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Johann Wolfgang von GoetheJohann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), German poet, playwright, novelist, and natural philosopher is best known for his two-part poetic drama Faust, (1808-1832) which he started around the age of twenty three and didn't finish till shortly before his death sixty years later. One of the most famous and prolific inventors of all time, Thomas Alva Edison exerted a tremendous influence on modern life, contributing inventions such as the incandescent light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera, as well as improving the telegraph and telephone. To seek a better fortune, Sam Edison moved the family to Port Huron, Michigan, in 1854, where he worked in the lumber business. In 1859, Edison took a job selling newspapers and candy on the Grand Trunk Railroad to Detroit.
In 1862, Edison rescued a three-year-old from a track where a boxcar was about to roll into him. In 1868 Edison moved to Boston where he worked in the Western Union office and worked even more on his inventions. During the next period of his life, Edison became involved in multiple projects and partnerships dealing with the telegraph. In 1877, Edison worked on a telephone transmitter that greatly improved on Alexander Graham Bell's work with the telephone. Edison's experiments with the telephone and the telegraph led to his invention of the phonograph in 1877. Edison focused on the electric light system in 1878, setting aside the phonograph for almost a decade.
Edison set up an electric light factory in East Newark in 1881, and then the following year moved his family and himself to New York and set up a laboratory there. In order to prove its viability, the first commercial electric light system was installed on Pearl Street in the financial district of Lower Manhattan in 1882, bordering City Hall and two newspapers.
The success of Edison's lighting system could not deter his competitors from developing their own, different methods.
While Edison had neglected further work on the phonograph, others had moved forward to improve it. Another Edison interest was an ore-milling process that would extract various metals from ore. Edison also became involved in promoting the use of cement and formed the Edison Portland Cement Co.
In 1888, Edison met Eadweard Muybridge at West Orange and viewed Muybridge's zoopraxiscope.
When Dickson aided competitors on developing another peephole motion picture device and the eidoloscope projection system, later to develop into the Mutoscope, he was fired. Competition from other motion picture companies soon created heated legal battles between them and Edison over patents.
When Europe became involved in World War I, Edison advised preparedness, and felt that technology would be the future of war. In the 1920s, Edison's health became worse, and he began to spend more time at home with his wife.
Henry Ford, an admirer and friend of Edison's, reconstructed Edison's invention factory as a museum at Greenfield Village, Michigan, which opened during the 50th anniversary of Edison's electric light in 1929.
For his last two years, a series of ailments caused his health to decline even more until he lapsed into a coma on October 14, 1931. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), oft-quoted biographer, poet and lexicographer wrote A Dictionary of the English Language (1755), published in two folio volumes. I have protracted my work till most of those whom I wished to please have sunk into the grave, and success and miscarriage are empty sounds: I therefore dismiss it with frigid tranquillity, having little to fear or hope from censure or from praise. While often plagued by the ‘black dog’ of melancholia, anxiety and loneliness, financial difficulties and self-doubt, Johnson found his voice in the written word – little did he know it would still be heard over two centuries later.
Johnson found much enjoyment reading the numerous books lining the shelves of his father’s store, and his interest in literature further developed whilst attending the Lichfield and Stourbridge grammar schools where he studied the classics. Boswell also tells us of David Garrick’s (1717-1779) not so flattering impressions of Tetty. After a time Elizabeth joined him in London where they both lived for the rest of their lives although they maintained a house in Lichfield. In 1759 Johnson’s mother Sarah died, the same year his satirical Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia was published. Samuel Johnson died on 13 December 1784 and now rests in Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey, London, England.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. We show them how to manage their communications, give them strategies to stay productive with constantly shifting priorities while minimizing the negative effect of day-to-day distractions. We are proud of the work we do and have helped to improve the productivity and effectiveness of management and professionals around the world. Edison's forebears lived in New Jersey until their loyalty to the British crown during the American Revolution drove them to Nova Scotia, Canada. Known as "Al" in his youth, Edison was the youngest of seven children, four of whom survived to adulthood.
