East, and the Indian Ocean is open to the East, with Africa forming its southern coast.
Placing the foot of the compass on the center-point of their map (Jerusalem for a world map), they drew a circle which they divided into 360 degrees.
In the Munich manuscript, a short treatise entitled a€?Instrumentum de distantiis,a€? asserts that the new map should enable its readers to take the most direct route from one region or city to another, and that he should be able to see the correct distances on the map a€?without any mental strain.a€? Walsperger echoes this intention, saying that if one wants to know how far it is from one place to another, one should place the foot of the compass at one point and extend the other foot to the desired goal. Special emphasis is given to the signs of the zodiac and the twelve winds and their characteristics. Walsperger agrees that it is uninhabitable but mentions instead the numerous monsters, animal and human, that live in the region. Many classical names are retained, such as the archaic islands of Crise, Argire, and Ophir in the Indian Ocean. This island, we learn, was once under the rule of King Kandabor and was believed to be paradise. This continental fragment is not only the location of the genuine earthly paradise but also accommodates a host of other fantastic peoples and places, such as dragon-fighting giants, gold-digging ants, bearded women, the trees of the sun and the moon, and the kingdom of Prester John. In Africa, for example, the names along the coast would be familiar from any sea chart, but around the lake in the center of the continent, which is the source of the Nile, the only recognizable names are Algol, Altair, and Vega, which seem to have wandered in from a star chart. The Zeitz map (see #251) was made for a Ptolemaic atlas, as one of the a€?tabulae modernae.a€? The atlas includes the usual run of regional maps, plus a more straightforward Ptolemaic world map. In addition to his claims to have drawn on the work of Ptolemy, he boasts in his caption that the map is based on a€?a true and complete chart of the navigation of the seasa€?. The contrast between his skeptical treatment of monsters, however, and the Vienna-Klosterrieuberg school's wholehearted acceptance of dozens of these is striking. These landlocked Germans were plainly intending to do for land travel what the chart makers had done for travel by sea. Sadly, many people, too wrapped up in their own lives, don't realise the realities of poverty in The UK, assuming it is their own fault.
Jerusalem is in the center of the land mass, creating problems, as Fra Mauro (#249) noted, in not leaving enough space in Asia for the discoveries of the past two centuries. His maps showed the world only as far as 16A? south of the equator, and he opined that the rest was probably uninhabited or uninhabitable. An oddity is that the British Isles are confused with the Fortunate Islands (usually the Canaries) in the upper left. Then moving the open compass to the scale on the map, one should be able to tell how many German miles lie between them.
Walsperger also included at the bottom of the map in the far north the lowest circle of all, Hell, in the, a€?belly of the earth.a€? The schema of the earth is also structured in referenceto the seven climates, from MeroA« south of the equator to England in the north. In northern Europe, particularly in Germany, the mapmakers are more up-to-date, showing that they were willing, if not eager, to include modern data when they had it on hand.

The source for this bit of information is John Mandeville, who retold the story of the Old Man of the Mountain, who created a paradise for his assassins-in-training, complete with compliant virgins.
Walsperger adds Mount Vans, home of an astronomical observatory where the three kings first sighted the Star of Bethlehem before setting off on their journey.
The Walsperger map was for a long time bound with Pietro Veseontea€™s atlas in the Vatican Library, but this seems to have been merely a convenient place to store it.
Place-names along the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts are similar to those on sea charts, but the shapes of these bodies of water are only roughly recognizable. Edson also states that we cannot escape the perception that we are looking at a backwater school of geography, the same people who would have provided an appreciative audience for the travels of Johannes Witte von Hesse, who sailed a€?around the worlda€? in the late-14th century, visiting paradise, purgatory, the kingdom of Prester John, and the grave of the miracle-working Saint Thomas. When it came to the world map, however, not only was their data faulty but their need to present the world in its usual format-with its many traditional features, from paradise to cannibals - won out over potential reform. The surviving world maps most closely related to this school are that of Andreas Walsperger (#245), and the Zeltz (#251) and Bell maps, made between 1440 and 1470. Africa curves around to the east, to form the southern shore of the Indian Ocean, in the style of Arabic maps and of many European maps since Sanudo.
The 180A? on his maps was the measure of longitude from the Fortunate Islands to the east coast of China.
