Your job as the writer is to help your reader extract the information they need as quickly and easily as possible. The other great thing about executive summaries, particularly if you are in an organization where they are not usually used, is that you’ll get comments on how easy your report was to read and how useful the summary was. Reports over 5 pages should have an executive summary, depending on your audience you may wish to call it an abstract.
A suitable length is a maximum of 5% of the length of the report (excluding appendices) and as a rough guide for most reports it is best to be able to get it on one or two pages.
It must summarize the report and be able to be read and, if necessary, circulated separately. The emphasis can change slightly, for instance a 10 page section of your report may only be 1 sentence in your summary. Look at the titles of your subsections and beginning and final sentences of paragraphs to start outlining your summary. Examples from the web (not necessarily excellent examples just a flavor of different approaches). Reducing Greenhouse gas emissions at what cost, executive summary (click on link towards the bottom of the page).
You can find lots more example executive summaries on the web, the easiest way if to do an image search for executive summary. Refund guarantee - if you're not satisfied with the product you've bought please email with the following information: Name, email address, date of purchase, product purchased and reason for refund and we'll arrange a 100% refund for you.
Privacy policy - we are registered with the UK data protection act (reg number Z1309564) and will not share your details with anybody else. Affiliate links: Links to Amazon companies are affiliate links which earn a small commission. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. TitleThe title should be less than ten words and should reflect thefactual content of the paper. Materials and MethodsAs the name implies, the materials and methods used in theexperiments should be reported in this section.
Figures and tables should be self-explanatory; that is, thereader should be able to understand them without referring tothe text.


Many people read without setting questions and just start at the beginning and go all the way to the end. We accept 2 types of payment, credit cards via Worldpay, a part of the Royal Bank of Scotland, and PayPal. DolphinIowa State UniversityVerbal communication is temporal and easily forgotten, butwritten reports exist for long periods and yield long-termbenefits for the author and others.Scientific research is a group activity. The difficultyin writing this section is to provide enough detail for thereader to understand the experiment without overwhelminghim or her.
Be consistent in the use of tense throughout a paragraph--do not switch between past and present. It helps the reader get an overview of the content before they put the detail in and also helps them identify which parts of the document will be useful to them.
This is like tipping the puzzle on the floor and just grabbing the first piece from the top and then the next and hoping to make sense of it. The original purpose of them was to be removed from the main report and circulated separately to the management team to help them give an overview of what was going on. A good title is straightforward anduses keywords that researchers in a particular field willrecognize.AbstractThe purpose of an abstract is to allow the reader to judgewhether it would serve his or her purposes to read the entirereport. When procedures from a lab book or anotherreport are followed exactly, simply cite the work, noting thatdetails can be found in that particular source. See appendix B for graphing instructions.This section of your report should concentrate on generaltrends and differences and not on trivial details. As a guideline I’d suggest any document over 5 pages long should have a summary at the start.
If you think your summary is likely to be circulated separately make sure there are title, contact details and information of how to obtain the full report. A good abstract is a concise (100 to 200 words)summary of the purpose of the report, the data presented, andthe authors major conclusions.IntroductionThe introduction defines the subject of the report. However, it isstill necessary to describe special pieces of equipment and thegeneral theory of the assays used. Manyauthors organize and write the results section before the restof the report.DiscussionThis section should not just be a restatement of the results butshould emphasize interpretation of the data, relating them toexisting theory and knowledge.
It mustoutline the scientific purpose(s) or objective(s) for theresearch performed and give the reader sufficient backgroundto understand the rest of the report.


This can usually be done ina short paragraph, possibly along with a drawing of theexperimental apparatus.
So most people, if they were doing a puzzle, would find the outsides, then find the easy to identify pieces like a red coat and then finally go for the very detailed pieces of sky.
Suggestions for the improvement oftechniques or experimental design may also be included here.In writing this section, you should explain the logic thatallows you to accept or reject your original hypotheses.
This is what the executive summary does, it gives the reader an overview of what is to come and makes a framework in their mind to fit the rest of the information into. Youshould also be able to suggest future experiments that mightclarify areas of doubt in your results.Literature CitedThis section lists all articles or books cited in your report. Itis not the same as a bibliography, which simply listsreferences regardless of whether they were cited in the paper.The listing should be alphabetized by the last names of theauthors. But data included in a table should not beduplicated in a figure or graph.All figures and tables should have descriptive titles andshould include a legend explaining any symbols,abbreviations, or special methods used. Figures and tablesshould be numbered separately and should be referred to inthe text by number, for example:1. Numbers should be written as numerals when they aregreater than ten or when they are associated withmeasurements; for example, 6 mm or 2 g but twoexplanations of six factors. Hormones are known to influence the nest-buildingbehavior of catbirds (Fox, 1988).When citing papers that have two authors, both names mustbe listed. A paper bySmith, Lynch, Merrill, and Beam published in 1989 would becited in the text as:Smith et al. Be sure to divide paragraphs correctly and to use startingand ending sentences that indicate the purpose of theparagraph.
In the Literature Cited,all names would be listed, usually last name precedinginitials.There are a number of style manuals that provide detaileddirections for writing scientific papers.




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