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Published 31.05.2014 | Author : admin | Category : Wood Boat Plans

To make the best decision, it helps to be educated about how carriers charge for international shipping. Considering these four factors should help you make the best decision for your cargo shipment.
Devin Burke, Universal Cargo CEOWith over 25 years experience in the shipping industry, Devin offers up his wisdom on the keyboard and in front of the camera. Brian Chan, The Green LogisticianSince 2003, Brian has been a logistician at UCM and promotes green practices in the shipping industry on his Green Logistician blog.
Jared Vineyard, UCM Content CreatorResearches and posts shipping related articles and creator of Super Shipping. Most of the worlda€™s goods travel around the world on the same routes traced by ships for centuries. The view from the bridge aboard the CMA CGM Christophe Colomb, one of the worlda€™s largest container ships. For almost a month in December, writer Maya Jasanoff, above, journeyed aboard the vessel from Hong Kong to Southampton. During the passage through the Suez Canal, salesmen were allowed on board to offer these souvenirs and other useful items for sale to the crew. On Christmas Eve, as the Christophe Colomb floated in the English Channel in the wake of a buffeting storm (Force 11, one step below a hurricane), we received permission to dock in Southampton a€” the last ship in before the port closed for a two-day holiday. Yet as we glided into Southampton in the setting sun, I was pulled up short by the realization that this port visit would be my last.
In order to catch one of the last trains out of town before Christmas, I disembarked hastily, as soon as we moored. Before I set out on my voyage in November, a wise and well-traveled friend advised me that I would read less than half what I expected, but that I would never be bored and would return with my notebooks full.
I come away from my weeks at sea thinking afresh about key elements that structure human experience: time, space, nature, society.
I also leave my journey with thanks and admiration for the work done by sailors, and heartfelt appreciation toward the captain and crew of the Christophe Colomb for such a warm welcome.
I knew I had signed up for unpredictability of this sort when I started this voyage, and although I had planned on a more comfortable Christmas than getting buffeted in the Atlantic with bad weather and worse food, if we do end up here all week, I can chalk it up to "experience." I still have some of my own diversions left, including a few precious unwatched episodes of "Breaking Bad," and my radio is picking up the calming voices of BBC Radio 4. The men who work here signed up for this too, but this week it is easy to see its personal cost. Since coming on board the a€?Christophe Colomb,a€? Ia€™ve woken up in China, Malaysia, Egypt and Morocco, without ever leaving my bedroom. The Filipinos spend up to nine months at a stretch at sea and, to a man, describe their decisions to work here as a way to help out their families: They bind themselves to liberate their kids.
Toward the end of the year, a ship crossing the Indian Ocean and bound for the Suez Canal received some bad news.
I was particularly excited to transit the Suez Canal on the a€?Christophe Colomb,a€? thanks to my mothera€™s story and the canala€™s place in modern history. I got up as we slid into the canal from the Red Sea, with the dawn light stabbing straight through my porthole. Being in the high-risk area had little impact on my routine on the a€?Christophe Colomb,a€? except that this also happened to be the warmest, sunniest and calmest part of the sea wea€™d sailed on so far. In a€?Ninety Percent of Everything,a€? a searing recent investigation of the container-shipping industry, British journalist Rose George caustically notes, a€?People love pirates. Yet even in the citadel a€” a concrete response to the reality of pirate violence a€” comedy crept back in.
The a€?Christophe Colomba€? is 1,199 feet long, which means that a few laps around the deck amounts to a pretty substantial walk.
For the smoothest circuit around the deck, when I reach the stern, I ought to go down a metal staircase from the upper deck. Ita€™s from here that I get my second heart-stopping view: down onto the churning, seething wake behind us. A couple of guys sat in swivel chairs, another five or six relaxed with their feet up on the couch. Readers may have noticed that I have not said anything about my fellow travelers on the Christophe Colomb.
