Woods Canyon Archaeological Consultants, Inc (Woods Canyon) is pleased to present this statement of qualifications highlighting our impressive 30-year track record of providing cultural resource services to both the public and private sectors for projects on private, federal, state, and tribal lands across the southwestern United States.
Woods Canyon, founded in 1982, is a full service environmental consulting firm with extensive experience in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah.
Woods Canyon employs a staff of 10 cultural resource professionals and maintains a variable field staff of contract employees on an on-call basis. Woods Canyon is a small business enterprise operating as a corporation incorporated under the laws of the state of Colorado. Woods Canyon maintains a $1,000,000 General Liability insurance policy with Colorado Casualty and a $1,000,000 Automobile Liability policy.A A $1,000,000 Umbrella is provided in addition to those limits. Woods Canyon has successfully conducted hundreds of cultural resource surveys that range in size from one acre to several thousand acres in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Woods Canyon has documented a number of cultural sites in the Four Corners Region as part of restoration and reconstruction projects. Woods Canyon has mitigated hundreds of historic and prehistoric cultural sites in the Four Corners Region. Woods Canyon has experience with managing teams of specialists for the successful completion of multi-faceted cultural resource projects involving multiple stakeholders.
A key component of Woods Canyona€™s success has been collaboration with teams of researchers and specialists. Woods Canyon currently holds federal permits for lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management in the states of Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico; and the United States Forest Service in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. Woods Canyon has a history of presenting technical data from cultural resource projects to professional, academic, and non-professional groups. Jerry Fetterman has 35 years experience in directing and managing large, complex archaeological projects in the Four Corners Region. Kelly McAndrews has more than 20 years of cultural resource managment experience in the northern Southwest, including Colorado, Utah, and Northern New Mexico.
David Satterwhite joined Woods Canyona€™s staff in 2014 and has extensive experience as a field director running projects, report production, and ceramic and lithic analysis. Sarah has worked with Woods Canyon for the last four years in both the office and the field. Project Description: This project consists of intensive Class III survey of approximately 5000 acres of the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Montezuma County, Colorado. Project Results: Located and documented over 370 cultural resources sites, presented data at the November meeting of the Hisatsinom Chapter of the San Juan Basin Archaeological Society. Architectural Documentation and Project Management for the Chimney Rock Stabilization Project, Archuleta County, Colorado. Project Results: Documented architecture and stabilization history, analyzed and presented data at the 2010 Pecos Conference in Silverton, Colorado. Project Description: This project consists of a multi-year research and management project to clarify the archaeological record in the area east of Durango in La Plata and Archuleta Counties, Colorado. Project Results: Documented 8,000 years of history and formulated a plan to allow CBM development without adversely affecting cultural resources. Project Description: This project consists of excavation of 19 Archaic, Ancestral Puebloan, and Historic Navajo sites south of Shiprock in Northwestern New Mexico. Project Results: Excavation has revealed occupation in this marginal environment over the past 2000 years. Project Description: This project consists of testing, monitoring, mapping for this Mine Reclamation Project in southeast Utah.
Project Results: The testing revealed several pithouses and surface rooms on six Anasazi sites. Project Description: This project consists of the production of an interactive computer program to teach the prehistory and history of Montezuma and Dolores counties to middle school students. Project Results: This interactive game provides users a wealth of information about the Southwest to its users.
Project Description: This project consists of the survey, limited data recovery, extensive data recovery and monitoring of the Rocky Mountain Loop pipeline in northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado. Project Results: The excavations on this project included Archaic and Anasazi sites in southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico and Navajo sites in Northwestern New Mexico. Project Description:A  This project consists of intensive Class III survey of approximately 5000 acres of the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Montezuma County, Colorado.
Project Results:A  Located and documented over 370 cultural resources sites, presented data at the November meeting of the Hisatsinom Chapter of the San Juan Basin Archaeological Society. Project Results:A  Documented architecture and stabilization history, analyzed and presented data at the 2010 Pecos Conference in Silverton, Colorado. Project Results:A  Documented 8,000 years of history and formulated a plan to allow CBM development without adversely affecting cultural resources. Project Description:A  This project consists of excavation of 19 Archaic, Ancestral Puebloan, and Historic Navajo sites south of Shiprock in Northwestern New Mexico. Project Results:A  Excavation has revealed occupation in this marginal environment over the past 2000 years. Project Description:A  This project consists of testing, monitoring, mapping for this Mine Reclamation Project in southeast Utah.
Project Results:A  The testing revealed several pithouses and surface rooms on six Anasazi sites. Project Description:A  This project consists of the production of an interactive computer program to teach the prehistory and history of Montezuma and Dolores counties to middle school students.
Project Description:A  This project consists of the survey, limited data recovery, extensive data recovery and monitoring of the Rocky Mountain Loop pipeline in northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado. Project Results:A  The excavations on this project included Archaic and Anasazi sites in southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico and Navajo sites in Northwestern New Mexico. Recent research indicates that the single most important factor in student performance is teacher quality.
Though the literature on professional development programs is less advanced, researchers agree that most forms of professional development fail to foster teacher quality along these five key dimensions.
For 30 years, the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute has been developing a unique model for improving teacher quality.
Other research suggests that Institutes also serve to foster teacher leadership, to develop supportive teacher networks, to heighten university faculty commitments to improving public education, and to foster positive partnerships between school districts and institutions of higher education. In recent years, educational researchers have converged on the conclusion that the best way to help students learn is to improve teacher quality. Though researchers differ on some important issues, virtually all experts agree on the value of five features. The chief caveats here are first, that due both to costs and program structures, relatively few professional development program evaluations have included randomized controlled trials or rigorous quasi-experimental designs with well-matched participant and non-participant groups.20 Few existing programs, then, can claim to have been validated through those forms of empirical research. Since 1978, the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute has been developing a unique approach to improving teacher quality, one now employed by affiliated Teachers Institutes in three other cities: Pittsburgh, Houston, and Philadelphia.
At the heart of the Teachers Institute approach is a special sort of partnership between institutions of higher education and public schools.
In these seminars teachers gain more sophisticated content knowledge, and they also enhance their writing and oral skills by preparing substantial curriculum units that they discuss with their fellow teachers in the seminars, then teach to their students. The Institute approach thus involves a stress on improving teachers' content knowledge and on the development of pedagogical strategies tied to the content of their units. The Institutes are especially well-suited to insure that teachers do not learn advanced content in isolation from attention to how it can be conveyed effectively, and that they do not passively receive content from curriculum prepared by others.
Since the founding of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute in 1978, its leaders have consistently supported external and internal evaluations to discern and improve the efficacy of the Institute's work. But random assignment of teachers to treatment groups is not appropriate for evaluating the Teachers Institute approach. The second-best research option for determining causality is generally considered to be quasi-experimental designs, in which subjects are not randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The external evaluator of the National Demonstration Project, Policy Studies Associates, also found "clear evidence of important accomplishments" and concluded that the Project had "succeeded in reaching its goal" of showing that the Institute model could be replicated in different contexts, especially districts that respect "teachers as leaders" and value "teachers' professional learning."31 Using qualitative techniques including seminar and classroom observations, in-depth interviews, and focus groups, sociologists at the University of Houston and educators at Carnegie Mellon University and Chatham College, Pittsburgh conducted their own evaluations of their Teachers Institutes during the National Demonstration Project, with similarly positive results. The Houston and Pittsburgh Teachers Institutes continued in conformity with the Institute model along with the original Yale-New Haven Institute, each engaging in annual surveys of teacher participants and in other forms of continuing evaluation.
The administration by each Institute of similarly structured annual surveys of teacher seminar participants, which all must complete in order to receive their stipends, makes it possible to update the survey findings of the 2004 National Demonstration Project evaluation, determining whether teachers at the various Institutes continue to rate their seminar experiences favorably.
First, the Fellows' surveys from over 1200 Fellows at all four existing sites from 2003-2008 show that teachers chose to participate in Institute seminars out of desires to improve themselves in precisely the areas that research indicates to be vital to teacher quality.
Pittsburgh teachers placed slightly greater relative stress on improving their mastery of their subject matter than teachers at the other three sites, while Philadelphia teachers cited this motive somewhat less often than teachers in the other cities.
These responses from the local Institutes in New Haven and Philadelphia and from the National Initiative seminars may indicate the comparative appeal for teachers of working with faculty in Ivy League institutions.
