Your bike-finish TSS should fall into either the light gray, dark gray, or yellow sections depending on how you categorize yourself (see the color-code legend to find your race category). Rotem Ishay, one of the Boo-TrainingPeaks riders and an exercise physiologist at the Durango Performance Center, has used TrainingPeaks throughout the season to analyze power data from races and fine tune his training.
Building on the classic WKO+ Power Profile, this new version utilizes both the Power Duration Model and Power Duration Strengths and Limiters chart to better help you understand your core capabilities and potential training focus. Not surprisingly, Kerby's Peak 1 Minute Power 518 watts at a cadence of 98rpm comes at the end of the stage. Rowe's Peak 1 Hour Power came in the very first hour of racing when he averaged 280 watts. Rowe's Peak 30 Minute Power came from the very start of the stage while riding up the first climb of the day. Andre Greipel and his Lotto Soudal teammates took on the 100th edition of the Tour of Flanders last Sunday.
At the 155km mark Greipel jumps from the peloton with an and set off to catch the two leaders.
During his pursuit of the leaders, Greipel sets his Peak 20 minute power of 391W while averaging 40.7kph. With the peloton quickly closing in, at the 207k mark, Greipel jumps from the group to lead everyone onto the famous Koppenberg. Chloe Dygert took home the World Champion title in the junior women's road race in solo fashion. Her Peak 20 Minute Power was set during the end of lap 3 heading into lap 4 where she averaged 279 watts and 22.9mph. During the first race of the night, the Madison Points race, Morkov has 5 spikes of over 750 watts.
Power Duration models help us understand not only the overall relationship between time and power exhaustion but also how to prescribe training plans and workouts to create maximal results and adaptation. These athletes have a larger amount of fast-twitch muscle fibers and excellent ability to produce force on the pedals in a very short period of time (less than 30 seconds). These athletes have large natural VO2Max power and can produce high watts from roughly 3 to 8 minutes. These athletes have a large percentage of slow-twitch muscle fibers and a high FTP, typically along with poor neuromuscular power.
Now that you know the basic phenotypes, you can enhance your understanding of your strengths and weakness through in-depth review of your Power Duration model and comparing yourself against the standards. The new WKO4 Power Duration model puts a new tool in your toolbox for determining Functional Threshold Power (FTP) and introduces new training metrics to help determine and measure the dose and response mechanism of training. Pmax: the maximal power you can generate for a very short period of time (one complete revolution of the pedal stroke). Functional Reserve Capacity (FRC): the total amount of work you can do during continuous exercise above your FTP before fatigue occurs. Functional Threshold Power (FTP): the highest power you can sustain in a quasi-steady-state for a prolonged period of time. The model’s combined ability to estimate your modeled Functional Threshold Power and track key fitness metrics off a more flexible system of maximal efforts (instead of just traditional testing) will allow you to more efficiently target training levels while tracking micro changes in fitness and performance. There are a number of variables to consider when designing an endurance training program in order to limit fatigue and optimize performance. For example, let’s say Joe Rider was desperate to improve his sprint to beat his archrival, so he spent four of the winter months working on his sprint, lifting weights, and doing plyometrics.
The ability to individualize power zones while tracking overall load and adaptation is critical to maximizing your success as an endurance athlete. The Specificity Principle states that training must go from highly general training to highly specific training.
The WKO4 Power Duration model makes this easier to understand by showing how the achievement of a new peak power at one specific time in your power curve affects all power numbers throughout the curve.
Focusing his training time on longer intervals, however, has earned Alvaro incredible gains. By gaining a better understanding of specific training and its effects on your power duration capability, you can maximize your training time by reducing time spent in areas that simply won’t improve.
The Power Duration model in WKO4 is only one of many upgrades focused soundly on empowering coaches to get better results for their athletes. While others are trying to gauge intensity through a cloudy veil of emotion, which makes perceived exertion and even heart rate nearly useless, the athlete with a power meter is focused on a number that, if maintained with only slight variations, will produce an optimal bike split.
Few athletes, however, really understand their value in a long, steady-state bike race such as an Ironman. During the race or workout the head unit on your handlebars is doing the same calculations and displaying the numbers in real time. What you must understand is the other part of the formula: Functional Threshold Power (FTP).
