1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Bear in mind that this is the same man who told the Judicial Service Commission that his God a€“ the Christian God a€“ wanted him to be Chief Justice. Seemingly hellbent on turning South Africa into some kind of weird secular theocracy, Mogoeng said the religious oaths ministers took when they were sworn into Cabinet were provided for in the Bible and an understanding of the scriptural consequences of making promises and breaking them would help many to live up to their promises.
Ita€™s all too easy to easy to break your oath of office if youa€™re entrusting your promise to a supernatural entity whose method of ensuring obedience is to do nothing, even in the face of the most heinous acts of evil.
I dona€™t know about your neighbourhood, Judge, but where I come from, bonking the plumbera€™s wife three doors down doesna€™t always lead to machete fights at dawn. He also said perjury was a€?on all fours with the a€¦ biblical injunction that a€?thou shalt not bear false witnessa€™a€?. Instead of swanning about quoting from Romans, Mogoeng would serve this country better if he spent his time identifying the plethora of legal loopholes through which so many lawyered-up lowlifes manage to slip. Here are some rules embedded in religions which may or may not one day find their way onto our statute books. If you are fighting with another man and your wife tries to rescue you by grabbing your opponenta€™s goolies, you must cut off her hand.
There will be stoning in the event of: Homosexuality, astrology, being a disrespectful child, being a drunken son, blasphemy, breaking the Sabbath, perjury, incest, bestiality and witchcraft. EFF leader Julius Malema will remain a Member of Parliament a€“ at least until August the 25th when he is due to appear in court on tax evasion charges.
For this week's edition of Hard Shout, Debora Patta tries to conjure up the ghosts of presidents past. Most people are flabbergasted when I tell them that Ia€™m a great fan of genetic modification.
Before we start helping ourselves why dona€™t we start with random acts of benevolence towards our fellow inhabitants of the planet? Nathi Mthethwa went from being the Minister of Police to being the Minister of Arts and Culture. Our cabinet is bigger than Germanya€™s, the USAa€™s or Japana€™s: 71 ministers and cabinet ministers.
On the other hand calling everyone who votes ANC a clown, as happened in a recent cartoon, is very counter-revolutionary. Murder accused Oscar Pistorius has ended his first week of psychiatric observation at Weskoppies in Pretoria. If a ladybird had sex with Postman Pat's van, their offspring would be Google's new driverless car.
It's not really anything, just an amorphous dome that promises to ferry you and your companion around the city of the future like two iPeas in an iPod. This week Google stopped stroking its hairless cat inside its secret volcano long enough torelease some new marketing footage of the car. The master of macabre, Edgar Allan Poe, leads you on a shadowy journey to finally solve the mystery of his death. You’ll collect clues, interview witnessed and piece together the conspiracy behind the death of America’s greatest writers. The sumptuous $1billion building is fitted with swimming pools, gyms and theatres so the rich don’t get too bored whilst the rest of us are all busy killing or being killed. Originally a Soviet-era Cold War base, it offers the perfect balance between luxury and safety. The Vivos website lists all the bizarre conspiracy theories wheeled out to suggest the world is about to end. All images, unless otherwise noted, were taken from the Internet and are assumed to be in the public domain. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. He believes South Africa would be a far better country a€?if religion could be allowed to influence the laws that govern our daily livesa€?. Our politicians dona€™t break their oaths because they lack an understanding of the scriptural consequences.
Who wouldna€™t be tempted to fiddle their expenses knowing that God is disinclined to stop or punish those responsible for child rape and chemical warfare? I like to point out when Chris Barnard and his gardener were perfecting the first heart transplants people were skeptical about the ethical issues around putting dead peoplea€™s hearts into the living. Everyone has opposable thumbs now, which makes everyone feel entitled to type whatever inane thoughts on social media. Imagine that our biotechnologists stopped faffing about with bigger, redder tomatoes and concentrated on what really matters to us: goats. Are your 400 followers just not getting the real jist of what you thought about X-Men: Days of Future Past or how cold it is lately? Unless you are actually a clown, then best you join us on LNN or get a leadership position in COPE. Irony is someone who sells Black Like Me products hanging with Comrade Helen a€?Black-Like-Mea€™ Zille. A few years back, maybe before the global recession, the international media would have ground to a palpitating, salivating, tumescent halt; but the response to the Googlebug seemed somewhat muted. After all, if a driver is something that uses spatial awareness and a knowledge of road rules to prevent collisions, then our roads have been full of driverless cars for years. Will a vegan presidential hopeful one day have to abandon his campaign when his Google car's browsing history reveals that he spent his Thursday afternoons in a motel with something from a nearby McDonald's drive-through?