There were also interesting variations in the responses among categories of teachers, though none were consistent across all four local sites and the National Initiative seminars, and they cannot be considered statistically significant.33 At three of the four sites middle-school teachers were somewhat more likely than high-school or elementary-school teachers to stress the goal of motivating their students (rather than high-school teachers, as in the National Demonstration Project). After completing their seminars, teachers at all four local sites overwhelmingly reported that they had benefited along dimensions that the professional literature indicates to be vital to teacher quality. As in the National Demonstration Project, the surveys show other variations by categories of teachers, though again these patterns are not statistically significant. The National Demonstration Project included a one-time survey on unit use; and in New Haven, the annual survey of teachers provides an opportunity for open-ended comments on teachers' previous use of Institute curriculum. The results of the National Demonstration Project survey showed that, except for those who are unable to do so due to shifts in assignments or health reasons, virtually all Fellows at each site went on to teach the units they prepared, in whole or in part; and many also reported use of other Teachers Institute units. The Fellows in the National Demonstration Project expressed very strong satisfaction with the units. Overall, an impressive 65% of all Fellows rated the units written by themselves or other Institute Fellows as superior to all other types of curriculum they had used, with almost 34% rating them the same. It should be noted that during the National Demonstration Project, no Institute made a concerted effort to persuade teachers to use Institute-prepared units instead of other curriculum.
Because the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund, sponsor of the National Demonstration Project, wished evaluators to focus on the Project's impact on teachers, it did not authorize funds for the complex task of directly evaluating the impact on students of having had teachers who had been Fellows. In commenting on their experiences teaching units in the classroom during the five-year (2000-2005) period of the New Haven quantitative study discussed in the next section, teachers spoke often of how student attention, enjoyment, comprehension and retention improved whenever they used Institute units, both ones they had personally written or ones written by other Fellows.37 Many also reported that their units were written to be interdisciplinary and served as bases for successful team-teaching, sometimes in pairs, sometimes in larger groups. As in the earlier National Demonstration Project, the populations of Fellows participating at the four current sites from 2003-2008 display some demographic differences.
Experiences at the four sites during the three years of the Demonstration Project, in New Haven for three decades, and in Pittsburgh, Houston, and Philadelphia since a Demonstration Project, all indicate that the Institute approach generates significant corollary benefits that are not easily grasped through survey responses and not always visible in a relatively short time period. The development of university-public school institutional partnerships in ways that promote respect and strengthen education in both settings. To augment those findings, the Yale National Initiative sponsored a retrospective quantitative study of the impact of the Teachers Institute on New Haven teachers and students from the 2000-2001 academic year to the 2004-2005 academic year. Not all of the data sought proved available, particularly in regard to teacher and student outcomes. In regard to the demographics of teachers who participate in Institute seminars, the chief hypothesis was that they would be broadly representative of all New Haven teachers, not drawn primarily from particular demographic subsets, with the partial exception of elementary-school teachers.45 In regard to teacher outcomes for which data were available, the chief hypothesis was that participation in Teachers Institute seminars would correlate with heightened teacher retention, as the seminars would increase teacher enthusiasm and satisfaction with their teaching. In regard to student outcomes for which data were available, the central hypothesis was that student exposure to teachers who had been Institute Fellows would be positively but weakly associated with standardized test scores and grades. A multilevel model was used to account for variation explained at the school, teacher, and student levels.
During the study period, African American teachers were 83% more likely than white teachers to be Fellows when holding years of teaching experience, sex, subject, grade level, and degrees constant. In regard to students, no statistically significant relationships were found between having a teacher who had been a Fellow and student performances on standardized tests and in course grades. The continuing positive results of annual surveys of teachers at each Institute site and of National Seminar participants leave little doubt that teachers consistently rate their Institute experiences and the curriculum units that result favorably along the five dimensions agreed to be key ingredients of teacher quality: teacher knowledge, teacher skills, teacher enthusiasm, teacher expectations of their students and teacher capacity to motivate students. At the same time, these results underscore the importance of continuing and improved program evaluation. To summarize the main options: Insofar as possible, each site should seek to institutionalize annual data collection on the use of curriculum units and on their results for students. Institutes should also continue to collect and analyze descriptive data on teachers and on teacher outcomes. If circumstances permit, Institutes might also seek to obtain and analyze more systematic data that can help answer the question of whether collective participation by teachers from the same school, grade, or department has benefits exceeding those obtained when individual teachers are mixed without any such clustering. Both individual Institutes and the National Initiative should also seek to identify and employ researchable forms of randomization that are consistent with the Institute approach.
There are, then, many routes for continuing and improved evaluation that merit consideration, and there are strong reasons for undertaking such steps. Ferguson, "Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap," 273-317; Ferguson, R. Gates Foundation Staff, "High-Performing School Districts: Challenge, Support, Alignment, and Choice," 18. Pittsburgh public schools have experienced severe and continuing declines in student enrollments in the decade since the Pittsburgh Teachers Institute was established. Suggesting the value of collective participation, one Philadelphia teacher stated that initially she was the only teacher from her school enrolled in the program and that "I'm so happy now there are four.
To use a political science analogy, it would be similar to trying to evaluate the comparative success of "winner take all" and "proportional representation" presidential primary systems by randomly assigning winning candidates to the two different parties.
Yoon et al., "Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement," 5. All percentages reported here are percentages of the Fellows who actually responded to particular questions.
Because the numbers of teachers in particular categories were sometimes low, and because some teachers were Fellows multiple times, standard tests for statistical significance are not appropriate.
In the National Demonstration Project, more experienced teachers, presumably more familiar with alternative forms of professional development, rated the overall program especially highly. Overall statistics are drawn from the National Demonstration Project Survey of Fellows' Unit Use, Table 111. The standardized tests employed in the study are the Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT), which was administered in the study period in grades 4, 6, and 8, and the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), which was administered in grade 10.
Elementary teachers, who were not initially eligible for New Haven seminars, came to be more proportionately represented over the years. Born in 1972, Danny Alexander grew up in the Highlands and Islands and went to Lochaber High School in Fort William.
In 2003 he was appointed the Head of Communications for the recently formed Cairngorms National Park Authority before becoming an MP for the newly created seat of Inverness, Nairn and Badenoch & Strathspey in the 2005 election. Danny joined the shadow Work and Pensions Team in 2005 and in July 2007 was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, holding the post until June 2008. He played a key role in the negotiating team and in the drawing up of the coalition document for the new Government.
Brian Sloan has a background in financial services, hospitality and retail, and he was for over a year Chairman of Age Scotland Enterprises, the Charity’s social enterprise arm. Previously Brian was involved in strategic business development for Young Enterprise Scotland, charged with leading the promotion and expansion of enterprise into mainstream education. Brian is married with four children, active both as a participant (golf and squash) and a spectator in a variety of sports and in early 2011 was appointed by the Scottish Government as a member of the Edinburgh Children's Panel.
Recent and current research at the Institute on ageing and work has included a systematic review of the health, safety and health promotion needs of older workers and on-going work is adding to this evidence base in an EU funded project called e-capacit8.
After many years providing strategic management consultancy services within the Public and Private Sectors, although nominally retired, Bryan has continued to accept a number of strategic commissions across the Health & Social Care domain. Added to this he continues to be deeply immersed in international standards development with ISO, CEN and BSI, and is currently part of an international Strategy Group working on Ambient Assisted Living for the Elderly and those with Long Term Conditions. Typical activities have been aimed at countering latent and low-level Mental Health problems at source in the context of the IAPT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy programme via the development of enhanced inter-disciplinary cross-agency community Well-Being services.
For five years Tommy was a full-time carer for his late mother Joan who had Vascular Dementia and in 2011 undertook a walk around Scotland’s towns and cities to collect hundreds of life story letters detailing the experiences of individuals caring for a loved one living dementia. Prior to joining PSYBT Brenda was employed by Scottish Enterprise, (SE) Scotland’s economic development body. She subsequently was project manager with the SE Financial Services Team responsible for the design, development and delivery of a strategy for the sector in Scotland with a focus on skills development. Before joining SE Brenda was engaged in medical and scientific research with both the NHS and in the private sector.
Woods Canyon specializes in cultural resource compliance and permitting, and other related services. The firm also pursues state and federal grant monies for cultural resource management projects.
