The scope, content, and level of detail of a TMP should vary based on the agency's work zone policy and the anticipated work zone impacts of the project. Simply stated, a significant project is a project that the agency expects will cause a relatively high level of disruption.
If a TMP is several different documents or plans, they should still be coordinated and compiled so that the strategies work together to manage the impacts.
All Interstate system projects within the boundaries of a designated Transportation Management Area (TMA) that occupy a location for more than three days with either intermittent or continuous lane closures shall be considered as significant projects.
Although a full TMP document is not developed until design, conducting some TMP analyses during systems planning and preliminary engineering will help ensure that the TMP development and implementation costs are included in the project budget. Another strategy available in the earlier stages of project development is to consider work zone impacts in the evaluation and selection of design alternatives. These broader strategies cross various disciplines and highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach.
Of Course: Through Value Engineering or Pre-Construction meeting, changes in the project plans could occur that mean adjustments to the TMP are needed. This a general TMP development process diagram that may be used as a starting point for agencies to consider when developing TMP procedures and TMPs for specific projects. Design-level work zone impacts assessment may include consideration of corridor and network level impacts, coordination with other projects, addressing work zone impacts issues in conjunction with the project design and construction approaches, work zone transportation management, and development of TMPs. Quantitative Analysis during Design can help determine and design the specific aspects of the management strategies.
Example: Early WZ impacts analysis done during preliminary engineering using a sketch-planning tool may indicate that traffic diversion to the designated alternate route for the project would be significant, leading to a preliminary decision to upgrade and re-time the traffic signals on the alternate route. In design a more detailed analysis using a micro-simulation tool is conducted to estimate actual diversion patterns, the volume of traffic expected to divert to the alternate, and the intersections that would be affected. From this analysis, the design options can be narrowed to two options: the series of 8 72-hour weekday closures, and the option for completely closing one side of the roadbed at a time to do the work. The results of this planning study are useful for transportation agencies in developing highway rehabilitation strategies that balance the maximization of construction productivity with a minimization of traffic delay.
In Caltrans District 7, on the I-10 Long-Life Pavement Project, the TMP helped reduce traffic demand by an estimated 57 percent, queue lengths to 2 miles from the originally projected 44 miles, and projected delays from an estimated 1,000,000 to 16,000 total vehicle hours of delay.
Has the agency established a policy for the development of TMPs to reduce WZ congestion and crashes? The next few slides provide some examples of what various state agencies are doing with regard to TMP development. Traffic plans may or may not be built into project specifications and be a part of the bid process. In districts where Project Design and Transportation Management Planning are under the same Senior, traffic plans are conceptually developed during the design process, and there may be up to 20 traffic related meetings before a bid.
Prepare Initial TMP: Since the TMP assumes all participants in planning and implementation are aware of rules contained in the federal MUTCD and California Supplement, it can use shorthand statements and assume, for example, that only approved lane delineation devices will be used in only an approved manner.
Funding: The Transportation Management Plan for a project becomes part of the Programming Document for the project. Review and modification of construction alternatives and traffic plans occur before and during the course of minor and major projects, often on a daily basis. Monitoring a project is particularly important, for many reasons – traffic data is often stale, closures may be sloppy or non-conforming, and enforcement strategies may need to be modified for unanticipated events. It is at this stage that cooperation among all involved becomes important, and safety and cost considerations get hammered out in daily actions. Often the Evaluation Statements exceed the TMP in length and scope, because in any process this complex, the ability to learn over time and adapt to situational variables is crucial to improving the process. Caltrans TMPs are categorized into three types based on project characteristics and projected delay: Blanket TMP, Minor TMP, and Major TMP. The TMP Database is meant to be used at the very beginning of WZ planning to choose the most effective methods from the start, with re-evaluation occurring in the design stage. Missouri DOT has developed a Transportation Management Plan (TMP) Strategy Database to aid in the selection of work zone management strategies and development of TMPs for its road projects in a more systematic way.
The TMP Strategy Database is an Access database that returns possible appropriate work zone management strategies based on user inputs. The database is organized around four major triggers (project goals) focusing on time concerns, public impact, location, and traffic flow. MoDOT said it intends to use the TMP Database at the very beginning of work zone planning in order to choose the most effective methods from the start, with re-evaluation occurring in the design stage.