When a schoolmaster called Edison "addled," his furious mother took him out of the school and proceeded to teach him at home. In the baggage car, he set up a laboratory for his chemistry experiments and a printing press, where he started the Grand Trunk Herald, the first newspaper published on a train. In January 1869 Edison resigned his job, intending to devote himself fulltime to inventing things. Edison's mother died in 1871, and later that year, he married a former employee, Mary Stilwell, on Christmas Day.
This site later become known as an "invention factory," since they worked on several different inventions at any given time there. His transmitter made it possible for voices to be transmitted at higer volume and with greater clarity over standard telephone lines.
It occurred to him that sound could be recorded as indentations on a rapidly-moving piece of paper. Initially, only four hundred lamps were lit; a year later, there were 513 customers using 10,300 lamps. One result was a battle between the proponents of DC current, led by Edison, and AC current, led by George Westinghouse.
Edison remarried to Mina Miller on February 24, 1886, and, with his wife, moved into a large mansion named Glenmont in West Orange, New Jersey. The facility included a machine shop, phonograph and photograph departments, a library, and ancillary buildings for metallurgy, chemistry, woodworking, and galvanometer testings. In particular, Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter developed an improved machine that used a wax cylinder and a floating stylus, which they called a graphophone.
In 1881, he formed the Edison Ore-Milling Co., but the venture proved fruitless as there was no market for it. This machine used a circular disc with still photographs of the successive phases of movement around the circumference to recreate the illusion of movement. In 1893, a motion picture studio, later dubbed the Black Maria (the slang name for a police paddy wagon which the studio resembled), was opened at the West Orange complex. A Kinetophone was developed by his laboratory which synchronized sound on a phonograph cylinder to the picture on a screen. He was named head of the Naval Consulting Board in 1915, an attempt by the government to bring science into its defense program. His relationship with his children was distant, although Charles was president of Thomas A.


The main celebration for Light's Golden Jubilee, co-hosted by Ford and General Electric, took place in Dearborn along with a huge celebratory dinner in Edison's honor attended by notables such as President Hoover, John D. In his time it was the most comprehensive English language dictionary ever compiled and remained the standard reference for over a century. As well as the few advances from the publishing group, Lord Chesterfield patronised him with the paltry sum of ?10 for his efforts. From humble beginnings as the son of a bookseller, Johnson became one of the most widely respected 18th century scholars.
At the age of nineteen he entered Pembroke College at Oxford to study languages and law but had to leave in 1731 due to financial constraints. Werburgh’s Church in Derby, East Midlands, Johnson married the widowed Elizabeth ‘Tetty’ Jervis nee Porter (1689-1752), twenty years his senior. Johnson’s “London: A Poem in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal” – ‘Of all the Griefs that harrass the Distrest, Sure the most bitter is a scornful Jest’ was printed in Gentlemen’s Magazine in May of 1738.
Francis Barber (c.1735-1801) at 17 Gough Square just off of Fleet Street (now known as the Dr. Other works to follow were The Life of Ascham (1761), Notes to Shakespeare (1765) and The Fountains: A Fairy Tale (1766).
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However, he managed a grasp of Greek, Latin, French, and Italian by the age of eight, and his mother taught him well in the art of story-telling.
Aside from being an inventor, Edison also managed to become a successful manufacturer and businessman, marketing his inventions to the public.
From there, later generations relocated to Ontario and fought the Americans in the War of 1812. Pope, allowed Edison to sleep in a room at Samuel Laws' Gold Indicator Company where he was employed. While Edison clearly loved his wife, their relationship was fraught with difficulties, primarily his preoccupation with work and her constant illnesses. He eventually formulated a machine with a tinfoil-coated cylinder and a diaphragm and needle.