These projects have ranged from monitoring of construction in areas with potential for buried cultural deposits to large-scale excavations of complex, multi-component sites. Woods Canyon often works concert with one or more other consulting companies on projects that often involve federal and private interests. Woods Canyon has completed a number projects that have required the full spectrum of archaeological specialists from soil scientists to textile experts. In addition Woods Canyon holds state permits to work on state lands in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico and tribal permits to work on Ute Mountain Ute and Navajo lands.
The results of data recovery projects have been presented in a variety of settings that range from the annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology to slideshows given for local archaeology groups. Woods Canyon has been on the forefront of incorporating digital mapping technology in archaeology since the late 1970s. ArcPad software is loaded onto handheld, sub-meter mapping device to create detailed maps of sites and surrounding topography. Handheld PDAs, digital cameras, and laptop computers have become standard devices for fieldwork documentation. This experience includes formulating research designs, identifying the appropriate scope of investigations, organizing and coordinating the logistics of fieldwork, designing the appropriate analysis, and successfully compiling technical reports in a timely manner.
Her experience with Woods Canyon includes survey, excavation, GIS drafting, laboratory processing, artifact analysis, curation, report writing, web site design, and report production. She has produced and edited both technical and popular reports ranging from pipeline maintenance to large block surveys, for A federal, state, and private entities. While she has field experience, she is primarily involved with laboratory direction, technical report editing and production.
Data from the project was presented at a variety of professional conferences, as part of the Aztec Ruins National Monument Speakera€™s Series, and to the Chimney Rock Interpretive Association. Technical reports in progress; interactive website for popular report dissemination in progress.
In addition, Woods Canyon has a safe room for the temporary storage of valuable artifacts and human remains. Homeopathic individualized medicines versus fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression: double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial. The Institute approach includes all of the seven elements of successful professional development programs, five very extensively; and it significantly strengthens teachers in all five of the major dimensions of teacher quality. Over 96% of all participating teachers rated the Institute seminars overall "moderately" or "greatly" useful. Though causality cannot be imputed, Institute participants also had nearly twice the retention rate of non-participants in local teaching.
To confirm, maintain, and improve these impacts, it is advisable for Institutes to continue surveys of teacher participants and to undertake a variety of additional continuing quantitative and qualitative studies of the effects of Institutes on student and teacher outcomes. Section I summarizes the conclusions of recent research on the ingredients of teacher quality and effective professional development programs. 2 Scholars also see an "emerging" consensus on the characteristics of professional development programs that can contribute to this goal.3 The mandate of Sec. Second, the research literature suggests that districts may face a choice "between serving larger numbers of teachers with less focused and sustained professional development or providing higher quality activities for fewer teachers," since "good professional development requires substantial resources" in terms of time, expertise, and dollars.21 As the Gates Foundation recently stated, an "effective professional learning community" requires "teachers who work together to improve each other's practice," including "weekly time to work together to meet shared challenges and improve their skills. Each Institute provides professional development designed to help teachers face the challenges of educating effectively in low-income communities with high proportions of racial and ethnic diversity. The Institutes also provide opportunities for collective participation and all engage in continuing evaluation, though with some variations.
These units of roughly fifteen pages or more are based on research into a topic inspired by the seminar and assisted by the faculty member, but adapted to the teachers' courses and students. Teachers are active learners in these seminars, receiving feedback from their peers and often trying out the units with their students as they prepare them.
Instead, they research and write curriculum themselves, challenged and aided by their peers to insure that it is exciting for students and teachers alike. The distinctive approach of the Institute does pose challenges for rigorous empirical evaluation.
That approach relies heavily on teacher leadership, including not only the decisions of teachers concerning their own participation, but also the decisions of Teacher Representatives on applicants' eligibility for the program and on the seminars to which teachers are assigned.
Instead, researchers construct or identify a control group that matches the treatment group as closely as possible on all measurable characteristics. Beginning in 1981, distinguished experts have been invited periodically to conduct site visits to the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute and to provide evaluations. In 1981 it began requiring all seminar participants to complete detailed questionnaires on their experience, and in 1981 and 1985 it undertook surveys both of teachers who had and teachers who had not been seminar participants to determine their experiences with using curriculum units. The external evaluator's report included suggestions for improved continuing evaluation that have been incorporated into the ensuing Yale National Initiative. In brief, the results from each individual Institute, from the National Seminars, and in the aggregate national data all show that teachers throughout the country have consistently evaluated their Institute experiences much as the teachers did in the National Demonstration Project.
When asked to choose among 12 reasons for participation in the seminars, the teachers at every site listed the "opportunity to develop materials to motivate my students" as their leading reason.
Nonetheless, teachers at all the sites rated their overall experiences at their Institutes very similarly. Elementary-school teachers most stressed the goal of developing curriculum that fit their needs. In contrast to most professional development programs, the surveys revealed no widely shared criticisms of the seminars.
These data strongly support the conclusion that virtually all teachers who complete Institute seminars feel substantially strengthened in their mastery of content knowledge and their professional skills more generally, while they also develop higher standards for what their students can achieve. At most sites, elementary-school teachers were most likely to say that the seminars had increased their knowledge. Though such comments are not available from the other Institutes and so they do not constitute a systematic national data set, they indicate that in this regard, too, the patterns discerned in the National Demonstration Project appear to persist.
About 87% taught their units in from 2 to 5 classes, usually over a full academic year, sometimes half a year. Roughly the same percentages rated the units as more enjoyable or equally enjoyable to teach than other curricula.
Teachers using units did, however, provide a great deal of data concerning student responses to those units.
These collaborative teaching efforts often involved teachers who had not been Fellows, expanding the influence of the Institute's work.38 And teachers frequently stated that Institute curriculum units enabled them to meet "state and district standards" with materials that were more exciting for their students and for themselves, in part because these were units "tailor made to suit" the "personalities and interests" of the students to whom they were taught. For many teachers, Institute experiences reinforce their desires to continue working in the nation's most challenging educational environments. In comparison with the other local sites and the National Seminar participants, New Haven Fellows were roughly twice as likely to be under 30. The study design called for obtaining information on teacher retention, promotion to leadership positions, awards, and attendance, and data on student test scores, grades, awards and recognition, attendance, and promotion to higher grades. The fact that teachers self-selected to apply for seminars means, however, that the analysis can only identify correlations, not support claims for causality. Because Fellows' curricular units are designed to fulfill general state and district content standards and goals, not to prepare the specific knowledge and skills examined in state standardized achievement tests, no strong impact on test scores was anticipated, even when the math test scores of students of math and science teachers and the reading test scores of students of English and history and social science teachers were examined. The results at the school level did not produce statistically significant results varying from those found at the teacher and student levels, leaving unsettled the question of whether collective teacher participation by school produces benefits beyond individual teacher participation. This result is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level; but the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute actively sought to encourage participation by African American teachers during these years.
Because these descriptive differences in teacher retention could be traceable to other teacher characteristics, the researchers ran an inferential statistical test to illuminate the Fellow correlation.
Though we have less data on teachers' experiences in using Institute curriculum units, those data are also positive. The annual surveys of Fellows at each site and in National Seminars, with high rates of participation guaranteed by the requirement to complete the surveys to obtain Institute stipends, provide invaluable data on teacher responses that need to be sustained.
These data could include annual surveys of former Fellows on their use of the units they have written, on their use of units written by other Fellows, and surveys of non-Fellows on their unit use — though past experience suggests that achieving high response rates will be difficult even with modest financial incentives. It is vital to monitor whether Institutes continue to attract teachers from a broad range of demographics.


Because teachers' voluntary choices do sometimes produce collectivities of teachers from the same school or grade in particular seminars, and because the number of Fellows teaching in a school often grows over time, there are opportunities to study the patterns of student and teacher performance associated with these clusters; although the impossibility of constructing randomized controlled tests will still prevent claims for causality.
One possibility in large school districts may be to assign schools randomly to be targeted for recruitment into Institute seminars, though the availability of units written by Fellows to all teachers in the district would arguably limit the "controlled" character of such a study. The consistently positive results of the great variety of evaluations conducted at multiple sites over the past three decades suggest that, while further research can surely suggest improvements, the fundamentals of the Teachers Institute approach will continue to be shown to be a distinctive and valuable contribution to both teacher and student learning and achievement throughout the nation. Coleman and Christopher Jencks, that socioeconomic backgrounds strongly affect student achievement (Coleman, J.