My goal is to have a six-hour bike split in my next Ironman given my experience, the nature of the course and anticipated race-day weather conditions. Training was much more art than science, our efforts gauged in speed or crude measures of exertion, our knowledge of what efforts racing required of the body expressed in vague terms. Greipel was one of the main riders of the day, bridging up to the breakaway and then leading the race on to the famous Oude Kwaremont. His initial jump of 1248W is enough to get a gap to break from the peloton and go off in pursuit of the two men up the road. The 18-year-old American was part of a four woman breakaway, then she got a gap at the end of lap 3 and never looked back.

After racing the London Six Days with his brother Jesper, Morkov teamed up with Ilijo Keisse to ride the Gent Six Days. The PDM is an estimate of the relationship between time to exhaustion and work rate during both anaerobic and aerobic exercise.
Endurance performance is limited by a number of factors, mostly oxygen transport, energy consumption, and neuromuscular power and economy of movement. The lactate anaerobic metabolism is the basic energy system ensuring motor activity (phosphagen system). Motor activity of high intensity is primarily supplied with energy by the anaerobic lactate system (anaerobic glycolysis). From this period on, the aerobic system is dominant, but the portion of anaerobic lactate metabolism can still be large (anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis). Motor activity is ensured by the aerobic energy system from more than 90% (oxidative system). When working to improve your training and race or event performance, it is important to correctly identify your strengths and weaknesses and to use this knowledge to maximize and design both your training focus and your race strategy.
It is composite of a rider’s observable physiological characteristics and power individualities such as peak power, time to exhaustion and functional threshold power, expressed by grouping like individuals of similar traits.
They typically can produce 120+% of their FTP wattage for 5 minutes, which is above the upper limit for the Coggan Classic Levels for Level 5 (VO2Max). They might have a very good sprint (5-15 seconds) and can time trial well for an hour with a high FTP. They can sustain their power output for a long time (more than 30 minutes) and exhibit excellent endurance for many hours. As you start building a training plan or workout, first focus on workouts that address your weakness.
As a caveat to rule 1, you need to limit the workouts that focus on your weakness, because they take a bigger toll on you. At the end of the day you’ll tend to win races by utilizing your strengths, so the focus is important. If you’re racing a heavy schedule or are a pro athlete, it can be difficult to squeeze testing into your training.
Many of us deal with limitations that make implementing the protocols difficult, such as the finding the right road, searching for the perfect climb, interrupted by too many street lights, etc. Training intensity is a key variable that can be manipulated in such a way that it can lead to either an improvement or a deterioration in performance. His sprint Pmax went from 955 watts to 1027 watts, but his rival’s sprint was still 1200 watts. A portion of the training population fits well in such a bell curve, but this still leaves two issues. The new individualized levels use the WKO4 Power Duration model to automatically blend both your modeled FTP and your entire power curve to create training levels that specifically target your unique physiology.
Since the training levels utilize the model, which is capable of picking up micro changes in fitness, new individualized training levels update with the addition of each new workout, depending on the contribution of that workout.
It also implies that to become better at a particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill. For example, how will the achievement of a new peak power for a 20-minute interval affect your 60-minute performance?
This athlete has steadily improved over the last six months from roughly 1:40 seconds and beyond. In the next chart below, we can see that he has improved his 14-minute power from 280 watts in November to 358 watts in May, which is an amazing increase: nearly 80 watts!
This insight into each individual’s physiology has been very difficult to learn or understand until now. Such a marathon always leads the dejected athlete to believe he or she is simply a poor runner. It’s simply a number that lets you know what the greatest average power is that you can do for an hour.
The men’s pro winner in an Ironman almost always finishes the ride with an IF of about 80%.
This is partly explained by the greater amount of hill climbing in the first half of the course.
If you know how to use it you can nail your Ironman bike and come off with good legs for running.
By looking to the right of the goal time and in your color-coded category you’ll see a range of one to four TSS numbers. Then technology crept into the sport – first heart rate monitors that told us how hard our bodies were working, and then, finally, power meters that told us what our bodies were actually¬†doing with that exertion.
A jack of all trades in endurance sports, he has raced everything from IRONMAN and marathons to road, mountain, and track cycling. The pair had a great start to the event, taking the lead at the end of the first night of racing.
