Muller & Turner shortly describe 6 modern and 3 historical schools of leadership before they investigate if leadership styles have an impact on the success of projects and whether there are different styles needed for different projects. Furthermore the authors link each item of their 3 dimensional leadership model (Emotional, Managerial, Intellectual) to project performance in different project categories. Projects + Management = Project-Management is proudly powered by WordPressEntries (RSS) and Comments (RSS). George Litwin and Robert Stringer of Harvard Business School studied the behavior of managers and concluded that there are six leadership styles.
The ideal manager would be able to use all six styles and use them appropriately, as needed. 1- Coercive: These are the managers that force you to do what they want and tell you where the door is if you don't like it. 3- Democratic: The democratic style asks for peoples opinions and tries to make the most people happy. 4- Pace Setters: Pace setting might involve keeping track of what everyone does and pitting them against each other.
6- Affiliative: The affiliative style is about making the employees get along and feel good. In general, when an organization achieves its intended goals and objectives, it is performing. The table below summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the three management styles. Workers are allowed to make own decisions.Some businesses run on the basis of majority decisions.
Clearly, the question that appears to beg a response now is: How does a manager decipher what style to use in a particular situation?
Situational leadership emphasizes the fact that leadership is composed of directive and supportive dimensions, and that each has to be applied suitably in a given situation.
Given that the employees’ skills and motivation vary over time, this model suggests that leaders should change the degree to which they are directive or supportive to meet the changing needs of the employees. Directive behaviors clarify what is to be done, how it is to be done, and who is responsible for doing it.
Supportive behaviors on the other hand involve two-way communication and responses that show social and emotional support to employees. According to this model, leadership styles can be classified into four distinct categories of directive and supportive behaviors.
Here, a leader focuses communication on achieving goals as well as meeting the socio-emotional needs of the employees. In this approach, the leader basically uses supportive behaviours such as listening, praising and giving feedback to bring out the employees’ skills to the task to be accomplished. In this approach, the leader offers less task input and social support, facilitating employees’ confidence and motivation in reference to the task. The second major part of the situational leadership model focuses on the development levels of subordinates.
Employees with high development levels show keen interest and confidence in their work and the way they implement a task.


The situational approach is constructed around the idea that employees move back and forth along the developmental range. Answers obtained from the questions above will help the leader identify the development levels of the employees. Having identified the correct developmental level, adapt leadership style to the prescribed leadership style represented in the model. Situational leadership reminds leaders to treat each employee differently based on the task at hand and to seek opportunities to help subordinates learn new skills and become more confident in their work. Ojokuku, Odetayo and Sajuyigbe (2012) Impact of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance: A case Study of Nigerian Banks. Intense School has been providing accelerated IT training and certification for over 12 years to more than 45,000 IT and Information Security professionals worldwide. Stay up to date with InfoSec Institute and Intense School by connecting with us on Social Media! InfoSec institute respects your privacy and will never use your personal information for anything other than to notify you of your requested course pricing.
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Their results show that in general IT projects motivational skills and a strategic perspective positively influence the project’s success. Today, we will be discussing the effect of management and leadership styles on organizational performance.
It is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Although there are clear differences between management and leadership, the two constructs overlap.
When an organization is unable to achieve its intended goals and objectives, it is underperforming. Managers who embrace this management style delegate authority to their subordinates and they listen to the advice given by subordinates. No management style is better than the other but it all depends on the situation they are applied. This leadership style is based on the premise that different situations demand different kinds of leadership. To determine the dimension that is needed in a particular situation, a leader must evaluate their employees and assess how competent and committed they are to perform a given task. Subsequently, leaders who are considered effective are those who can recognize what employees need and then adapt their own style to meet those needs. Examples include setting deadlines, defining roles, giving directions and showing how the goals are to be achieved. Praising, listening, asking for input and solving problems are examples of supportive behaviors. The leader gives instructions about what is to be achieved and then supervises the employees carefully. While leaders who use this style give employees control of day-to-day decisions, they are always available to facilitate problem solving.


This kind of leader gives control to subordinates and refrains from intervening with unnecessary social support. Development level is the degree to which employees have the competence and commitment necessary to accomplish a given task or activity. Employees are at a low development level if they have little skill for the task at hand but they have the motivation or confidence to accomplish the task.
Overall, this approach stresses that employees have unique needs and they deserve the leader’s help in trying to become better at doing their work. His background in architecture and masters in business administration gives him a good mix of both technical and business knowledge, which has helped him in his career as a consultant.
In the case of high performing IT projects Self-Awareness, Communication and Self-Development impact the success positively, whereas visionary capacities have a negative impact on the success. According to Northouse; Management is directed toward activities such as planning, organizing, staffing and controlling in order to get a job done while Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. They consult employees over organizational issues and then they make decisions based on the best interests of the employees.
This style requires good two-way communication and it suggests that managers are willing to encourage leadership skills in subordinates. From this perspective, for one to be an effective leader, a manager must adapt their style to the demands of different situations. However, the final decision on what is to be done and how it should be done is the sole prerogative of the leader. In other words, it indicates whether an employee has mastered the skills to do a specific task and whether the employee has developed a positive attitude regarding the task. For each level of development, there is a specific style of leadership that the leader should adopt.
Interestingly, the task of managing effectively is contingent on the ability of a manager to adapt their leadership styles to different situations. The more leaders endeavour to help employees get better at doing their work, the better employees perform at their work and the greater the performance of the organization. He currently works as a freelance consultant and project manager with a focus on business growth and process improvement. We would realize that both processes involve influencing a group of individuals toward goal attainment. The ultimate democratic system occurs when actual decisions are made based on the majority view of all the employees. For the purpose of our discussion here, the terms Leadership, Management, leaders and managers will be used loosely.



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