The database was developed by the Work Zone Quality Circle, MoDOT's work zone management task force, and is based on the work zone management strategies matrix found in the FHWA-developed guide entitled Developing and Implementing Transportation Management Plans for Work Zones Guidebook. The Virginia DOT has developed a document outlining TMP development requirements for all projects. The slide shows one of VDOT's TMPs, developed for a major Interstate interchange project on the Capital Beltway. The VDOT TMP Requirements include guidelines to be used by Project Managers, Roadway Designers, Traffic Engineers, Work Zone Safety Coordinators and Public Affairs Managers pertaining to acquiring the information to develop TMPs. Designers are involved in the preliminary field inspection, public hearing meeting, field inspection meeting, and pre-advertisement conference. The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) includes a sample TMP in its Traffic Engineering Manual. Wisconsin Department of Transportation has published guidance on development for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans.
The process is related to the type of project and requires different levels of effort but it may change and be refined with collective experience. Performing Work Zone Impacts analyses early and later in the process is critical to TMP development.
These elements together form the Wisconsin TMP, and are either all developed as one document or can be separate documents compiled together.
WiscDOT and the FHWA Wisconsin Division have developed a one-day course on Wisconsin's TMP Development Process and conducted TMP training in Wisconsin. The TMP will be an ongoing process from the scoping process through the construction process.
The district shall take the lead and develop a TMP team consisting of members from Planning and Programming Division, Maintenance and Engineering Services Division, Construction Services Division, Design Division, District, FHWA, local municipality, and others as necessary.
TMP will consist of a TTC plan and consideration should be given to a TO component and a PI component.
Some state transportation agencies have developed lane closure policies, or strategies, that they use as guidance in determining daily permitted lane closure times.
Permitted lane closure times define what times of the day, week, or season a lane closure is allowed on a facility and at a specific location or segment. Look up SH 121 in the left-most column and locate MP 22.0 between 84th Avenue and 100th Avenue. A number of these tips come from Caltrans, based on their years of experience with TMPs, and from a few other DOTs we also spoke do while developing our FHWA TMP Guide. Cost is often a constraint to what strategies are included in a given TMP, particularly for major TMPs. The Wisconsin DOT (WisDOT) has established guidelines on the development of Transportation Management Plans (TMP) as part of overall project delivery process during the design and construction stages.
In 2007 WisDOT updated their Facilities Development Manual to include guidelines for planning typical lane closures and methodologies for considering regularly occurring high volume periods with special considerations for holidays and planned special events.
The guidelines include suggested procedures and methodologies to estimate the capacity of a roadway segment, determine traffic demand, and quantify resulting queues and delays using traffic volume data. In addition to developing a formal procedure to systematically quantify queues and delays, WisDOT also developed a formal policy on acceptable delay values for construction projects on the Interstate system and other major multi-lane highways. The following sections will provide more discussion on WisDOT’s guidelines on the selection, use and implementation of various traffic modeling tools to be used for estimating queues and delays. WisDOT recommends the use of HCM-based traffic modeling tools for work zone Types 1 and 2, and perhaps certain Type 3 work zones. WisDOT recommends the use of mode robust sketch planning tools (such as QuickZone or Quadro) for work zones of Types 2 and 3, perhaps certain Type 4. WisDOT has found that sketch planning tools are quite sensitive to assumptions about the capacity of the work zone.
To assist regional offices in conducting microscopic simulation analysis, WisDOT developed the Microsimulation Model Scoping Worksheet which is used by Bureau of Highway Operations to determine whether or not microscoping simulation is a) appropriate and b) technically feasible. The Coastal Zone Management Authority and Institute is working in partnership with the Natural Capital Project, an initiative of the World Wildlife Fund to discuss the important linkages between science and policy that will guide the decisions to be made by the Coastal Zone.
Viewers please note: This Internet newscast is a verbatim transcript of our evening television newscast. Do you think GOB should be negotiating a protocol for Sarstoon River when it owns half of the river? Polls ArchiveTHE COMMENTS AND VIEWS EXPRESSED ON THE BLOG ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE VIEWS OF THIS STATION. Having a step for TMP review by District managers or senior project managers generally leads to more effective TMPs. Review efforts may lead to TMP revisions, which can then be done before a project goes to bid, reducing the need for potentially costly changes later.


Michigan DOT has a Peer Review Team that conducts a review of TMPs for significant projects. The review team consists of rotating personnel from MDOT headquarters and the Regions outside of where the project will be located. A bonus is that peer reviewers are able to learn from each other and often discover good ideas in the TMPs that they can use on their own future projects. Once the TMP is approved and the project is awarded, there may be revisions to the TMP based on pre-construction coordination meetings or any alternate approaches proposed by the Contractor before implementation.
