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Explore the effect of object mass and separation distance on the force of gravity using this interactive Java applet from PhET. Now here's a chance of a lifetime - build your own solar system with this interactive Java applet from PhET. Improve your problem-solving skills with problems, answers and solutions from The Calculator Pad.
Students can explore the effect of object mass and separation distance using this interactive Java applet from PhET.
This unit from The Physics Classroom Tutorial provides excellent background information to support this problem-based learning unit. As discussed earlier in Lesson 3, Isaac Newton compared the acceleration of the moon to the acceleration of objects on earth. Newton knew that the force that caused the apple's acceleration (gravity) must be dependent upon the mass of the apple.
Since the gravitational force is directly proportional to the mass of both interacting objects, more massive objects will attract each other with a greater gravitational force. Since gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two interacting objects, more separation distance will result in weaker gravitational forces.
The proportionalities expressed by Newton's universal law of gravitation are represented graphically by the following illustration. Another means of representing the proportionalities is to express the relationships in the form of an equation using a constant of proportionality.
The constant of proportionality (G) in the above equation is known as the universal gravitation constant. Knowing the value of G allows us to calculate the force of gravitational attraction between any two objects of known mass and known separation distance.
Two general conceptual comments can be made about the results of the two sample calculations above.
Gravitational interactions do not simply exist between the earth and other objects; and not simply between the sun and other planets. Use the Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation widget below to investigate the effect of the object masses and separation distance upon the amount of gravitational attraction. How did Newton establish that it was the force of gravity between the sun and the planets was the force responsible for keeping the planets in motion along their elliptical path?
If the distance is increased by a factor of 2, then force will be decreased by a factor of 4 (22). The Statement of the Law ? Magnitude: Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
The rock-bottom of Law and Order is the transcendent value of an objective criterion for being of human origin, which presumes its ethical and legal personhood. The second law is the Natural Law; having its same universal basis in the Eternal Law, for the operation of all laws and forces of the physical reality, as well as encompassing all our Moral Laws. Therefore, it also carries the same divine authority for the maintenance of lawful rights and duties, the basis of all Moral Law, as well as the basis for most of human-made laws, such as the private and public law, family and state law, civil and criminal law; etc.
Regarding the fact that both, Eternal Law and Natural Law apply universally, for which reason they called universal Laws; we can still make a clear distinction between the two.
Eternal Law is founded in our religious belief, in that the Creator is the ultimate source of and the sole Authority over all categories of law. Natural Law on the other hand, guarantees on the same bases of divine Authority that the physical Universe will exist and functions in the physical order according to the divine plan; this belief includes the conscience-based, knowable moral law. The above statements become clear from the magnificent achievements of science and technology, and through our understanding the supremacy of moral order in all our actions. The principle is that nothing is ours by right; in other words,  we do not own the right to anything we possess. It is in our logically fallacious assumption that for every claim of our right, be it based on  demand or on  moral, legal right,  there must also exist a reciprocally compelling duty on others to comply.Consequently, any claim for a right is meaningless in itself, without the existence of an equal duty on the part of others to satisfy that claim. First, the Eternal Law maintains the universal order in the physical reality ever since its beginning, 13.75 billion years ago.
Third, we will consider the relatively recent phenomenon, that is: It appears that parallel with this slowly evolving, physical disorder, a transcendental moral disorder is also developing, that could similarly threaten the long-term, human survival. The logical order that constitutes the essence of being human, that is the mind can reason things out; without it we would be unable to understand one another or the world around us.
The physical order is a universal order for maintaining in existence of matter and energy by the universal laws and forces of nature, without which there would be no matter and energy, nor could any universe exist. The biological order is also a universal order for the functioning of the DNA, for the maintenance and propagation of all living beings, without which biological life as we know could not exist. The moral order has its basis in the Eternal Law, and the moral order is the result of our adherence to the belief-based Moral Law, which law guides the human thoughts and behaviour. The social order is the result of the legally established civil and criminal law, which is closely linked with the socially established moral order.