Every day I go down to Deck B, turn right at the mouth of the stairs, walk past a poster of Klimta€™s a€?The Kissa€? and a wall map of a€?The World of CMA CGMa€? and push open the heavy door to the Officer Mess Room. The officers walk down together from the a€?Officer Recreation Rooma€? upstairs, dressed for the occasion in white shirts with shoulder tabs, blue trousers (jeans permitted) and loafers. There are always two baskets of baguettes wrapped in white cloth napkins and an assortment of bottles: oil and vinegar, two brands of soy sauce, two kinds of Tabasco, Sriracha, ketchup and a suspicious yellow salad dressing. We are served by a white-jacketed steward, in hierarchical order: first the captain and me, then the chief officer and chief engineer, the second and third engineers and finally the two cadets, at the far end of the table.
Our next destination was Singapore, an "ad hoc call'' added (to my great delight) to the regular schedule. Singapore's multiculturalism remains as pronounced today as it was when Joseph Conrad made Singapore a regular port of call. Yet, as I returned to the ship I was reminded of how every geography is culturally, economically and physically constructed.
Malaysia's Port Kelang, our last stop before crossing the Indian Ocean, is one of the newest megacenters of global shipping. PORT OF CHIWAN, China a€”A My first leg on the Christophe Colomb might have been faster by car, since our destination, Chiwan, is adjacent to Hong Kong. The route that brings our European ship to the southern Chinese coast has long roots, however. In the early 1800s, the British landed on a trade good that the Chinese would purchase: opium, grown in India. Arguably the greatest transformation between the China trade of yesteryear and now is the way that ita€™s packed.
Now, it takes as little as one minute (I timed it) for the giant dockside cargo cranes to pluck a container weighing up to 30 tons from the quay and sweep it into place on a ship. Port calls rarely take more than 24 hours, and since container ports are often far from city centers, for sailors today ita€™s often not worth paying for a taxi and negotiating in foreign languages and currencies for just a couple of hours on shore. As a business person, you consider the bottom line and as an individual, you have a budget. Since time is money, this factor could more than make up for a higher cost of flying cargo. While the social awareness of environmental issues can change the way the public looks at a company and affect its bottom line, we all have a responsibility of taking care of the planet on which we live.
Harvard historian Maya Jasanoff is making this journey aboard the 1,100-foot cargo ship a€?Christophe Colomb.a€? Follow her trip in photos and dispatches as she sails from Hong Kong to Southampton, England.
Capable of carrying hundreds of containers, the shipa€™s length is equal to almost four football fields.
The containers are stacked seven high, while another six to eight layers are stored below decks.
This was good news for the crew: Theya€™d be able to Skype with their families, and the Christmas presents theya€™d ordered in Southampton would arrive in time. Ia€™d grown accustomed to the rhythm of moving on, the privilege of surveying the world as we passed, the luxury of 360-degree light and space. I exchanged hurried goodbyes with my shipboard friends, clambered down the gangway as it was still swinging into place, jumped into a taxi at the port gates, and within an hour or two of floating on the globe-encircling sea, found myself chugging between English stations on a jerky train. The challenges Ia€™ve felt readjusting to life on land throw into relief everything that I experienced on the Christophe Colomb.
Being mostly cut off from land-bound contact has given me a new sense of how selective and incomplete anybodya€™s understanding of the world, beyond the limits of our own lives, can be.
Churned into surging crests, it rocks and rumbles our steel bulk, while the wind growls through the tight seals on my cabin windows and door. Plastic Christmas trees, draped with tinsel garlands, got set up in the officers' mess and the lounges. As long as the ship is unable to enter port, all of that is on hold, and I can feel the mood on the Christophe Colomb sinking. For a couple of hours it looked as though we might be able to divert to Hamburg, then return to Southampton for Dec. Ita€™s a remarkable sensation to be constantly in motion a€” some nights Ia€™ve been jerked awake in my bed by the boata€™s rolling with the waves a€” yet at the same time very constrained, with nowhere to go but up and down the linoleum staircase, around and around the deck.
They say the money is so good (most earn $1,000 to $3,500 per month) that youa€™d have to be a bank manager or CEO in the Philippines to match it. The cook has a 2-year-old son who was conceived on board the a€?Christophe Colomba€?A during a 12-day visit by his wife. There was trouble in the canal zone, and the ship and its passengers would have toA travel around the Cape of Good Hope instead, a detour of many days. All day, I wandered around the ship for views of the brown, sandy scene, dotted with bright orange military observation posts and the occasional plantation of palm trees.