The two most common approaches used to facilitate Contractor participation are partnering and value engineering. State and Local Transportation Agencies and the Contractor must have a trained person to implement the TMP. Monitoring TMP implementation is important to ensure Contractor compliance with all requirements.
To ensure compliance, the project site must also be monitored for safety, and any deficiencies noted. Methods that can be used to monitor the conditions of a work zone include field observations, such as recording traffic control devices that have been regularly knocked over, or queue length and when queues form and dissipate.
Diary logs of project events and incidents such as crashes and queue spillover, as well as public feedback or complaints, aid in monitoring both during the project and in performance assessment at the project end.
Sometimes truck deliveries to the site block one or more lanes without prior approval, resulting in an unsafe condition. Ohio DOT breaks a sample of work zones into half-mile segments, sorts crashes into their proper segment, and performs a before-after comparison of the preconstruction and construction crash frequencies for each segment. During construction, data gathered every two weeks showed crashes increased significantly to 48 in three months, an average of 16 per month. Monitoring may result in the realization that the TMP is not working as well as planned, or conditions have changed. When changes are proposed during pre-construction or construction, it's important to remember that much has happened up to this point.
After this work and planning has been done, it can all be negated by a bad decision at construction.
There are many TMP-related considerations if changes to the project are proposed at pre-construction or during construction.
If changes are needed to the TMP to mitigate increased impacts, the Agency and Contractor will need to negotiate how those costs are paid. The responsible persons designated for implementing the TMP on the project need to be involved in reviewing any changes that are proposed. If substantial changes are made to the project scope, schedule, phasing or other aspects, or the actual work zone impacts are not within acceptable limits, then the project team should take the necessary actions to update the TMP to minimize the impacts.
In design-build projects, the TMP generally includes guidelines and procedures for strategies like lane closures, detours, and public notification. The findings from TMP Monitoring and any TMP changes, as well as any post project evaluations done, should be recorded. The results of TMP evaluations from several projects across the State or at the District level are useful while doing a Process Review. Michigan DOT measures work zone performance, specifically in the areas of work zone crashes and travel time.
Travel time is determined through various methods such as real-time measurement of vehicle speeds and occupancy using portable trailers with sensors that are rotated between work zones.
Now that you have completed Module 6, this exercise will provide you with an opportunity to apply what you have learned. Once you have completed answering the questions, turn to page 209 in the Participant Workbook for a discussion of the exercise answers. At this early stage, more alternatives for addressing work zone impacts are available, so a broader range of strategies can be chosen.
For some projects it may be possible to choose a design alternative that alleviates many work zone impacts. The example process in this figure shows three types of TMPs (Basic, Intermediate, and Major). This analysis may then be used to identify the number of traffic signals that need to be upgraded and the exact nature of the upgrades, and to develop the signal timing plans and estimate the costs.
The integrated analysis concluded that the one-roadbed continuous closures were the most economical scenario when compared to traditional nighttime or weekend closures from the perspective of schedule, delay, and costs. If they are built in, money for contingencies are a part of the bid; otherwise, money is set-aside and contingencies later cause change orders. In other districts, traffic plans are conceptually developed later in the process, and the traffic meetings begin after the bidding process. The first decision, made by Traffic Planning staff, is the type of TMP that will be required: blanket, minor, or major.
If bidding has already occurred, a Contractor representative is also named; otherwise the Contractor representative joins later. It includes a work description, lists the work areas, and provides available information about traffic patterns and levels. Since a TMP can easily cost several million dollars on a major project, it is a major element either in a bid or in negotiations after a bid. Usually the two interact, as when unexpected traffic volumes make night work necessary or weather changes cure times or any of many other situational variables change. Some daily realities are understood, but not formally voiced, as when a Field Engineer can save a Contractor many thousands of dollars on a particular day by extending a closure an hour or so. This slide lists the types of conditions and possible strategies for each of these three TMP categories.
The strategies are accompanied by additional pertinent information, such as whether increased enforcement or public information is needed. Construction personnel will also be able to use the program to find a solution if concerns arise while the work zone is in operation. This document provides guidelines to be used by Project Managers, Roadway Designers, Traffic Engineers, Work Zone Safety Coordinators, and Public Affairs Managers pertaining to acquiring the information to develop TMPs. This TMP was created for a project on a rural interstate highway with low traffic impacts and was drafted using information that is readily available from other sources. Pavement Management and Scoping Section will suggest alternate routes and additional studies required for the TMP. The TMP team shall review the Work Zone Assessment and Management Procedures, Chapter 1 in regards to goals and recommendations to implement in the TMP.