Just as we cannot rest without a reasonable explanation to, or a deeper understanding of the concept of order, we are equally restless until the possession of it.
Human life therefore, has its final purpose set by the similarly unquenchable search for the ultimate, the quintessential order and truth and beauty in our Creator.
The one simple and characteristic example for the physical order in the Universe is how stars born and maintain their size for a seemingly end-less life: Stars born by the accretion of inter-galactic gas and dust, but mostly  hydrogen gas.
The inward pressure caused by the force of gravity gradually increasing, in proportion with the increasing mass of the spinning star. The nuclei of atoms fuse together in this process, and releasing the radiant heat and light of a typical star, (like our Sun), that may be felt for unimaginable distances in the Universe, and for about 10 billion years in the lifetime of a typical star.
Scientific findings confirm that human beings are more complex and orderly than even the galaxies. Extrapolating from this, human beings could not have their explanation for their higher order of existence acquired from a lower order of plant and animal evolution.
Since that which is superior, can account for what is inferior, but not the other way around. Order in Living Cells of plants, animals and humans that carries some intrinsic life principle of movement, is governed by its embedded DNA, which lends reason for it to be what it is destined to be; thus, a rose grows up to be a rose and not an oak, an eagle grows up to be an eagle and not a lizard. A human body contains about 100 trillion cells; a human cell has genetic material contained in the cell nucleus.
There is nothing worthwhile science could say about the origin of life or about the origin and development of sexual reproduction, except that they were supposed to happen in the very early development of species, and possibly from a single source, be it on Earth or it came from elsewhere.
This free and responsible human conduct is the quintessential basis of morality of the human acts.
The norm of morality is applied by human reason to judge the objective right or wrong of an act or situation, and this reasoning process called conscience. The teaching of the Church on sexual expression drawn from what it considers a natural law, the scriptures and sacred traditions. A society is a community of people living or acting voluntarily in a group or a state, within a largely same culture, customs and mores, guided by established rules and laws of rights and duties, for the maintenance and protection of safety and well being of private and public interests.
On the other hand, apart from the already mentioned, slowly evolving, energy-based disorder, we find that there is in fact a universal order, maintained by the laws and forces of nature, which is observed by the various disciplines of science.
These people may be either ignorant, or do not want to find reason and order, instead, they prefer to find chance, determinism or chaos in the mind as well as in the physical reality.
Second, regarding the above case, how could an adequate (reasoning) mind come up with a suspicious and self- contradictory idea that things are not determined while itself is determined? It is by now clear also, that in spite of the internal universal order, there is a slow transformation into an energy-based increasing physical disorder. Admittedly, all living beings receive their energy required for the maintenance of life form the Sun, nevertheless, the primary reason for this counter-acting maintenance lies in the miraculous reproducing process.
In introduction, however, I must point out that, while this law, as well as the following Law of Entropy, describes how the Universe will end in an unforeseeable future, (and surprisingly, in an orderly way), these laws are built into the Universe by the Creator, for the eternal reason, that the Universe was never intended to exist forever.
Second, the general entropic law that follows the direction of irreversibility, will also cause the downward flow of all radiating energies, (from a high-to-low), in accordance with their values.


Conversely, a high entropic value signifies that low quantity of high value energy is available for work. In conclusion, one could say with certainty, that the Law of Entropy is the quintessential proof for the finite nature of the physical Universe. One can deduct from the constant stream of media reports that the Church has a big problem too.
The external causes were the worldwide, libertarian movement, which prevailed between the 1960s and 1990s. It appears obvious from the above numbers, that the worldwide libertarian movement must have affected a great number of faithful as well, as observed through the diminishing church attendance. The internal causes could be labelled as spiritually grave because it emanated from within the Church.