Edison formed several companies to manufacture and operate the apparatus needed for the electrical lighting system: the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of New York, the Edison Machine Works, the Edison Electric Tube Company, and the Edison Lamp Works.
They sent representatives to Edison to discuss a possible partnership on the machine, but Edison refused to collaborate with them, feeling that the phonograph was his invention alone. Lippincott acquired control of most of the phonograph companies, including Edison's, and set up the North American Phonograph Co. In 1887, he returned to the project, thinking that his process could help the mostly depleted Eastern mines compete with the Western ones. He tried to promote widespread use of cement for the construction of low-cost homes and envisioned alternative uses for concrete in the manufacture of phonographs, furniture, refrigerators, and pianos. Edison declined to work with Muybridge on the device and decided to work on his own motion picture camera at his laboratory. Although this initially brought interest, the system was far from perfect and disappeared by 1915. As the organization became more diversified and structured, Edison became less involved in the day-to-day operations, although he still had some decision-making authority. Although mainly an advisory board, it was instrumental in the formation of a laboratory for the Navy which opened in 1923, although several of Edison's suggestions on the matter were disregarded. The first edition included a “Grammar and History of the English Language” and thousands of quotations from such authors as John Dryden, William Shakespeare and John Milton to illustrate the use of the over 42,000 words it contained – many more were added in subsequent editions. However, when the publication date was nearing Chesterfield publicly praised it hoping for a dedication. Like his father he was a High Churchman and showed tolerance to those outside of his faith. It stands at the corner of Breadmarket Street and Market Square in Lichfield, Staffordshire, England. After his father Michael’s death the same year, Johnson continued to seek his place in the world; impoverished and with no completed formal training, he listlessly travelled about trying to obtain a position as teacher. She was supportive of him in his pursuits, emotionally and financially, as in when he attempted to establish a school at Edial, just outside of Lichfield where the Johnsons had settled. He was paid ten guineas and it earned him notable recognition from fellow writers including he ‘who then filled the poetical throne without a rival’ (Life of Johnson) Alexander Pope. At the age of sixteen, in 1765, Goethe went to Leipzig University to study law as his father wished, though he also gained much recognition from the Rococo poems and lyric he wrote during this period. A myriad of business liaisons, partnerships, and corporations filled Edison's life, and legal battles over various patents and corporations were continuous. Edison's mother, Nancy Elliott, was originally from New York until her family moved to Vienna, Canada, where she met Sam Edison, Jr., whom she later married. She was so true, so sure of me, and I felt I had some one to live for, some one I must not disappoint." At an early age, he showed a fascination for mechanical things and for chemical experiments.
Others blame it on a conductor boxing his ears after Edison caused a fire in the baggage car, an incident which Edison claimed never happened. Daunted by politicians' reluctance to use the machine, he decided that in the future he would not waste time inventing things that no one wanted. When Edison managed to fix a broken machine there, he was hired to manage and improve the printer machines. When Edison spoke the words "Mary had a little lamb" into the mouthpiece, to his amazement the machine played the phrase back to him. In return for handing over his patents to the company, Edison received a large share of stock. This lighting system was also taken abroad to the Paris Lighting Exposition in 1881, the Crystal Palace in London in 1882, the coronation of the czar in Moscow, and led to the establishment of companies in several European countries. Edison, in particular, pointed to the use of AC current for electrocution as proof of its danger.
Unlike Mary, who was sickly and often remained at home, and was also deferential to her husband's wishes, Mina was an active woman, devoting much time to community groups, social functions, and charities, as well as trying to improve her husband's often careless personal habits..
With this competition, Edison was stirred into action and resumed his work on the phonograph in 1887. In 1889, the New Jersey and Pennsylvania Concentrating Works was formed, and Edison became absorbed by its operations and began to spend much time away from home at the mines in Ogdensburg, New Jersey.
Unfortunately, Edison was ahead of his time with these ideas, as widespread use of concrete proved economically unfeasible at that time.