This section reports data from the Teacher Surveys on Seminar Experiences conducted in Houston, New Haven, and Pittsburgh from 2003-2008 and Philadelphia in 2006-2008.
Teachers with Master's as well as Bachelor's degrees were more likely than those only with Bachelor's degrees to say the seminars raised their expectations of their students, especially in the humanities. Data on relative ratings by teachers in different subject areas are drawn from Tables 311 and 321. One teacher commented that whereas the previous year, only 4 out of 20 regularly completed all reading and writing assignments, with the Institute unit those numbers were reversed.
One teacher noted that "In my school, we had projects generated by the seminars of the Institute involving several teachers not all of them Fellows. During the period of the study, the tests assessed student learning in Mathematics, Reading, and Writing (grades 4, 6, 8, and 10) and Science (grade 10). During the test period, a number of New Haven elementary schools were made part of K-8 schools. He became the Charity’s Interim Chief Executive in July 2012 and was appointed Chief Executive in January 2013. His financial experience included over a year as Head of Business Development with Capital Credit Union, Britain’s fifth largest not-for-profit cooperative.
This is closely linked with developing Compunetics as a new inter-disciplinary research topic based within the School of Electronics and Computer Science, but also closely involving Applied Psychology and Management  sciences within the University of Westminster. In the latter context he is guiding strategic development of the Dementia Action Alliance, having previously fulfilled a similar role for the Thalidomide Trust.
As a result he has gained exceptionally wide range of expertise dealing with strategic and operational issues across the complete spectrum of Community, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Care service commissioning and provision, spanning Physiological, Mental and Social problems. Her role is to raise awareness of PRIME and what they offer to support self-employment for the over 50’s, to establish and develop partnerships with other organisations who share their interest in enterprise and to secure funding to support activities in Scotland. Her main area of responsibility was to secure funding from Trusts and Foundations to support a variety of programmes. This provided her with a varied career, initially in the field of securing foreign direct investment for Scotland, including a period working in the US. This strategy was devised in collaboration with industry partners, Scottish government, academia and the professional financial bodies in Scotland. She leads on all flagship programme developments and particularly our work with young people.
He was a member of the Communities Committee dealing with housing, planning, charity law, and social issues, and more recently Convenor of Parliament’s Transport, Infrastructure and Climate Change Committee. As things stand, more than half the over 60 population are involved in some sort of formal and structured voluntary work; over half of the population believes that this is part of what they should aspire to in later life, and a third are willing to take part in informal volunteering. Woods Canyon has experience with initial survey and identification of cultural resources, testing limited testing and assessment of significance, excavation, artifact processing, artifact analysis, report writing, and curation.
Most projects also involve some degree of tribal consultation and communication with culturally affiliated native groups.
All of these projects have been completed on time and have produced data that has been of use to archaeological researchers and resource managers alike. Non-technical publications have also been completed following large data recovery projects, such as the MAPL Pipeline.
While all staff members have the ability to map with a tape and compass, alidade and plane table, and transit, they also are familiar with digital mapping platforms. This data is easily backed-up in the field and transferred to the laboratory for further processing.
Woods Canyon has systems in place to record data on digital forms and directly into databases to shorten the time it takes to turn field data into final, useable information to produce reports.
She has worked on a number of complex projects that have required field, laboratory, budget, and administrative expertise and does much of the project management.
This room has fire resistant walls, floor and ceiling, lacks windows and has a separate lock and deadbolt -protected entry. David is experienced in access and safety rigging for remote and difficult-access archaeological sites. Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, UNIFESP (Federal University of SA?o Paulo, Brazil), Av Rouxinol, 1041 cj.
There were no statistically significant effects on the only measures of student achievement for which data were available, standardized test scores and grades. 1119 of the No Child Left Behind Act for school districts to employ "highly qualified" teachers who receive "high quality" professional development has prompted more thorough data collection by school officials and more rigorous evaluations of teacher quality and of professional development programs. In New Haven, where 45 schools serve over 20,000 students, 70% of the students come from families receiving school meal financial assistance, and 87% are African American or Hispanic.
Each year, the Institutes offer weekly seminars over several months, led by university or college faculty members, on topics that the teachers, through their Representatives, have selected to enhance their knowledge of what they teach. The units often represent the first substantial research and writing project that teachers have undertaken since college. Teachers play leadership roles in every stage of the program, including designation of seminar topics, approval of faculty proposals for seminars on those topics, approval of teacher participants, and assistance in coordinating seminar activities and program schedules throughout the year.
The Institute approach does embrace the alternative of "higher quality activities for fewer teachers." Each Institute offers seminars for roughly 50 to 80 teachers per year. Most scholars agree that causality can best be determined via randomized controlled trials, in which subjects are randomly assigned to two groups. To obtain a close match, researchers generally need a great deal of information on a large number of potential group members. The results showed that the use of Institute-developed units was growing rapidly, with units taught in more than 1500 school classes by 1984. Every Institute administered similar annual questionnaires to all participants on their seminar experiences, and the Project also sponsored a one-time survey on unit use by participating and non-participating teachers at each site. Through the National Initiative, the Teachers Institute of Philadelphia was established, joining the League of Teachers Institutes in 2007. Along the dimensions most associated with teacher quality, they rate the Institute approach very highly, markedly better than the low evaluations scholars report for most other existing forms of professional development. A similar pattern is visible in the survey results of teachers who have been "National Fellows" in recent years. Instead, over 96% of participating teachers praised the overall program, rating it "moderately" or "greatly" useful, in a remarkably consistent range running from 96.5% in Houston to 100% in Philadelphia. And perhaps surprisingly, teachers with more than 10 years of teaching experience most often indicated that the seminars had raised their expectations for their students — a pattern also discerned in the National Demonstration Project.
Most teachers chose to present their units via teacher-led discussion rather than extensive lecturing.
Only Fellows teaching in the physical sciences were more likely to rate them "somewhat" instead of "very useful." All teachers particularly valued the sample lessons and activities the units provided, along with the resource lists for teachers and students.
There were no statistically significant variations according to the grade levels or subject areas in which Fellows taught. Although all sites attracted similar ratios of more experienced and less experienced teachers, Philadelphia and, particularly, National Fellows were somewhat more likely to have less than 10 years teaching experience. In practice, researchers were only able to document teacher retention and attendance and student performances on standardized tests and course grades.44 These results were examined both at the level of individual teachers and students and at the school level.
The study cannot rule out the possibility that teachers who choose to participate in the Institute are more likely to continue teaching in New Haven for reasons other than Institute participation. Because more effective teachers may also grade more strictly, it was also not clear that even enhanced student interest and performance in courses led by Institute Fellows would be associated with higher grades in relation to students of non-Fellows. In regard to teachers, there was no statistically significant relationship between participation as a Fellow and teacher attendance. The data show that these efforts succeeded and that the Institute was at least as attractive to these racial minority teachers as to whites.
It underlines the need for future evaluations to use data more closely tied to the goals of the curriculum units written in Institute seminars, and the need for the accumulation of much more extensive data on student outcomes.
The New Haven quantitative study indicates that Institute seminars attract a broad range of teachers from every observable demographic category and that those who choose to be Fellows are much more likely to continue teaching in the district than those who do not. If resources permit, Institutes might also survey students on their experiences of units used in their classrooms; and they might seek to use pre-unit and post-unit student tests to determine the extent of student learning. It would also be useful to assess systematically at every site whether experiences as Fellows are associated with heightened teacher retention and with the promotion of teachers to positions of academic leadership within their districts and beyond. Even so, if students of teachers at schools randomly assigned for recruitment appeared over time to perform better on appropriate measures than those from the same pool of schools whose teachers were not eligible for Institute participation, the results would provide additional reasons for confidence in the value of the distinctive Teachers Institute form of professional development.
Browne Distinguished Professor of Political Science at the University of Pennsylvania, with the assistance of Dr. L., "Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement," Issues and Answers Report, REL 2007-No. Because the overall completion rate for these surveys was over 98%, percentages of all Fellows surveyed, whether or not they responded to a particular question, are only slightly smaller. Though teachers in the physical sciences rated their seminar experiences highly, their ratings were slightly less positive than those provided by teachers in the humanities, social sciences, and other areas. Another reported that students showed detailed knowledge of a unit involving films a year and half after it was taught. Science is particularly prone for projects with broad participation of students and staff." Another reported that "we have formed a number of teams, often involving teachers who never were Fellows. Many teachers were reclassified as K-8 school teachers, leading to an apparent decline in elementary school teacher participation. Rachael has been instrumental in the last 10 years in raising the profile of creative approaches to engaging young people, with a specific focus on engaging young people within their local communities.