Maritime Trade Operations office in Dubai, which oversees regional commercial shipping and acts as a liaison with military forces a€” has produced a manual for merchant ships called a€?Best Management Practices for Protection Against Somalia Based Piracy,a€? now in its fourth edition.
The captain produced a lounge chair from a store cupboard so I could sunbathe on the south-facing side of the ship. They are cartoons and thought harmless.a€? Like Johnny Depp in eyeliner or cute trick-or-treaters on Halloween. 12, just off the Somali coast, the skies were clear, the sea was calm a€” perfect weather for pirates.
I had great visions, before I boarded, of taking long walks or even runs, gazing out to sea beneath the dome of a great open sky.

On the next level down there is an open space strewn with ropes as thick as my leg a€” and equipped with a basketball hoop, where the Filipino crew members play every Sunday afternoon, weather permitting. Leaving the officers' bar on Deck C, where Ia€™d enjoyed a nightcap perched on one of the high green pleather bar seats, I went down to the Crew Recreation Room on the port side of Deck B.
The men handed microphones up and down the room, singing sentimental pop songs, while on the screen the words popped up against images of home: waterfalls, beaches, folk festivals.
After we ran through the vitals (my age, my marital status, have I been on a ship before), he asked, a€?So what do you do every day? There is open access to the bridge on the Christophe Colomb, and there is always an officer on watch duty: The day is divided into four-hour shifts, with three officers taking two turns each. Indeed, if anything it's increased, as the Filipino crew on the Christophe Colomb can explain: Some have friends and family who work here, just as they do in Hong Kong.
In the 19th century, Singapore appeared to be central in a British imperial system dedicated to trading opium and tea between India and China. It stretches for nearly four miles along a strip of coast about 25 miles from Kuala Lumpur. It forms part of the port of Shenzhen, which has been transformed in just one generation from a modest provincial town into a sprawling manufacturing and commercial powerhouse.
In the 18th century, Westerners came to purchase coveted Chinese silk, porcelain and tea, and paid for it in silver. Soon the British East India Company became one of the biggest narcotics dealers in world history. Ita€™s common for a ship like the Christophe Colomb to sail from Europe stacked with empty containers, with little to offer China but lots to bring back. In his brilliant history of containerization, a€?The Box,a€? economist Marc Levinson makes a convincing case for the shipping container as an invention that truly changed the world, transforming global distribution, markets and labor.
Of all these choices, the most basic is the decision of what kind of transport to use: air freight or ocean freight. Naturally, youa€™re going to want to know which will cost you less, air freight or ocean freight. While the actual shipment cost of sea freight is usually cheaper than the shipment cost of air freight, the warehousing fees at seaports are many times more expensive than those at airports. Many sea shipments can take around a month to arrive while an air shipment takes a day or two.
Air freight shipping has a much, much shorter history than ocean freight shipping, yet air freight tends to win the battle of reliability. I kept in frequent e-mail and Facebook contact with the crew, eager for their reports on Christmas festivities on board.
I read a little more than half of what I brought, watched fewer than half my videos, listened to just a handful of podcasts. Traveling relatively slowly has let me appreciate the richness of unpressured, open-ended time. We're stuck, adrift off the Isle of Wight, unable to enter the port of Southampton a€” where I am going to disembark a€” due to severe gales.
The Filipino members of the crew celebrate primarily on Christmas Eve, I've learned, and one of the FilipinoA officers took charge of organizing entertainment for the occasion. Not plausible, given that Christmas would be in the English Channel, and that even in the (much calmer, warmer) Mediterranean the sailors worked outdoors with heavy jackets over their coveralls and T-shirts wrapped around their heads against the cold.
It already took a beating this weekend, on a rough passage across the Bay of Biscay, where 16 meters of swell and waves battered the ship and everything in it.