Dickson initially experimented with a cylinder-based device for recording images, before turning to a celluloid strip. Edison was reluctant to develop a motion picture projector, feeling that more profit was to be made with the peephole viewers.
Edison subsequently adopted a projector developed by Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins and re-named it the Vitascope and marketed it under his name. The goals of the organization became more to maintain market viability than to produce new inventions frequently. During the war, Edison spent much of his time doing naval research, in particular working on submarine detection, but he felt that the navy was not receptive to many of his inventions and suggestions.
While Edison continued to experiment at home, he could not perform some experiments that he wanted to at his West Orange laboratory because the board would not approve them.
Edison's health, however, had declined to the point that he could not stay for the entire ceremony. At a time when literacy rates were improving and the realm of print media was expanding at a rapid pace, pamphlets, newspapers and magazines were becoming available at a reasonable cost. This resulted in Johnson’s scathing letter, positing many questions including ‘Is not a Patron, my Lord, one who looks with unconcern on a Man struggling for Life in the water and when he has reached ground encumbers him with help?’ Johnson’s bitterness is noted in several of his definitions including that of Patron: ‘One who countenances, supports or protects. From Oxford University he was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree in 1755 and a Doctor of Laws degree in 1775; Trinity College, Dublin bestowed upon him with an honorary Doctor of Laws degree in 1765. Although he was now earning a fairly regular income from Gentlemen’s money was still tight at times and he never forgot the financial straits and degradations he went through just a few years earlier. While it took much of his time, probably to take a break from the mundane aspect of it he worked on other writing projects and assisted other writers.
Around the time Johnson met Boswell he also made the acquaintance of Henry and Hester Thrale who became good friends and support to the now widowed Johnson. In 1766 he fell in love with Anne Catharina Schoenkopf (1746-1810) and wrote his joyfully exuberant collection of poems Annette.In 1768 Goethe wrote his Leipzig Songbook (1768)--ten poems to melodies composed by Bernhard Theodor Breitkopf--while he was convalescing from a severe lung infection. The following is only a brief sketch of an enormously active and complex life full of projects often occurring simultaneously. When Sam became involved in an unsuccessful insurrection in Ontario in the 1830s, he was forced to flee to the United States and in 1839 they made their home in Milan, Ohio.
Edison himself blamed it on an incident in which he was grabbed by his ears and lifted to a train. Nevertheless, their first child, Marion, was born in February 1873, followed by a son, Thomas, Jr., born on January 1876.
The Edison Speaking Phonograph Company was established early in 1878 to market the machine, but the initial novelty value of the phonograph wore off, and Edison turned his attention elsewhere. Work continued into 1879, as the lab attempted not only to devise an incandescent bulb, but an entire electrical lighting system that could be supported in a city. DC current could not travel over as long a system as AC, but the AC generators were not as efficient as the ones for DC. The business did not prove profitable, and when Lippincott fell ill, Edison took over the management.


Although he invested much money and time into this project, it proved unsuccessful when the market went down and additional sources of ore in the Midwest were found. In October of 1889, Dickson greeted Edison's return from Paris with a new device that projected pictures and contained sound.
One project that held his fascination during this period was the search for an alternative to rubber. So, standard spellings, uses and meanings of words such as ‘Cough: A convulsion of the lungs, vellicated by some sharp serosity. He wrote fiction and non – his works covering subjects as varied as theatre, biography, politics, religion, and travel as well as French, Latin, Greek, and Italian translations. He could be an impatient man with occasional angry outbursts, but overall he was known for being kind to those less fortunate than he, sometimes to his great expense. Garrick was one of the three pupils who had enrolled and would become a famous actor and friend to Johnson.
His biography of fellow writer and friend Richard Savage (c.1697-1743) Life of Savage was published in 1744 and illuminates the desperate struggle and oftentimes disappointing life of a writer in London.