The radiating lines on the map were used to locate places according to a novel system of coordinates.
Rotating a calibrated strip of paper over their map, they tried to locate various points with precision, either by copying an accurate map or by using known distance measurements. Unfortunately, this hopeful text is a sham, and the map does not appear to be drawn to any scale at all.
This area of the map is much richer in nomenclature than any other fifteenth-century world map. The stronghold of the Assassins, a sect of the Shiite Muslims, was established around 1090 in Iran, south of the Caspian Sea, and was destroyed by the Mongol army in the mid-13th century. Durand suggests that the cosmographer a€?was afraid of blank spaces on the mapa€? and filled it with made-up names. The Bell map is the largest and most elaborately decorated of the three, twenty inches in diameter, but it survives only in part, and we have no idea of its context. The Sea of Azov appears twice, once adjacent to the Black Sea, or a€?Mare La Tanioruma€? [Sea of Tana], and once far to the north, connected by the river Don and labeled Palus Meotidis. There is one lone red dot on the West African coast, but there is no place-name given-could this be a relic of the Portuguese voyages? The Nova Cosmographia is thus the old cosmography, despite its manifestos and good intentions.
The first two survive more or less intact, while the Bell map is a fragment, about 40 percent of the whole, showing Africa, the Mediterranean, southern Europe, and Asia Minor.
Monsters of the usual types abound, and these German mapmakers even added one of their own native species, trolls, found in the far north and prone to mischievous habits. The Walsperger map comes with a statement of purpose, announcing that it has been a€?made geometrically from the cosmography of Ptolemy proportionally according to longitude and latitude and the divisions of the climates.a€? Yet latitude and longitude do not appear on the map.
Their coordinates for each place included a normal latitude figure, but the longitude was based on the rotating calibrated diameter. There are also numerous errors of location a€“ the positions of cities are reversed and so on-that one hopes would-be travelers did not rely entirely on the map. The mapsa€™ inscriptions vary somewhat, but the idea is that no one ever dies on this island: a€?in qua nullus hominis moritur,a€? says Walsperger. Mandeville, following Odoric, transplanted this kingdom from the Middle East to a vague location in India near the kingdom of Prester John, also on the map. Duranda€™s reconstruction of the ur-map follows the text in a geographical manuscript, but it is not clear that the map itself was ever made in the 15th century, although Durand believes that it was. Durand suggests that the mapmaker has conflated Meroe in Egypt, which he has transformed from an island into a lake, and the Meotide swamps of the Sea of Azov. Another red dot is found on Taprobana and the island where Saint Thomas is thought to be buried, and another marks the stone tower on the narrow land bridge to East Asia. The whole problem is that the greedy few take far more than they need, leaving the rest of us struggling.We ask you, - who really needs more money than they can possibly spend?
In addition to these three maps, the scholar Dana Durand has reconstructed a map he calls the Nova Cosmographia from the extensive notes and tables in one of the monastery's manuscripts. The picturesque monsters account for most of the illustrations on the maps, although paradise on the Walsperger map is indicated by an elaborately turreted-castle. Each place receives a signa number, based on the pie section in which it is found, a gradus and minuta indicating its position within the section.
On the Baltic coast, northeast of Riga, appears a series of names that sound Germanic enough (Globurg, Kneussen, Balenor) but that Durand believes to be sheer invention. The island of the immortals had a previous existence among the imagined islands of the Atlantic, but it was usually located in the north and sometimes was attached to Ireland. If it did exist, it may have been a separate item, thus vulnerable to the disappearance and destruction to which single-sheet maps are prone. Reality is recognized in the holy land, where all dots are black, and Russian orthodoxy is apparently considered beyond the pale, as all places in Russia are also marked with black. The information was compiled by Brother Fredericus between 1447 and 1455; Durand believes that it was taken from a preexisting map.

The Zeitz map has no pictures but carefully reproduces the descriptive text for about twenty monstrosities. On the other hand, Heinrich Winter blames the pernicious influence of Ptolemy for the mapsa€™ abandonment of the accurate geographic forms of the contemporary sea charts.