The primary intention of this article was  to demonstrate through the various Natural Laws and Forces, that first, there can be no order  of any kind without those laws and forces; second, science not only that it does not threaten our faith in a Creator, but science also shows  eminently the universal order of  creation. My hope is that the reader will end up understanding this compatibility of science with faith, because science  reveals us eminently the universal order through the Natural Laws and Forces of divine creation.
Only a few countries require the application of universal design and establish that inaccessibility is a matter of discrimination.
Norway’s Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act of 2008 is the country’s first disability-specific, nationwide non-discrimination act.
In particular, the obligation to provide universally designed ICTs has been legally enshrined, without any reference to disproportionate burden.
Together, the Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud and Tribunal constitute a well-functioning low-threshold enforcement system. The Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act (AAD) aims to promote equality and ensure equal opportunities and rights to social participation for all persons and to prevent discrimination on the basis of disability. Many of the AAD’s provisions become enforceable through regulations specifying detailed accessibility requirements. The Act includes no right to reasonable accommodation in the access to goods and services, and the definition of universal design does not include products.
Believing that gravitational forces were responsible for each, Newton was able to draw an important conclusion about the dependence of gravity upon distance. So as the mass of either object increases, the force of gravitational attraction between them also increases.
So as two objects are separated from each other, the force of gravitational attraction between them also decreases. Observe how the force of gravity is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of separation. The precise value of G was determined experimentally by Henry Cavendish in the century after Newton's death. When the units on G are substituted into the equation above and multiplied by m1• m2 units and divided by d2 units, the result will be Newtons - the unit of force.
Gravitational interactions exist between all objects with an intensity that is directly proportional to the product of their masses. If you interesting in "Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation" powerpoint themes, you can download to use this powerpoint template for your own presentation template. In the mystic sense of the creation around us, in the expression of art, in a yearning towards God, the soul grows upward and finds the fulfillment of something implanted in its nature’.
Philosophy posits: Fundamentally, law is an ordinance of reason, promulgated by an authority for the creation of order.
Otherwise, without the existence and intelligibility of these two universal laws, human beings simply could not exist to achieve their final end, the ultimate purpose of creation.
Therefore, Eternal Law constitutes the ultimate, authoritative basis for almost all of our natural and moral rights and duties, through the civil laws and by the dictates of our conscience.
Whatever we posses is either gift by nature , such as life that we received from an other life, or gift to us by others; or we earned from others by our physical and mental skills , which were again given to us either by nature or by others.
In other words, the validity of every right depends on the validity of a commensurate duty. The general nature of Moral Law is that it promotes peace, order and justice, whereby they maintain our human dignity. The Natural Law intends to provide the authoritative basis for maintaining moral order among human beings. The cause of this gradual disorder is the Law of Entropy, which ensures the finite nature of the physical order in the Universe; (more about it later in this article). The final arbiter for compliance with the Moral Law is the properly informed individual conscience. Consequently, the concept of order equates with the concept of truth, insofar as both must have their basis in the physical reality.
It is therefore, like a magnet, drawing human beings from eons on towards whatever demonstrates through its order of beauty and simplicity, any of its true or mirage-like manifestation. Our entire endeavour in sciences, arts and sports alike, is motivated to achieve the utmost, as per the Olympic slogan of ‘Citius, Altius, Fortius, (Faster, Higher, Stronger,) in everything. The human mind cannot help but to search for the truth in everything, while trying to understand reality. Furthermore, philosophy repeats that the primary subject of our reasoning is to identify and understand the order of things, because without it, the mind could not make any sense why things happen as they do, and what is the truth of entities and events in the physical reality. Second, we can make order out of the reality as well, which order designed and structured according to the order of our mind.
The pressure and heat thus generated  becomes ultimately so enormous that it triggers nuclear fusion reaction within the core of the young star; and  finally, a new star is born.
Cosmologists assert also that, even if only one living being would exist in the Universe, the multiplicity of stars and galaxies would still have to contribute with their complex, life-creating process and sustaining properties. Each species while diversify by varieties, clings to its essential type, which it retains permanently.