The Vanity of Human Wishes: The Tenth Satire of Juvenal was published in 1749, The Life of Edward Cave in 1752. Throughout the 70’s he continued writing on politics including The False Alarm (1770), Thoughts on the Late Transactions Respecting Falkland’s Islands (1771), The Patriot (1774), and Taxation No Tyranny (1775). Nurse Susanne Katharina von Klettenberg, a relative of his mother's, introduced him to protestant piety and pansophic-alchemistic works in the neo-platonic tradition.In 1770 Goethe continued his law studies in Strasbourg as well as attending lectures in history, political science, anatomy, surgery, and chemistry.
Several excellent biographies are readily available in local libraries to those who wish to learn more about the particulars of his life and many business ventures.
He did not let his disability discourage him, however, and often treated it as an asset, since it made it easier for him to concentrate on his experiments and research. Between 1863 and 1867, Edison migrated from city to city in the United States taking available telegraph jobs.
They are just as valuable to me as positive results." Edison liked to work long hours and expected much from his employees. By 1889, the invention of a device that combined an AC induction motor with a DC dynamo offered the best performance of all, and AC current became dominant.
After more work, patent applications were made in 1891 for a motion picture camera, called a Kinetograph, and a Kinetoscope, a motion picture peephole viewer. Upon the successful publication of his Dictionary Johnson enjoyed the esteem of London’s literary circle and became great friends with many other prominent men of the time including Adam Smith, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Edmund Burke, and Oliver Goldsmith with whom he founded the “Club”, later known as the Literary Club. The early years for young Samuel and his family were difficult – his father, a well-read and respected businessman also served as Magistrate of Lichfield for a time but suffered financial woes and Samuel had been born a rather sickly child. Residing in Birmingham in the West Midlands with this friend Edmund Hector, Johnson turned his hand to writing.
With the schools closure Samuel was again faced with the need to make a major decision in his life regarding occupation.
Other works written during this period include A Complete Vindication of the Licensers of the Stage (1739) and The Life of Admiral Blake (1740).
He also produced a number of essays published in his own periodical The Rambler between the years 1850-1852.
Based on his travels in Scotland with Boswell, Johnson wrote A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1773). He met daily with philosopher, poet, and theologian Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) avant-gardist of the Sturm und Drang movement.
Lamps were put in the laboratory, and many journeyed out to Menlo Park to see the new discovery. Johnson was hired by a group of London booksellers and paid a little over ?1500 to create this ambitious work. During the course of their friendship, Scottish lawyer and author James Boswell (1740-1795) wrote the definitive biography of his friend titled The Life of Johnson (1791). After being sent to a wet nurse he suffered a bout of scrophula or tuberculosis of the lymph nodes, then later smallpox, which caused physical disfigurements. A Voyage to Abyssinia, his translation from the Portuguese of Jesuit Father Jerome Lobo’s travels was published in 1735. Leaving Elizabeth behind temporarily and with the intention of furthering his education and studying law, he travelled to London. On 28 March 1752 his beloved Tetty died; she now rests at the Bromley Parish Church cemetery in Kent County. Edison also established the Newark Telegraph Works in Newark, NJ, with William Unger to manufacture stock printers. A special public exhibition at the lab was given for a multitude of amazed visitors on New Year's Eve. Sarah, who believed as so many others did at the time that the royal touch had healing powers, brought her son to London to be touched by Queen Anne. He had little money in his pocket but with the encouragement of friends and making the acquaintance of genteel company he gathered his resources to establish himself. His series Lives of the Poets published in 3 volumes between 1779 and 1781 earned much acclaim. He formed the American Telegraph Works to work on developing an automatic telegraph later in the year. However, off and on for the rest of his life various ailments including tics, poor hearing and eyesight, and depression plagued Johnson. He wrote to Gentlemen’s Magazine publisher Edward Cave hoping to garner interest in his writing, for while he was working on his play Irene (1737) [which Garrick produced in 1749] Johnson had also started to write theatre and book reviews, essays, and news items. Included are biographies of William Congreve, Sir John Denham, John Dryden, David Mallet, John Milton, Thomas Otway, Jonathan Swift, and Alexander Pope.