Patrick has also been involved with issues from asylum and civil liberties to sexual health and food policy. Woods Canyon is currently developing an interactive web-based presentation of data recovery efforts at the Navajo Mine in northwestern New Mexico in order to reach a broader audience, and as such, educate and promote preservation of the archaeological record in the region. More importantly, Woods Canyon understands the benefits and limitations of digital and non-digital mapping technologies and has the ability to merge the best aspects of both to produce high quality maps.
In some cases where these GPS-based technologies have limitations due to canyon settings, a Total Station is used to digitally capture data. Teachers Institutes offer five to seven seminars each year meeting weekly over roughly three months, led by university or college faculty members, on topics that teachers have selected to increase their mastery of what they teach. This expected result underlines the need for evaluations focused on the specific outcomes Institutes seek to achieve, including heightened student interest and attendance and improved student content knowledge in curricular areas featured in local district standards and goals. Much remains unsettled, but some features contributing to effective teachers and successful professional development are clear. The seminars sometimes include teams of participants from a single school, but most also combine teachers from different schools teaching different subjects at different grade levels, who all wish to learn more about topics in history, literature, politics, chemistry, biology, art, or other areas, in order to improve their teaching. They contain a narrative describing the unit's goals and strategies and several sample lesson plans. The seminars are of substantial duration, involving a minimum of 26 hours in session, while Fellows also meet with seminar leaders, research seminar topics, and write their units over many more hours. But through dissemination of their units, Institutes can impact far more teachers than they enroll; and over time, significant percentages of teachers in particular schools and regions can be direct participants. Over 97% of the teachers using the units praised them highly for their quality and the positive responses they invoked in students.
These surveys were analyzed in a 2004 study sponsored by the Institute, "To Motivate My Students," the precursor to this report.
The Santa Ana Teachers Institute relied solely on state funding instead of the recommended diversified funding base, while the Albuquerque Teachers Institute reported to a dean, not a President or Provost.
Since 2005, the National Initiative has conducted National Seminars in New Haven for teachers from cities contemplating starting Institutes, as well as for Fellows from existing sites.
Only 3% of the respondents said the program was useful only to a small extent, with the remainder non-responses. But whereas during that Project science teachers were slightly more likely than other teachers to list their seminar experiences as "moderately" rather than "greatly" useful, in these surveys teachers currently teaching or planning to teach in the humanities, social sciences, or the sciences showed no consistent variations across the sites in their program evaluations.34 All rated their seminar experiences very highly. They also stressed writing exercises and activities designed to strengthen speaking, listening, vocabulary and reasoning skills, much more than test taking. Roughly 75% of teachers also compared the units favorably to commercially available curriculum in terms of sample lessons and activities, teaching strategies, resources and other features. Both Philadelphia and National Fellows were also more likely to be high-school teachers, though in Philadelphia this pattern arose as a condition of one of the Institute's grants. Kisker of Twin Peaks Partners and executed with the aid of graduate student research assistants from the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute and the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education.42 It used data compiled by the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute and by the Department of Research, Assessment, and Student Information in the New Haven Public Schools. It was also hypothesized that Institute participation might be positively but weakly associated with teacher attendance (an outcome affected by many factors, including release time for professional development and service). Still, in the aggregate, improved student interest and learning should be associated with better test scores and better grades. But the hypothesis that Fellows are roughly demographically representative of New Haven teachers as a whole was supported by the data. Overall, over 50% of those teaching in New Haven in 2000-2001 had stopped being New Haven teachers by 2004-2005, a turnover rate consistent with national averages, especially for urban districts.46 That turnover percentage was substantially less for those who had been Fellows. If the impact on standardized test scores and grades is, as hypothesized, positive but highly indirect, those relationships will only be discernible when a great deal of reliable data can be analyzed.
Institutes should also seek to work with school districts to gather more data on student outcomes that are more closely tied than standardized tests to the content and goals of units written for Institute seminars and used in classrooms.
Researchers who stress the importance of pedagogy acknowledge the comparable importance of content knowledge. 245-247; Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Staff, "Challenges to Teaching Capacity in New and Redesigned Schools," Gates Foundation, 2006, 4. These teams have allowed Institute material to benefit many, many children other than those in classes taught by Institute teachers." A third stated, "My school has become a strong YNHTI center school with a Fellow involvement of at least 40% of the faculty.
Dawn was co-host of the 8th World Congress on Active Ageing, in 2012 and on the Expert Panel for the Chief Medical Officers Start Active Stay Active recommendations for physical activity and public health in 2011. She has in depth knowledge of the social housing, regeneration and youth sector, and understands the challenges and opportunities faced when transforming communities. He is also the joint Convenor of the Scottish Green Party.Before Parliament Patrick worked in the sexual health field, for an organisation called PHACE Scotland which is now part of the Terrence Higgins Trust. It means, quite simply, that a majority of the older population are ready to do what they can, unpaid, to support the fabric of society; they are doing exactly what we expect responsible citizens to do. Woods Canyon has been using Total Stations since the 1980s and has the ability to produce highly accurate maps that would be well suited to the proposed project.
There is a need for large-scale longitudinal data on treatment utilization and outcomes, stress, emotion, and pain. Roughly 60% of all participants rated student motivation and attention as higher during these units, producing substantially greater content mastery. Programs that contribute to teacher quality, as well as promising strategies for ongoing program evaluations, can be identified with confidence. In Pittsburgh, 65 schools serve 28,000 students, 68% financially eligible for school lunch aid. By presenting their units in progress to their fellow teachers, seminar participants receive useful pedagogical feedback as they also improve their oral communication skills.
Commissioner of Education, who wrote in 1981 that the Institute was a "dramatic exception" to a pattern of unsuccessful school-college collaborations; Theodore R. The study found that teachers at all sites rated the Institute programs higher than other professional development programs in developing the knowledge, skills, enthusiasm, high expectations of students, and capacities to motivate students that most studies indicate to be central to successful teaching.
After the completion of the National Demonstration Project, these departures from the Institute approach appear to have contributed to financial difficulties that forced the suspension of operations in Santa Ana, and to substantial changes in the forms of professional development offered by the Albuquerque Teachers Institute. These seminars provide teachers with experiences comparable to those in local Institutes in a more compressed time frame.
About a fifth of the teachers used units to develop math skills, largely but not exclusively teachers in the physical sciences. In these comparisons, teachers in the physical sciences rated the units as high as or higher than their counterparts in other subject areas. Due to their very low numbers, the responses from Fellows using other Fellows' units, as well as from non-Fellows using units, must be interpreted with caution. In comparison with other sorts of curriculum they had used, Fellows found the Institute-prepared units received strikingly superior student responses. At all Institutes, teachers in the humanities were the most frequent participants, though the varying, often interdisciplinary responsibilities of teachers make these categorizations difficult, and for Pittsburgh they are not fully available. Women were found to be slightly more likely than men to become Fellows, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Ellen Kisker has designed a technical research guide that can assist Institutes and school districts in preparing programs for continuing evaluation.48 It describes alternative means that may be appropriate in different settings.
As one Houston teacher put it, "My experience with most professional development is that I dread it. She also runs training courses to move research into practice with allied health professionals and fitness instructors. Improving the environment through high quality public art is one of Impact Arts strategic priorities.
In Institute seminars teachers gain more sophisticated content knowledge, and they also enhance their skills by preparing curriculum units adapting the themes of the seminars for their students. Section V describes a quantitative study of the impact of participating in Institute seminars on New Haven teachers and students from the 2000-2001 through the 2004-2005 academic years. They need ongoing, job-embedded professional development."22 These needs cannot be met through forms of professional development that feature brief workshops for passive audiences of large numbers of teachers.
Roughly half of each seminar's time is devoted to improving teachers' content knowledge, half to developing effective teaching strategies for their students. The seminars involve a mix of collective and individual forms of teacher participation, though they are weighted toward individual participation.24 And each site engages in continuing evaluation, though for reasons discussed below, chiefly through means of teacher surveys and qualitative studies, not randomized controlled trials or quasi-experiments.