They, however, can confirm that since even fungi reproduce sexually, so it appears that sexual reproduction must be very common in the physical world.
Therefore, we are the agents of our own destiny by the free and deliberate choices we make. Hence, personal morality in thoughts and deeds are the gold-standard criteria of Christian moral behaviour. The Social Ethics of philosophy states that the basis of social order is the maintenance of Rights and Duties, which rests ultimately on Natural Law, the norm of all human activity. When law is ignored or disregarded, it results in the loss of authority, justice and peace, which end ultimately in a general disorder, which are the dominant forces of a disintegrating society.
Oddly enough, there are apparently learned people, who spend inordinate attention to and effort in explaining why it is that their reasoning mind cannot find any general reason in the reality.
On the other hand, how can it be a confused mind is still reasonable enough to recognise and claim disorder around itself in the reality? This law is more subtle than the other laws that govern physical reality; and it is just as important, because it could influence and even limit the physical actions and capabilities of all living beings in the Universe. One has to recall only the degeneration of all physical, material beings in nature, as well as our biological, corruptible body. One could call these environmental causes, as they affected the Church from the outside; hence, not even the most ardent fanatics could blame the Church alone for those events. Thus it did not only harm the faithful directly, but it also brought from the outside adversaries the greatest harm and shame to the age-old good name of the Church.
This universal order permeates through the sub-atomic particles, the biological existence of all animate beings all the way up to the human beings, including the transcendental order of the human mind, that is capable of recognising the order around it. In Europe, Norway is, along with Spain, one of those countries that actively promote both concepts and practice in universal design.
It introduced legal safeguards against discrimination of people with disabilities in all sectors of society. In 2002, the Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion set up a draft committee to prepare a proposal for legislation to improve the legal safeguards against discrimination against people with disabilities in all sectors of society. The Ombud is a reporting and monitoring mechanism, while the Tribunal can impose moratorium fines on those who do not abide by the Tribunal’s decision.


It applies to all areas of society, and with regard to accessibility its main focus is on the built environment, transport and ICT. Together, the Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud and Tribunal are responsible for enforcement of the AAD. Legally binding timeframes need to be established in order to ensure universal design of existing buildings and transportation. So for Newton, the force of gravity acting between the earth and any other object is directly proportional to the mass of the earth, directly proportional to the mass of the object, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates the centers of the earth and the object.
Newton's place in the Gravity Hall of Fame is not due to his discovery of gravity, but rather due to his discovery that gravitation is universal. If the mass of one of the objects is doubled, then the force of gravity between them is doubled. If the separation distance between two objects is doubled (increased by a factor of 2), then the force of gravitational attraction is decreased by a factor of 4 (2 raised to the second power). So as you sit in your seat in the physics classroom, you are gravitationally attracted to your lab partner, to the desk you are working at, and even to your physics book. Knowing that all objects exert gravitational influences on each other, the small perturbations in a planet's elliptical motion can be easily explained.
If the distance between the two objects is doubled, what is the new force of attraction between the two objects?
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Although there is an implicit priority of the right to self-preservation of human nature,there is no explicit priority given to life over liberty and liberty over happiness and property.
These duties aiming at providing, respecting and protecting of all human and animal lives, children, disabled, the poor, and the animals; etc. One may ask, ultimately, what made all these physical sequences possible, and where did they come from? Without moral law, the might would have the right for mutual exploitation and oppression, and there would be no more reason for a Universal Law, upon which all human rights and duties were based. The answer to this provides the reason for existence in nature of all transcendental and physical entities and events.
Once these particles agglomerate to larger dimensions, the force of gravity takes over and holds these enormous masses of gas and other material in an infant star, together. This message is written in atoms, arranged in an elaborate sequence to form the famous double-helix strands of DNA, the most extraordinary molecule on Earth.