He returned to Frankfurt where he began to practice law, though he was much more absorbed with writing GA?A¶tz von Berlichingen (1773), a story of a 16th century robber baron, representing Goethe's youthful protest against the established order and his desire for intellectual freedom.
In 1874 he began to work on a multiplex telegraphic system for Western Union, ultimately developing a quadruplex telegraph, which could send two messages simultaneously in both directions.
Over the years, Edison made improvements to the phonograph and to the cylinders which were played on them, the early ones being made of wax.
He often went on long walks or went swimming or horseback riding to alleviate his gloomy moods.
When Edison sold his patent rights to the quadruplex to the rival Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Co., a series of court battles followed in which Western Union won. Edison introduced an unbreakable cylinder record, named the Blue Amberol, at roughly the same time he entered the disc phonograph market in 1912. It attained cult status and is a good example of the Sturm und Drang literary movement's intense respect for human emotion. The introduction of an Edison disc was in reaction to the overwhelming popularity of discs on the market in contrast to cylinders. With notes from a collaborator who attended the debates, Johnson evokes Jonathan Swift’s (1667-1745) Gulliver’s Travels in his series of Parliamentary Reports disguised as from “The Senate of Lilliput”. Goethe received many admirers from Europe's nobility, Princes Karl August and Konstantin von Sachsen-Weimar among them. Touted as being superior to the competition's records, the Edison discs were designed to be played only on Edison phonographs, and were cut laterally as opposed to vertically. The debates were kept under secrecy from the public at the time and it was illegal to reproduce them in print, hence it was a true test of Johnson’s ability to craft imaginative and satiric works. The success of the Edison phonograph business, though, was always hampered by the company's reputation of choosing lower-quality recording acts. That same year he was invited to the court of Duke Karl August at Weimar, where he remained for the majority of the rest of his life producing melodramas, operettas, and plays including Erwin und Elmire. In the 1920s, competition from radio caused business to sour, and the Edison disc business ceased production in 1929. Ein Schauspiel mit Gesang, for entertaining the court.In 1776 Goethe was granted Weimar citizenship and appointed Geheimer Legationsrat with a seat and vote in the state's highest office, thus with a secured income.
After being appointed Head of the Commission for War and Road Construction he took a second trip to Switzerland in the company of Duke Karl August. Goethe wrote his first version of Iphigenie, a play published later in 1787 as Ipigenie auf Tauris which is based on Greek mythology.In 1781 Goethe was conducting mineralogical studies and lectures about human anatomy at the Liberal School of Drawing in Weimar. Around this time he moved to a house at the "Frauenplan" in Weimar which remained his home until his demise. As part of his on-going studies in anatomy, in the year 1784, Goethe discovered the human intermaxillary bone.In 1786, he travelled to Italy and was impressed by Greek and Roman sculpture, architecture, and literature. His journey to Venice in 1790 was where he wrote Venetianischen Epigramme and his play Torquato Tasso about the Italian poet Torquato Tasso (1544-95).Goethe's aesthetic theory was partially influenced by his friend Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805), of whose journal Die Horen (1795-1797) he contributed articles to. During a congress of monarchs in Erfurt in 1808, Goethe met with Napoleon Bonaparte, an avid reader of his works.
Faust Part I was published in 1808, Goethe's masterpiece of the courtly-mannered persona of Mephistopheles striking a deal with God (based on the same legend as Christopher Marlowe's Dr.
Faustus).In 1831 Goethe brought Faust to an end, sealing the manuscript and ordering it to be published only after his death.
In honour of these two famous German men of letters, a statue of Goethe and Schiller now stands at the German National Theatre in Munich.



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