Every day since Ia€™ve been here, Ia€™ve watched the water reach, swell, push and churn around us, and Ia€™ve felt lifted by it. As in the military, the sailors on board leave their homes and families for extended periods in a potentially dangerous workplace a€” an overwhelmingly male environment with ranks and uniforms and tight restrictions on personal space, actions and rights. When Ia€™ve asked the French officers how they ended up choosing this career, some have alluded in general terms to the chance to travel, but more often they say that since their contracts are three months on, three months off, a half-year of work at sea buys a half-year of freedom a€?sur terrea€? (on land).
Egypta€™s ruler, Khedive Ismail, celebrated in extravagant style, commissioning Giuseppe Verdi to write the opera a€?Aidaa€? and building a palace for the empress of France.
Every one of these men receives a a€?gifta€? of cigarette cartons, according to an informally established tariff.
It begins by describing the modus operandi of Somali pirates and outlining recommended protection measures.
On deck, I noticed four of the rear fire hoses mounted on the railings, poised to blast away would-be boarders. If pirates cana€™t find anybody to take hostage, the captain told me, then theya€™ll usually leave in a matter of hours. The idea is that while the pirates are on board, we will all be here inside buying and selling the Champs ElyseesA and Gare du Nord.a€? Maybe Somali piracy lends itself to comedy because no serious military, diplomatic or economic response has yet managed (or seems likely) to eradicate it. Walking around the deck turns out to be about as charming as walking through a parking structure.
Our engine displaces thousands of cubic feet of water per second, and herea€™s the shattering consequence. The layout is much the same as the officers' equivalent a€” therea€™s a bar with six swivel chairs anchored to the floor, a long banquette-style couch, a couple of coffee tables and a large flat-screen TV. The tables were strewn with cans of Coke and San Miguel beer, a bottle of brandy, bags of salty snacks from China and bright green-and-red cans of Pringles.
The officers and crew have given me a warm welcome, and Ia€™ve been getting to know many of them during my days on board. If so, it seemed like the perfect soundtrack as I headed out for my first days in the open sea on the Christophe Colomb, the container ship on which I am traveling from China to Europe.
Since its founding in 1819 as a British colonial trading center, the city has been a commercial hub and cosmopolitan crossroads, with a diverse population of Malays, Chinese, Indians and Europeans.
In the six hours I spent on shore, I circuited the serene, incense-scented, air-conditioned, Chinese-built Temple of the Buddha's Tooth.
More recently, Singapore reasserted its hub status by building a container port that has for decades been one of the largest in the world. I got off the ship and had dinner in the dockworkers' canteen, crowded with men in fluorescent green vests eating plates of cheap, tasty Malay and Indian curries, using the free Wi-Fi and watching a sensational nature documentary on TV. Concerned about the drain of coinage, they tried a€” unsuccessfully a€” to find commodities that the Chinese would accept instead. When the Qing Dynasty tried to suppress this toxic trade, the British brought in the gunboats, crushing opposition, winning colonial possession of Hong Kong and forcing open Chinese markets. A trolley slides across the beams of the loading crane, and drops a set of claws over a container that has been driven into place on a truck. Whether youa€™re a business that will be shipping overseas all the time or an individual moving to a new country, deciding whether to go with ocean freight or air freight is an important choice.
Sea carriers charge per container rates for shipping in standard containers (20a€™ and 40a€™ being the most common sizes). Flights get delayed by weather and other factors, but airlines tend to be very on top of their schedules. I kept waking up in the night thinking that my bed was moving, and confused to find that it was not. Ringed all day and night by the sea and the sky, I appreciate more both the scale and the power of the ocean and the power of humankind to cross it. Because the port will be closed for Christmas and Boxing Day, and because of the long queue of ships waiting to get in ahead of us, and because of the instructions from company headquarters in Marseille that no ship be quayside on Christmas (it's expensive), we may be floating here until at least Dec.
Then he suggested a buffet, stocked with a series of dishes more or less like what we eat every day. When I try to photograph the ocean or describe it in my journal, Ia€™m more than ever aware of how every art form is a kind of translation. Of course, many people find comfort in routines, and being inside this box also means being safe in the middle of a deadly environment a€” drowning, sharks, hypothermia, dehydration. Red plastic panels were set up over the low openings at the stern to resist grappling hooks.