The main benefit of the PDM is having a robust mathematical description of your power-duration relationship. Understanding how these systems both enable and limit your ability to sustain power over time is imperative to training success. The introduction of the WKO4 Power Duration model supplies you with numerous ways to review and identify your strengths and weaknesses, and the simplest method is phenotyping.
They are excellent in stage races, long rides, time trialing, climbing, and any event that requires a long, hard, sustained effort.

For example, if you’re a sprinter and sweet spot or tempo workouts are your worst nightmare, you need to do more of this work, particular early in the season.
Find the right balance of adding workouts that focus on your weaknesses without creating a high level of fatigue, which limits adaptation.
The new WKO4 Power Duration can play an important role in this tracking by allowing you to better and more quickly monitor adaptation (or lack thereof) to training stimulus.
Training prescription has historically been based on a familiar protocol: test and determine training levels, utilize these levels till the next test, then repeat step one. Fortunately his coach also had him improving his FTP during those four months as well and moved his FTP from 280 watts to 325 watts. By focusing on intervals from 10 minutes to 45 minutes long, he has maximized his training time, made significant increases in his power output, and enjoyed more success since his races demand high outputs of power, especially in the 10- to 20-minute range. But now you can load your data into WKO4 and watch the changes in your PD curve throughout your training season to quickly reveal areas of your physiology that are more adaptable than others. He specializes in coaching cyclists with power meters and is on the forefront of coaching with cycling’s newest tool.
Determining what these should be weeks in advance of race day and then training with these numbers allows the athlete to ride at an intensity that will produce an optimal split and a best- possible Ironman run time. But note that Pete, on obviously the very same course, parsed it out with a slightly more balanced power distribution (105-95%).
Had he gotten these too high or too low it would have resulted in a far slower finishing time. Then by glancing up to the top row for both ends of this colored range you’ll see what your IF should be throughout the race.
By looking to the right from 6:00 I can see the anticipated TSS must be in the range of 269 to 286. Each race file will be uploaded to TrainingPeaks for analysis, as will training rides during the week.
This provides quantitative insight into your unique abilities and paves the way for other useful analyses.
But the model allows for more flexibility in the testing protocols, as it can take a few maximal efforts and estimate out all potential performance. While this system has worked well, it is based on the assumption that athletes generally respond the same to each of the training levels. By cross-referencing this with the demands of your events, your training becomes more individualized and meaningful. The pro race strategy must be significantly different from that of the age groupers—an interesting topic for another time. With insight stemming from such powerful tools, all three team members are bound to keep getting faster as the season goes on!
This assumption is in turn based on the idea that all athletes generally maintain the same training level relationship with Functional Threshold Power (FTP). If you want to become a better time trialist, riding up and down mountains on your time trial bike is not going to help your 40km time. One could argue that trying to train them is a waste of his time and that he’s better off training longer durations.
Chris’ strategy would have resulted in less fatigue by the start of the run had he done something like 103-97%. Founded in 1999 when only a few athletes were using power meters, TrainingPeaks has developed several groundbreaking tools that have helped coaches and athletes work together to create breakthrough performances. However, riding hard for an hour is not the key to breaking an hour in a 40km time trial, either! That would have produced the same NP but would have better reflected the nature of the course while conserving energy.
So if my FTP on race is expected to be 250 watts (note that FTP rises as your fitness changes so it must be tested every four weeks or so), then my power range on race day must be 168 to 173 watts. TrainingPeaks is the marriage of their desktop-based power analysis software WKO+ with a web interface that enables communication between coach and athlete.
Some riders might respond better to training at FTP and not at all to training at anaerobic capacity, or vice versa. Though TrainingPeaks has a wide variety of applications, including most sports and even extending to communication between nutritionists and physical therapists and clients, it has proved most useful for the Boo-TrainingPeaks riders in the analysis of data from training and racing. By setting my head unit to show both instantaneous power and IF I can monitor and gauge my intensity throughout the bike leg of the race.
The demands of cyclocross are very unique, even if you take out the dismounting, running, and remounting that separates it from other disciplines of cycling. Riders must put out power well in excess of their functional threshold power (the hardest effort they can sustain for 30-60 minutes) for short periods of time as they accelerate out of corners, punch their way over steep hills, and navigate momentum-sapping sand and mud. Interspaced with periods of high power are numerous periods of zero power as riders navigate technical features of the course.
Even for coaches with a strong understanding of the sport, the physiological demands of cyclocross can be surprising.

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