Researchers hope that, apart from this treatment, all other characteristics will be randomly distributed among the two groups, so that differences in their subsequent performance can confidently be attributed to the study's causal variable. Sizer, Founding Director of the Annenberg Institute for School Reform, who termed the program "remarkable" for its "clear and useful focus" and "constructive collegiality"; and Norman C. Wilder of the Education Policy Research Division of the Educational Testing Service assisted the Institute in refining the questionnaires for seminar participants, crafting the format that New Haven and the other Institutes continue to use, with only minor modifications. Still, these responses were essentially indistinguishable from those of Fellows teaching their own units. The different grade levels and subject matters in which Fellows taught produced only minor variations, although again science teachers rated units somewhat less highly. New Haven, Philadelphia, and National Fellows were more likely to have advanced degrees, Master's or PhD's, than those in Houston and Pittsburgh.
The research also included demographic and performance data for those teachers, schools, and students. But in light of the high percentages of New Haven teachers who become Fellows, it is reasonable to view this correlation between participation as a Fellow and teacher retention in the district as substantively, as well as statistically, significant. Less direct but still pertinent evidence of the impact of having had Fellows as teachers might also come in students' relative success in winning academic awards and in graduating.
Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest, October 2007, 5; Blank, R. Her recent research (MRC and NIHR) focuses on effects of visualisations of biomechanics on adherence to exercise in older people with a history of falls, group versus home exercise referred through the GP on habitual physical activity, effects of the Otago home exercise programme in visually impaired older people, the outdoor environment on avoidance of activity and falls in older people and reducing sedentary behaviour (long periods of sitting) in older people.
Rachael has specific expertise in creative community consultation within a wider strategic framework, and has a long track record in translating this into highly creative, tangible project ideas which partners can engage in and adopt. Randomized long-term trial of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type-1 diabetes. Most teachers are enthusiastic about the seminars and the opportunity to teach the units they have written. The Teachers Institute of Pittsburgh has drawn participants from most schools in the district.23 In Houston, the nation's seventh largest school district includes over 300 schools and serves 202,000 students, 58% Hispanic, 30% African American, many with limited English proficiency, with 78% of all students eligible for meal assistance. Both faculty and teachers are paid stipends, in recognition that all are giving time and expertise to improve teaching and curriculum.
Francis, President of Xavier University, who stressed the "absolute need for" and "inestimable value" of the Institute's example. She wrote at that time that the surveys showed New Haven Fellows to be representative of the larger population of New Haven teachers in terms of subjects and grades taught, and that all teachers rated their seminar experiences highly with remarkable consistency. Where possible, these indicators should be supplemented by observational research on the teaching of units or material derived from units, both by Fellows and non-Fellows, in actual classrooms. Catherine McCaslin, Director of Research, Assessment, and Student Information of the New Haven Public Schools, and her staff for generous, skilled, and invaluable assistance.
The Houston Teachers Institute has Representatives in roughly 30 schools and draws extensively from those schools, though all Houston public school teachers are eligible to participate. In 1991, Wilder helped develop a "Progress Report" that analyzed the accumulated data from the annual questionnaires and the surveys on unit use. Analyses of in-depth interviews with the Fellows and students in those classes would also be desirable.
In Philadelphia, where 281 schools serve over 167,000 students, with 80% eligible for meal assistance and the same percentage either African American or Hispanic, the Teachers Institute of Philadelphia targets 25 schools in the South and West Regions, representing over 18,000 students.
On average, teachers who were Fellows during the study period had 1.87 fewer years of experience than non-Fellows, a difference that was not statistically significant.
Ideally, these should be accompanied by comparable observations and interviews with teachers and students not directly affected by Institute experiences.
See also Odden and Kelly, "Strategic Management of Human Capital in Public Education," 5, 20.
Patients are recruited from web sites for patient advocacy and health enhancement programs. Each Institute makes the curriculum units written by the teachers who participate in its seminars, designated "Fellows," available to all interested teachers in their districts and beyond, in electronic and print formats. In short, the seminars attracted both new and experienced teachers, so that over time, experienced teachers were more likely to have been Fellows in one year or another. Therefore this long-term study was undertaken to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetic patients.
As anticipated, holding all else equal, teachers in higher grades were also more likely to be Fellows than teachers in lower grades.
Methods: In this 2-year randomized clinical parallel design study, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled and divided in 2 groups.
Group I (n=12) received usual care (ie, diet, exercise, and insulin), and group II (n=12) received 500 mL camel milk in addition to diet, exercise, and insulin.
Wenglinsky, "How Schools Matter: The Link Between Teacher Classroom Practices and Student Academic Performance," Educational Policy Analysis Archives 10, no.
Previous studies have found that between 30% and 60% of pediatric neurology patients have used CAM at some point in their lives. Whereas, the effect of vitamin C on conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor cells has been documented, the mechanism of vitamin C induced increase in tumor cell response to PDT is unclear. In this report we demonstrate the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 significantly increases its apoptotic activity in tumor cells.
Interestingly, we observed that the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 only and not its addition to a prior photo-exposed mixture to MC540 is critical for its enhanced sensitivity.
These findings provide impetus to the approach in developing ROS generating small molecule compounds with potent apoptosis inducing activity. These data could have implications in the use of vitamin C in photo-sensitizer-mediated reactions with the view to favorably tailoring the cancer cell milieu for efficient apoptotic execution. Many patients are still not discussing their CAM use with their doctors and are using CAM alongside their conventional medicines, thereby increasing the likelihood for potential interactions. One limitation of this study is that our ability to determine between-site differences is limited by the difference in sample size. Electrodermal measures as clinical markers: Jing-point electrical impedance in adolescent women with chronic pelvic pain. Consequently, skin electrical measures at Jing points are commonly obtained and interpreted for diagnostic purposes.


Denise Adams, University of Alberta, 1047 RTF Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada. The objective of this study is to determine whether electrodermal measures at Jing-points are associated with clinical outcomes in adolescents with chronic pelvic pain in a randomized, sham-controlled acupuncture trial.
Methods: We recruited 18 adolescent women aged 13 to 22 years of age suffering from chronic pelvic pain and laparoscopically diagnosed with Stage I-III endometriosis.
Using a Hibiki-7 device, normalized electrical impedance values were obtained at all 24 Jing-points for each treatment session.
Phase II: CAM research networks in Canada and the US will notify CAM providers of this study, so they may alert patients. Left-right asymmetry and measures for statistical dispersion (standard deviation and Gini coefficient) of Jing-point impedance values were calculated.
Parents or legal guardians may self-identify and reply on behalf of patients under 18 year of age if they meet the criteria for Phase I. With a generalized estimating equation method, we evaluated the association between the electrodermal-derived measures and clinical outcomes while accounting for treatment designation and time. Phase III: The methods for phase II were utilized but CAM associations and training organizations were substituted for CAM research networks.
The majority of the cases involved the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve quality of life.
Preliminary analyses indicate that, over time, subjects in the active acupuncture arm were more likely to have reduced left-right asymmetry and statistical dispersion of Jing-point measures compared to subjects in the sham-control arm. Further analyses with multivariable models will be performed to assess whether this difference is statistically significant for each electrodermal measure. The chiropractic care of children with otitis media: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation and meta-synthesis. Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 N Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063.
Key words were otitis media and related words (ie, acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, ear infections, etc) AND chiropractic. A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with a meta-synthesis of the literature with a focus on chiropractic management and the application of a whole systems research (WSR) evaluation. Results: Our systematic review revealed 20 articles consisting of 6 case reports, 5 case series, 1 retrospective cohort, 2 prospective cohorts, 2 reviews of the literature, 2 commentaries, 1 survey study and 1 prospective, parallel-group, observer-blinded, randomized feasibility study. Due to the lack of higher-level research design, a meta-analysis of the literature was not possible. This included the use of otoscopy and tympanogram to provide objective pretreatment and comparative outcome measures. Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported treating pediatric patients; patients under the age of 17 made up 12% of chiropractic and 20% of both naturopathic and osteopathic patients. Activator, Gonstead, Toftness, Chiropractic Biophysics, and Diversified Techniques were utilized with an emphasis on the upper cervical spine (the C1 or C2 vertebral bodies). Approximately two-thirds of both osteopaths and naturopaths disagree or strongly disagree that immunizations are safe compared to one-third of chiropractors. One paper described utilization of cranial technique, 2 papers described a dietary intervention, and 2 papers utilized soft-tissue massage to augment spinal manipulative therapy.