They reason also that no living organism or a living being will ever display suicidal tendency to destroy itself for the sake of a future and an essentially superior living being that may eventually take its place. Although this theory is popular and accepted by modern science, but it is still remaining only a scientific hypothesis. Therefore, a low entropic value signifies that high quantity of high value energy is available for work. The present events, however, are the confluence of external and internal causes, which may complicate it further.
The primary cause was of course once again the external influence of the secular world, whose moral pollution affected  a great section of the clergy (but mostly the ordained brothers) and lay employees. It focuses on the built environment, transport and ICT, establishes that inaccessibility is a matter of discrimination, contains the obligation to use universal design and refers to sector legislation as well as specific regulations elaborating on the Act itself. The committee looked into experiences in the USA, the UK, Australia and Canada, and presented its report in May 2005. In each field, the AAD refers to sector legislation as well as specific regulations elaborating on the provisions in the AAD itself. If the mass of one of the objects is tripled, then the force of gravity between them is tripled. If the separation distance between any two objects is tripled (increased by a factor of 3), then the force of gravitational attraction is decreased by a factor of 9 (3 raised to the second power). This illustrates the inverse relationship between separation distance and the force of gravity (or in this case, the weight of the student).
Newton's revolutionary idea was that gravity is universal - ALL objects attract in proportion to the product of their masses.
As the planet Jupiter approaches the planet Saturn in its orbit, it tends to deviate from its otherwise smooth path; this deviation, or perturbation, is easily explained when considering the effect of the gravitational pull between Saturn and Jupiter.
His answer lies in the interrelated observations in the works of many philosophers and scientists, beginning with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. The only sensible answer can be the Eternal Law, the basis  and the Law of all laws in the physical Universe. Human beings share this magic molecule with all plants and animals all the way down to bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, the conjugal expression of mutual love is considered a sublime form of human act, which invites through that very act a new life.
In other words, accountability for our actions, such as rights and duties, would be entirely meaningless, if without any freedom of will to choose the means, we would be pre-determined by force to act. After a broad public consultation was completed, the Act was finally enacted on June 2008, and entered into force in 2009.
The AAD includes a universal design obligation, which is a minimum requirement and has been introduced as a legal standard, whose content is determined when detailed requirements regarding accessibility to buildings, ICT, means of transport, etc. The Ombud reviews the complaint, asks for a statement from the perpetrator of the discriminatory act and issues an opinion.
If the mass of both of the objects is doubled, then the force of gravity between them is quadrupled; and so on. Newton's comparison of the acceleration of the apple to that of the moon led to a surprisingly simple conclusion about the nature of gravity that is woven into the entire universe. I believe this principle describes our true standing in the physical reality, we see ourselves just as we were born, with possessing nothing; hence,  there is nothing to be arrogant about, nor having reason to have a false pride. This act is considered the fulfillment of the most noble and worthy union within traditional societies.
In 2008, the Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion, launched an ambitious Action Plan, which sets the goal of Norway being universally designed by 2025. This force of gravitational attraction is directly dependent upon the masses of both objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates their centers. However, a mere change of 40 000 feet further from the center of the Earth is virtually negligible. All objects attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to their distance of separation. Finally, this principle sets the true basis of all philosophical, physical and Christian morality.
Universal design is defined in accordance with the original concept invented by the Centre for Universal Design at North Carolina State University. If the case is not solved, it will be forwarded to the Tribunal, which is a semi-court composed of lawyers and disability experts. This altitude change altered the student's weight changed by 2 N that is much less than 1% of the original weight.
To illustrate this, use Newton's universal gravitation equation to calculate the force of gravity between the following familiar objects.
The AAD contains a positive duty of public and private entities offering goods and services to the general public to promote universal design.
This alteration of distance is like a drop in a bucket when compared to the large radius of the Earth. In particular, it legally enshrines the obligation to provide universally designed information and communication technologies, without any reference to disproportionate burden. As shown in the diagram below, distance of separation becomes much more influential when a significant variation is made.



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