If the non-significant project is a reconstruction project, the project designer, Design Division and the District will develop the TMP strategies. While the CDOT methodology used to analyze the roads to determine lane closure impacts is applied uniformly across all regions, the criteria and policies for closing lanes are region specific. The policy recommends no more than 15 minutes of delay above the normal travel time between key city nodes and within each city node.
Typical requirements include route length, free flow speed, project duration, road closure times, and traffic volumes for primary and alternate routes.
Using microscopic simulation, individual vehicles are modeled in fine detail for the duration of their entire trip, providing traffic flow, travel time and congestion information, as well as potentially enabling the modeling of the interface between drivers and ITS. A seminar was held with the representatives of the project and CZMAI officials and News Five caught up with them today.
Where speakers use Kriol, we attempt to faithfully reproduce the quotes using a standard spelling system. As discussed in earlier modules, the TMP is a living document, and as construction progresses even the best design can change.
TMP review may include suggestions and comments from TMP reviewers which can lead to solutions not identified earlier. The process for TMP approval can be similar to your Agency's procedures for approval of other plans such as temporary traffic control plans.
Several States include TMP review and approval as part of the review process for the PS&E package.
These projects are ones where the projected work zone delay, level of service, or volume to capacity ratio for the construction conditions would exceed policy thresholds after all reasonable mitigation has been applied. The team often meets virtually to discuss the TMP after reviewing it, and then provides feedback to the TMP developer. Partnering and value engineering can lead to suggestions for construction changes that can reduce work zone impacts or may increase them. These designated responsible persons need to have primary responsibility for this duty and need to be regularly present at the job site so they can carry out this responsibility. They not only allow you to improve performance over time, but can protect you from unwarranted litigation. The requirements are stipulated to ensure that the work zone is safe and there is minimal interruption of traffic. This can be in the form of travel time, queue length, or any other performance measures set forth in the Agency policy. Personnel should make a note of any crashes that occur within the construction limits and regularly inspect temporary traffic control devices for placement and visibility.


Sampling using floating car studies, particularly during peak traffic periods, can provide insight on TMP performance.
The results of inspections and crash investigations also provide information about performance.
Monitoring can help identify conditions like this so that unsafe access-egress practices can be addressed. In this example, preconstruction crash data show that there were an average of 31 crashes for 7 months, or 4.4 crashes per month. In such cases, Ohio DOT does a review to determine the contributing circumstances and mitigation treatments to address the issue.
The TMP needs to be assessed and revised when performance measures are not met, such as if actual queue lengths or delays are not within acceptable limits. The project should have been identified as significant or not, an assessment of impacts done, and the impacts considered in selecting the preferred alternative for the project. This is why changes at this stage need to be reviewed for how they will affect the maintenance of traffic and the TMP, before a decision is made whether or not to approve the proposed changes. TMP revisions may include changes to the temporary traffic control plan or work activity schedules, or adding or discontinuing other strategies. For these projects, TMP changes are usually done through amendments that include adjustments to various strategies. A process review is required every 2 years by the Work Zone Safety and Mobility Rule and is intended to help improve work zone policy and procedures, including TMP development and implementation.
In addition to an overall assessment of how well the TMP worked, it is helpful to make notes about which TMP strategies worked well based on monitoring results and the reaction from the public and other stakeholders. Michigan DOT also uses co-op assistance from students for data collection, such as driving through work zones to measure queues and record delay time.
The template includes lessons learned and recommendations on ways to improve the TMP process or modify guidelines. Early TMP development will also help with scheduling and coordinating projects to minimize the cumulative work zone impacts of multiple projects along a corridor or in a region.
Agencies may elect to develop a different number of categories of TMPs than what is described here. The pre-construction was validated with as-built construction and traffic performances monitored during construction. In either case, traffic plans depend upon specifications and specifications depend upon traffic plans and both are subject to unforeseen events. It outlines usage of traffic management strategies and how contingencies are to be handled.
Others considerations are formal, as when a Contractor proposes saving months on a job by changing the TMP to allow weekend full closures. A Blanket TMP is a standard set of actions taken to minimize delay when performing maintenance activities or projects.