Fifteen studies were amenable to the WSR evaluation resulting in a score of 7.06 from a maximum of 11. The immunizations of most concern to the 3 professions included MMR, varicella, influenza, DPTP, and hepatitis. The most common reasons for concern were related to safety, including that vaccines may contain dangerous ingredients, may produce side effects, and may be linked to future problems such as neurological damage. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the need for more higher-level research designs in addition to incorporating new methodologies (ie, whole systems research) reflective of the holistic and vitalistic clinical and theoretical framework of chiropractic. The chiropractic care of children with enuresis: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation. Significantly more naturopaths advised parents against vaccinations (27%), compared to 10% of chiropractors, and 12% of osteopaths (P=.0002). Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 North Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063. There was no significant difference between groups for those advising parents in favor of vaccinations (15% C, 14% N, 6% O) (P=.1143). Key words were enuresis, nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting as well as related words AND chiropractic. A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with an evaluation using WSR evaluation. Results: Our systematic review revealed 7 articles meeting the eligibility criteria for review.
Four of the 7 papers involve case reports describing the care of children aged 8 to 14 years with primary complaints of nocturnal enuresis.
Spinal manipulative therapy involved the use of Toggle recoil, Sacro-Occipital Technique, Activator Methods, Gonstead Technique, and Diversified Technique to address primarily segmental dysfunctions in the lumbosacral spine. We conducted a systematic review to assess the nature and severity of adverse events associated with pediatric acupuncture.
A large prospective cohort study (N=171) demonstrated improvement in wet nights per week from baseline following 2 weeks of care.
In a randomized clinical trial, within-group comparison of pretreatment and comparative rates of enuresis subjects demonstrated an improvement. However, the study was fraught with research design issues such as randomization and biostatistics.
Six of the 7 studies were amenable to WSR evaluation and resulted in a scoring of 7.33 from a maximum possible score of 11 points.
One reviewer screened all articles, while the second reviewed all excluded articles to ensure that no article was inappropriately excluded.
Full articles of potentially relevant references were retrieved and assessed by two independent reviewers. The use of Whole Systems Research provides promise in contributing to evidence-based practice and reflects the holistic and vitalistic chiropractic approach to patient care. Results: Seven thousand, two hundred sixty-two potentially relevant articles were identified. Eleven of these studies included adults as the majority of patients; for these studies the age of the patient experiencing the adverse event was never reported. Most of the adverse events that have been identified in children were mild and included pain, bruising, and worsening of symptoms. The few adverse events rated as moderate or serious included one pneumothorax, 2 infections, and 2 cases of complications from needles left in the body. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Life University (Atlanta, Georgia).
A 26-item questionnaire was sent to 9000 subscribers of an online newsletter from Midwifery Today Magazine.
The first domain identified demographics (midwife credentials, age, years in practice, and place of practice). The second domain queried participants regarding their formal and postgraduate training on the subject of chiropractic. The third domain attempted to identify their experience (ie, positive or negative experience) with chiropractic personally and professionally as it pertains to pregnancy and infant care. The fourth domain asked their opinion about the safety of chiropractic care for pregnant and pediatric patients. The fifth domain surveyed their knowledge regarding the scope of practice of chiropractic for pregnant and pediatric patients. The respondent ranged in age from 41 to 50 years with practice experience ranging from 6 to 10 years. With respect to their training on chiropractic, 31% (n=57) reported receiving formal education (ie, during midwifery education) on the subject of chiropractic. Fifty-five of the 157 who did not indicated receiving some education on chiropractic through continuing education seminars.
With respect to the midwife responders’ experience with chiropractic, 95% (n=176) admitted to making a professional referral to a chiropractor with 73% (n=137) having referred an infant to a chiropractor.
Ninety-two percent (n=171) reported being chiropractic patients with another 58% (n=124) presenting their child for chiropractic care.
Over 90% indicated experiencing a positive experience as patients and with their child’s care.
All of the respondents perceived chiropractic was safe for pregnant patients, while only 97% considered chiropractic safe for children.
An overwhelming majority of the responders (98%) indicated that chiropractors work with birth professionals, while 92% indicated that they were knowledgeable about the role of chiropractic in prenatal care.
Lastly, 75% indicated interest in learning more about chiropractic, with 86% wanting more evidence-based practice chiropractic. From the 809 articles reviewed, 18 articles met the full inclusion criteria and proceeded to data extraction. Identified adverse events include local pain or soreness, swelling, mild fevers, and skin rashes. Thus far, the majority of adverse events reported have been mild with few moderate or serious adverse events occurring in pediatric patients. Total weight and body composition changes in response to weight reduction diets of varied protein content in midlife women.
Age-related changes in body composition for women include loss of lean mass and gains in total weight, fat mass and central fat deposition.
There is growing evidence that diets with low-to-moderate carbohydrate and fat content and increased levels of high-quality protein are effective for weight loss. Greater subjective satiety is reported by subjects following test meals containing whey protein compared to other protein sources. The beneficial effects of whey protein on satiety, thermogenesis, and lean body mass protection suggest that whey may be a preferred protein source for weight loss treatment.
The specific aims of this study are to assess weight loss in subjects receiving energy-reduced dietary regimens and to evaluate parameters of weight and body mass change between the 3 treatment groups. Study Design: We are conducting a randomized, controlled pilot feeding study to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein sources on weight loss. Endpoint measures include body weight and body composition data obtained at baseline and at 8 weeks for dietary treatment. The HP diet and the WP diet produced greater total fat loss and less total lean tissue loss than the CD. Conclusions: Preliminary data shows that across treatment groups, the high-protein diets conserved lean tissue and promoted reduction of fat tissue. Trials investigating TCM must be conducted with increased methodological rigor to be of value in evaluations. The single included study suggesting that acupuncture may be safe and efficacious in CFS is limited in applicability by the use of sham acupuncture as the control.
Integration and interface between naturopaths and conventional rural care: empirical findings from a grass-roots research project. The worsening epidemic of DM in the United States, along with the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and IGT, render the identification of promising interventions for these states a matter of some urgency. Jon Adams, University of Queensland, School of Population Health ,University of Qld, Herston, Queensland, 4006, Australia. While lifestyle interventions based on dietary pattern and physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes and reduce cardiovascular risk, adherence at the population level is severely limiting.
Pharmacotherapy offers promise for diabetes prevention, but with associated high costs, unacceptability to many patients, and potential toxicity. In this context, the potential role of chromium (Cr), an insulin cofactor, in IGT is of great interest. Proposed, therefore, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial conducted at the Yale Prevention Research Center to investigate the effects of daily Cr for 6 months at 2 dose levels on serum measures of glucose tolerance and on endothelial function in adults with IGT, IFG, and IR. The study is powered to detect a clinically meaningful effect of Cr supplementation at either dose on glucose control, and to compare the two doses for equivalence. The study will investigate effects of Cr on both measures of glucose tolerance (glucose, insulin, OGTT) and brachial artery endothelial function, thus combining serum measures with a physiologic test of Cr effects on the vasculature.
The proposed study will generate much needed data regarding the efficacy of Cr in those at risk for type 2 diabetes and offers the promise of guiding practice, as well as directing future study.
By contributing to knowledge related to potential diabetes prevention strategies, this study addresses one of the more pressing public health issues in the United States today.
Risk to human subjects in this study is a minor increment over minimal due to the administration of nitroglycerin as a control in BARS testing.
Secondary outcomes: (4) It will show improved well-being, as measured by elevated melatonin and DHEA. Unlike many relaxation therapies, energy healing requires no participation by the patient, a feature that makes it particularly attractive in the hospital setting, where patients are often anxious, depressed, in pain, or sedated. Despite the increasing use of energy healing, few studies have looked at its benefits and even fewer at its underlying mechanisms of action. In this pilot study, we examined the effects of an energy healing modality known as Reiki on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both of which participate in the stress response and stress-induced pain and disease progression. Subjects rested for 10 min before baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured and blood was drawn to determine cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA levels, using commercial immunoassay kits.
Subjects then received a 30- to 45-min Reiki or Pretend Reiki session followed immediately by post-session heart rate and blood pressure measurements and at 2h by blood draws. When asked whether they thought they were in the Reiki or Pretend Reiki group, about 70% of the participants reported that they believed that they had received a true Reiki session. This suggests that the beneficial effects of Reiki on physiology, as compared to the Pretend Reiki, cannot be explained solely by the placebo effect. Issac Amponsah, Faculty of Pharmacy Kwame Nkrumah University of SC, Knust, Kumasi, 233, Ghana.