The idea of organizing a map in this fashion had been the basis of Burchard of Mount Siona€™s description of the holy land in the late 13th century, although it is not clear that he ever constructed such a map. It appears on the Dulcert chart of 1559 and on the Catalan Atlas (#235), with the added detail that no woman can give birth on this island. There is also a table of coordinates in the manuscript for a Schyfkarte, or sea chart, which Durand obligingly reconstructs. This feature is reminiscent of the sea charts, which found it useful to put religiously keyed symbols or flags on the various ports. What is most interesting about this project is the conservatism of the world maps produced. The Bell map is the most heavily illustrated; in the surviving fragment, one sees numerous castles, a wind head wearing a stylish fifteenth-century cap, as well as a goat-headed man, a lion-headed one, and a figure with no head at all. Apparently, it was also suggested by the German mathematical genius Regiomontanus in a letter to his patron Cardinal Bessarion. Here the phenomenon is rationalized; when people get old or sick, they are quietly taken off the island to die elsewhere, and women in labor also are removed to maintain the island's reputation.
The radiating lines and the use of coordinates based on them are somewhat reminiscent of the marine charts, but it is von den Brinckena€™s opinion that sea charts were not known in Germany at this time. It seems that the so-called Vienna-Klosterneuberg school, while theoretically interested in accurate measurement and placement, was not ready to abandon the more important features of the traditional medieval world map.
Vestiges of the diameters can be seen on the Walsperger map (see #245), and Durand draws them on his reconstruction, based on the figures in Brother Fredericusa€™s chart.
As for Jupiter, Kretschmer opines that it might be an error for Junonia, the island of Juno, which, according to Pliny, was one of the Fortunate Islands. Certainly, the cartographers at Klosterneuberg had at least a textual portolan, if not a chart, but the world map makes only limited use of it.
The Mark, the currency of Germany's value was not competitive in the international currency and the economic fabric became miserable with poverty, unemployment and other economic problemsIn 1931, Hitler came to power with his intrigues and Nazi propaganda. The many ideal features of the Fortunate Islands, which Isidore says were believed to be the site of an earthly paradise, make it not unlikely that immortality could be added to their attractions. Outside the limits of the chart they were forced to improvise: for example, no Italian sea chart from this period shows the coast of the Baltic in any detail. He established a racial regime where top position was given to blue eyed Aryan race of Germans .Where as Jews and blacks were given low position.
The Fortunate Islands themselves are confused with the British Isles in the Nova Cosmographia, while the island of Jupiter is placed off the West African coast. Associating with Jews was not felt good and they were forced to surrender their property and send to areas where poverty and unemployment were the social outcomes. He encouraged to multiply the children of German race and given clear instructions to avoid the marriages with the Jews.
MOVE FORWARD TO 2014: Disillusioned with Capitalism and Socialism,A Nigel Farage joined a small party called UKIP. Through his attractive speeches, he got a wide following all over The UK.The economy is struggling, and through the ConDem's policies, there is widespread poverty, unemployment and economic problems. A A Despite what he says, Nigel Farage and his cohorts are racist, indeed, the name United Kingdom Independence Party says it all - The British for the British!
It was a political earthquake!A Less than 12 weeks earlier, Winston Churchill (pictured right) had announced the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. Churchill wanted his wartime coalition to continue until Japan too had been defeated, but was not unduly dismayed when his Labour ministers insisted that the country be offered a choice. The Prime Minister called the election for early July, confident that the British people would back the greatest hero of the hour.
Of all Churchill's colossal misjudgments, that was probably the most egregious!A The voters wanted an end to wartime austerity, and no return to prewar economic depression. Three years earlier, in the darkest days of the war, they had been offered a tantalising glimpse of how things could be in the bright dawn of victory. It offered nothing less than a cradle-to-grave welfare state.That was the great promise dangled before the British electorate in 1945.
Though Churchill had presided over the planning for radical social reform, though he was a genuine hero of the masses,A the people of The UKA did not trust him to deliver the brave new world of Beveridge.There were other factors too.
Sadly, many people, too wrapped up in their own lives, don't realise the realities of poverty in The UK, assuming it is their own fault.
The Mark, the currency of Germany's value was not competitive in the international currency and the economic fabric became miserable with poverty, unemployment and other economic problemsIn 1931, Hitler came to power with his intrigues and Nazi propaganda.

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