It also contains guidance on each Project Team member's role and responsibilities in the development of TMPs, and guidance to Project Managers on VDOT's TMP requirements based on the project's level of complexity. Once a project has been incorporated into the STIP a milestone activity will be used to identify when the TMP team will need to begin, which in general will be before the environmental document.
The TMP team shall address the TMP strategies and identify general concepts to be identified in the Environmental Document. Projects other than reconstruction projects, project designer will consult with Design Division and the District. For example, daytime lane closures are prohibited in the Denver Metro area, while they are allowed on the more rural sections of I-25.
While the extent of the TMP depends upon the nature of the project (location, size, duration, etc.), WisDOT recommends that a systematic assessment of work zone impacts be conducted for construction projects that impact travel lanes.
The guidelines suggest that a rough threshold estimate is when a queue length in excess of one mile is sustained for more than thirty minutes then the work zone is likely not meet the 15 minute delay criteria. The current version of WZCAT uses HCM methodology to calculate delay due to work zone operations based on two inputs. QuickZone requires creation of a network of links and nodes, while Quadro uses a simplified network consisting of two parallel links (one link represents the route that is under construction and the other represents an alternate or detour route). Traffic conditions or other factors can also change, resulting in the need to adjust work zone management efforts. During TMP review, the reviewers can help make sure that the TMP is developed in accordance with Agency policy and guidelines, leading to greater consistency. Most Agencies have the approval process documented in the formal work zone policy or in a procedures manual. Some States include a simple table in their TMP, like the one shown here, for initial sign off and for updates as major changes occur.
MDOT also does a TMP Peer review for projects where the cost to mitigate impacts to below the thresholds would exceed 25% of the project cost. In such cases the TMP may need to be revised and any substantial revisions must be approved by the Agency. Monitoring helps in identifying when adjustments are needed to the TMP strategies deployed on the current project. It is the responsibility of the DOT to provide oversight of the Contractor to ensure compliance with all DOT rules and regulations.
Impacts could be due to the project work zone itself or due to the combined impact of other projects nearby. The use of technology, such as permanent or temporary detectors and cameras, can provide real-time measurement of performance and a rich source of data for post-project assessment. If construction changes are proposed that could affect traffic, such as new work activities that alter traffic control requirements, changes to work activity hours, or revised phasing, the TMP may need to be revised. Based on that, the TMP was developed and approved for the project and was included in the PS&E.
Notes about TMP changes made, how effective they were, and whether the process worked smoothly are also a good idea. Performance can be presented as total numbers of crashes as well as a detailed breakdown of crashes on a project-by-project basis.
Michigan DOT combines the project mobility data into regional and Statewide measures of the percent of its work zones meeting mobility goals. The template is filled in by the TMP implementation manager upon the completion of the project. This includes examining the adequacy of detour or alternate routes and coordinating with the agencies responsible for those routes. Which means that flexibility in the event is mandatory, and there must be some concept of strategy and estimate of cost, including provisions for contingencies, from the beginning.
The TMP will address level and strategies prior to and shall be identified in the Environmental Document. In Wisconsin the additional data is relatively easy to obtain, and it is generally perceived that for projects of moderate complexity, the extra information provided by the software is worth the additional effort. In cases where there are substantial changes to the TMP, these should be documented as addendum to the TMP and signed-off by the DOT. Projects are submitted to the peer review team after Plan Review and before the errors and omissions check, so the TMP is mostly complete but there is still some flexibility in design and budget. Monitoring also helps with determining what strategies work well, under what conditions, and any lessons learned to avoid similar mistakes in the future.
It is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure that they comply with the DOT requirements and to the best extent possible provide a safe and efficient work zone. If issues arise such as increased crashes or problems with construction vehicle access, mitigation measures will be needed. The Agency should review the phasing changes to determine if they will adversely affect work zone impacts. Major TMPs are implemented for projects where significant traffic impacts are anticipated and multiple TMP strategies are required to manage impacts.
Development of the TMP is designed to mitigate, to the greatest extent possible, safety and mobility impacts to workers and the public. A State needs to adopt a process that best suits its needs and achieves the goals of work zone safety and mobility. Not only is this an infringement of the contract, but it often severely disrupts peak hour traffic flow.
Would the new phasing result in changes to lane closures that increase queues, or temporary alignment changes that cause access issues?
To avoid this, many States have penalty clauses that can range from a few hundred dollars to over five thousand dollars per every 15 minutes of extension into the peak hour.



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