Effects of ultra-low dilutions of sabal serrulata on human prostate cancer growth: mechanistic studies. Hakima Amri, Georgetown University, Basic Science Bldg, 3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007. Finally, serum protein differential expression was carried out using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Effect of mind-body medicine skills on elements of emotional intelligence in medical students. Yet studies have reported that traits such as altruism and empathy tend to decline throughout medical school training.
In an effort to foster medical student self-awareness and mindfulness, which may improve their EI, Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) offers an experiential course to undergraduate medical students in mind-body medicine skills.
The purpose is to expose students to a variety of mind-body approaches including meditation, imagery, as well as group sharing and listening generously for self-awareness and reflection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Mind Body Medicine Skills (MBS) course on perceived stress, mindfulness, and elements of EI including intrapersonal capacities (attention to feelings, mood repair, clarity of feelings) and interpersonal capacities (perspective-taking, empathetic concern, and personal distress in response to distress in others).
The intervention group (n=30) was comprised of first year medical students who self-selected to participate in this elective. The control group (n=36) included students from the first year class who completed the surveys but did not take the MBS course.
Four questionnaires were completed at the start and end of the spring semester by all study participants: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and a survey of EI developed by Stratton et al (2005) comprised of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. ANCOVA was used to compare the MBS and the control groups at the end of the semester, controlling for beginning scores. Patient perspectives of integrative and primary care management of back and neck paina€”qualitative findings from a randomized clinical trial. These conditions are additionally some of the most common reasons why patients use complementary therapies, often without dialogue with conventional care providers. The focus groups were conducted separately for those in the integrative vs the conventional treatment groups. The interview data were transcribed ad verbatim and analyzed utilizing inductive content analysis technique. Eliane Angst, UCLA Center for Excellence in Pancreatic Diseases, 675 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. A significant reduction in cell numbers was seen with quercetin concentrations of ~30 AµM and a maximum effect at ~75 AµM. In MIA PaCa-2 cells a ~65% reduction in cell number was seen with 75 AµM of quercetin after 48 hours. Starved BxPC-3 cells treated with 75 AµM quercetin showed a ~95% reduction in cell number after 48 hours. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin has a potent growth-inhibitory effect in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Additional experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism of growth inhibition and animal studies are underway. Flovanoids may reveal to be potent anticancer drugs found in our daily food, leading to specific diet recommendations.
These can be taken together to qualify as an academic minor in many of the conventional MA or PhD programs, often forming the basis of a thesis or dissertation required for the terminal degree. In the fall of 2009, the university will launch a doctorate of nursing practice with a focus in integrative health and healing. Georgetown University developed a concentration of CAM within its Masters in Physiology program in 2003.
We address the multicultural perspective, comparing data collected in Canada and Europe to those in the United States. The reason for this is that results on the health-promoting effects of spirituality and religiosity cannot easily be transferred from the United States to countries with different cultural and religious backgrounds.
Thus, one has to recognize different concepts of spirituality, different attitudes towards its utilization, and objections against the implementation of it in a particular medical system. In Germany, 3 colleagues have founded the Transdisciplinary Working Group on Spirituality and Health, and in Canada the Canadian Research Network on Spirituality and Health has been active for a couple of years.
Data and approaches from these different networks will be combined into this symposium.Dr BA?ssing is an associate professor at the University of Witten, Herdeckea€™s Faculty of Medicine, where he directs the research group Spirituality and Health. The effect of a€?acupuncture for losing weighta€? on the level of blood sugar: a survey on the mechanism.
Hoda Azizi, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing, Beijing, 100029, China.
Material and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 66 patients were included in case and control groups. Blood sugar was examined just before inserting needles and immediately after withdrawal of needles. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the mechanism of acupuncture in losing weight is significantly related to making an increase in BS. John Balletto, Center for Muscular Therapy, Inc, 545 Pawtucket Avenue, Mailbox 304, Pawtucket, RI 02860-6046. As with business startups that begin informally and successfully mature into larger enterprises, growth brings new organizational challenges, together with greater visibility and opportunity. The maturation of massage as a healthcare profession increases the need for a process to formalize the synthesis of massage therapy knowledge from clinical experience and research—to collect what we know and to make such baseline knowledge widely available to practitioners, consumers, and other healthcare stakeholders. The present paper lays out the motivations and framework for creating massage therapy guidelines that are informed both by research and by clinical experience.
It also acts as a report to the massage therapy profession and to other stakeholders about the work of the Best Practices Committee of the Massage Therapy Foundation since 2006. And it has the additional goal of providing a healthcare literature basis for future academic discussions of massage.
The discussion here is based on a definition from the Institute of Medicine and on research into the nature of expertise.
Topics addressed include guideline creation, credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, definition of competence, and the increasing role of technology (that is, informatics) in managing training and task-necessary competencies. The roles of transparency and a wide and open peer review are emphasized as essential to the usability and credibility of guidelines.
Health Canada issues consumer advisories regarding the safety of marketed health products, yet the criteria for issuing advisories have not been evaluated for consistency or objectivity.
The Causality Algorithm used by Health Canada was used to rate degree of association between the adverse events (AEs) and the products. The Severity of Adverse Events Scale, developed by the National Cancer Institute, was used to determine the severity of the AEs. Most NHP AWRs were issued based on potential AEs from contamination and adulteration, whereas most of the AWRs for therapeutic drugs were issued due to actual AEs. Of the 6 NHP AWRs issued for actual AEs, 3 (50%) were unassessable for severity, whereas of the 28 AWRs issued for actual therapeutic drug AEs, 1 (3%) was unassessable for severity. The origin of reports for NHPs tended to be from foreign sources or Health Canada, whereas reports for therapeutic drugs were mostly issued by Health Canada in conjunction with drug manufacturers.
The potential of a mistletoe (Viscum album L) extract to alleviate adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy: an in vitro study. Stephan Baumgartner, University of Bern, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, Inselspital, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the effect of a mistletoe extract on PBMC with and without concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and compared viability and replication of normal PBMC with that of a T-cell leukemia cell line. The results motivate further preclinical and clinical investigations of mistletoe extracts as an adjuvant medication in cancer therapy to alleviate side effects of conventional therapy. Stephan Baumgartner, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Inselspital, Imhoof-Pavillon, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland.
We investigated the potential of a commonly used plant pathogen–system, Arabidopsis thaliana infected with the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (pv tomato strain DC3000), regarding its response towards a homeopathic treatment.
Compared to Bion (a common SAR inducer used as positive control), the magnitude of the treatment effect of Biplantol was about 50%. None of the other tested preparations yielded significant effects in the overall evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine remedy effects on a common quantitative measure of complexity, the correlation dimension (D2), of human sleep electroencephalography (EEG). High Hostile subjects increased complexity at C3 and Pz, but decreased complexity at O2 during stage 3 sleep on CC. In the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects, CC caused significant increases in complexity at Pz and O1 during stage 3 sleep and at C3, C4, and Pz during stage 4 sleep. CC increased complexity significantly at Cz, C4, and O2 during REM sleep in only the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the objective measure of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings can distinguish verum homeopathic remedies from placebo in human subjects.
NV produced more marked effects on increased shifts in sleep stages, with a growth in effects from night 22 to 23. This study examined the effects of olfactory administration of a polycrest homeopathic remedy Sulphur on heart rate variability (HRV). The Sulphur was given at dilution factors used for preparing 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies (1 potency per session, with potency order randomized), but for each potency, the test solutions were succussed to different degrees (stirred without shaking, 10, 20, or 100 succussions).
Homeopathic remedies increase spectral electroencephalographic power during sleep in healthy young adults. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of verum vs placebo homeopathic remedies on spectral qEEG measures of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings.
Evaluating a nonlinear dynamical model for human flourishing: Relationship of PANAS positive-to-negative-affect ratio and global health and well-being. The purpose of the present study was to compare global physical health (GPH) and well-being ratings of young adults whose P:N mood ratios fell above vs below the Losada line. Despite higher (MCSD) scores in PF, a small sex and age difference between groups, ANCOVAs controlling for MCSD, sex, and age still showed statistical significance of the above PF vs PL group differences. Gurjeet Birdee, Osher Research Center Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Suite 22-A West, Boston, MA 02215. We identified the prevalence of CAM modalities used and the characteristics of users among the pediatric population.



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