They have a driver, and he is a vast, shadowy mega-corporation that works in secret and has more money than everybody at a Zuma family braai.
I am a child of the conspiracy era, born eight years after a destitute slam poet called Neil Moonbeam Armstrong was offered a role in a short CIA-produced art-house film called "Apollo 11". As a famed mystery writer, you’re looking for your next cold case to crack when an unexpected visitor hands you the perfect case to get your career moving again. You have 24 hours and tales from beyond the grave to guide you through as you unravel the story behind the death of Edgar Allan Poe! Unless, of course, they’ve managed to buy themselves a spot in a massive underground apocalypse bunker.
In the event that there is still a problem or error with copyrighted material, the break of the copyright is unintentional and noncommercial and the material will be removed immediately upon presented proof. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. I then point out that in 20 years GMOa€™s will be just a part of life the same way everybody has accepted heart transplants. That poor creature has been waiting for evolution to give it its own shell for thousands of years. My Zulu peeps and I use the soul of decapitated goats to have conversations with the ancestors. The only reason you would keep Tina is because you need someone to do so badly they make the other ministers look good. You know how policing gives you the cultural depth you need to help grow the soul of a nation? Mogoeng Mogoeng on the other hand is very much around, and telling us he thinks adultery and pomping cause murders.
Given that all Google searches ultimately take you to kittens or porn, will all roads eventually lead to a cattery above an Adult World? Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. They may as well say, a€?So help me Teletubbiesa€? for all it serves to keep them on the straight and narrow.
Going to be a tricky business, this framing laws forged in the hellfires of eternal damnation. The ANCa€™s Chief of Propaganda, and Sangoma of Spin, the new spokesman Comrade Zizi Kodwa says ita€™s because we are a developing country.
If thata€™s true it's a matter of time before he arrests the President for inciting violence.
The mother and child in the clip did their best to look amazed and delighted as they whizzed down a California street but it all still had the look of a 1958 advertisement for a Soviet trade fair at which workers get to ride in a giant asbestos potato to experience the thrill of mechanised agriculture. If you misspell "Oregon" will it think you've asked: "How do I reach Orgasm?" More alarmingly, will it take you there? The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
I appreciate that evolution gave us these opposable thumbs, which made it possible for us to make bows and arrows and later, to use a fork.
Imagine one Friday evening in the Valley of a Thousand Hiils, a GMO goat born without a hid boarding a minibus taxi and presenting itself skinless, with an Okapi pocketknife in its pocket just in time for the family patriarch to burn incense and have an animated conversation with the ancestors. My guess is they are trying to fill those 6 million jobs they promised entirely with cabinet positions.
It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. They have genetically modified fish, what next; humans?a€? Actuall, I'm particularly keen on human genetic modification.
Also, in the year 50,000 BC these opposable thumbs were cutting edge technology when the ability to pick berries made the difference between getting laid on Friday night or engaging in the one armed struggle without a thumb.
The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.
In very simplistic terms, all species are subject to random a€?accidentala€? mutations to their DNA. And Ia€™m not just talking about the biggies such as taking malaria out of mosquitoes or getting rid of the cancer. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Dona€™t you think ita€™s time humans were sommer born with custom made shoes, socks, underpants and pants with pockets? Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. If there was some huge advantage (and I can see men nodding) to women having three breasts, everybody would want to mate with a three-breasted woman, leading to the proliferation of three-breasted women in society.
And Ia€™m not suggesting fancy Dolce and Gabbana couture, just standard pants with pockets. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes.
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.


So now imagine ita€™s 50,000 BC and the first guy is walking around with opposable thumbs, picking up berries and getting action every Friday. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. So you can imagine that 10,000 years later, maybe half of the human population had opposable thumbs. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. I bet it made for uncomfortable social situations because the guys with opposable thumbs got all the government tenders toa€¦you know, pick stuff up. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
I bet the guys with regular fingers called the 40,000 BC tenderpreneurs a€?clever blacksa€? and other such nasty terms. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it.
As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten.
Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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