Ita€™s essentially a tunnel, one person wide, with containers stacked all along the side and overhead.
I can walk right up into the shipa€™s gently pointed prow, step onto a low grille and look at the sea unbroken, stretching limitlessly ahead. But you can tell the culture is different from the moment you cross the threshold scattered with plastic sandals. At the far end of the couch a heavily tattooed and muscled sailor in a Barcelona football jersey held a microphone in his hand and belted out a love song.
He invited me to sit there on my first night, much to my relief, instead of at the passengersa€™ place, a small, lonely table in the corner. Two blue plastic envelopes hold the daily menu with a photo and ship-related announcements on the left-hand page (a€?16:15 Abandon ship instruction in ship office,a€? a€?Tonight turn your watches one hour backwardsa€?), and the description of todaya€™s meals on the right. He keeps things going minus any a€?newsa€? in a community thata€™s been largely cut off from the world for weeks. I heard a clamor of horns and drums summon worshippers through the gates of the Hindu Sri Mariamman Temple for evening prayers and kept walking past the lime-green Chulia Mosque. But as ships get bigger, and economies realign, even longstanding or seemingly "natural" configurations can change. The Qianlong emperor dismissed one British ambassador, who came bearing the latest inventions of the Industrial Revolution, saying that he had no use for such baubles and whirligigs.
In the 1860s the French company Messageries Maritimes began running a regular Hong Kong service a€” continued today by its successor, CMA CGM, the company that owns the Christophe Colomb. When Joseph Conrad sailed around Asia, cargo operations could take weeks, with every sack, every crate, every log, every vat, maneuvered in and out by human muscle power.

The claws clamp the box, swing it up, glide forward into position over the deck, and drop the box into place. I walked down rows of interchangeable shops selling knockoff sneakers and basketball jerseys, cigarettes, alcohol and tea, smartphones and MP3 players.
While weight can factor into the price from sea carriers, their charge tends to be based more on the size of a shipment.
When it comes to the individual moving a household, it is often good to have the extra time to prepare for the arrival of household goods in a new country. This causes cargo shipping by air to have a much larger carbon fingerprint than cargo shipping by sea.
Provisions had run out and the treadmill had broken, making unsatisfying meals even worse and exercise still harder to come by, Ia€™d been ruing the prospect of a Christmas spent adrift, waiting for the port to reopen. When I visited the British Museum one morning in London, I felt dizzy and bewildered by the crowds.
Though I did not end up writing anything about Joseph Conrad while I was at sea, I filled two journals with my thoughts and took more than a thousand photos. I understand land, as never before, to be the margin of an ocean that dominates the planet.
The captain countered with foie gras, roast turkey and bA»che de NoA«l, for which he already had a recipe downloaded. Though at first blush so flat, featureless, monochromatic, the sea during these weeks has taught me to see more finely, to follow light, texture and movement. The trouble was that the old imperial powers, Britain and France, wanted it back and invaded the canal zone to seize it a€” though they were forced to back down by the U.S. I bought a couple of tchotchkes from the souvenir seller and tried to chat with the pilots. European merchant ships, including the a€?Christophe Colomb,a€? do not generally have armed guards or guns, so other tactics are needed to prevent pirates from boarding and seizing personnel. Down by the starboard lifeboat, the Filipino crew members erected a spit made from what looked like a repurposed gear shaft and slowly roasted a suckling pig over an oilcan. While I was sunbathing, I watched one navy ship maneuver between two creeping tankers, likely acting as escort. I wona€™t reveal its location, for safety reasons, but I will say that being inside was about what Ia€™d imagine it would feel like to be locked in a bank vault. Every seven paces or so along the rail side, therea€™s a pylon with a ladder or bars jutting into the walkway, and the ground is studded with gray-painted posts. The sea meets the ship, splits against the bow and crests back to strike the hull in strong retorts.
The explosive frenzy makes me think less of water than of fire, of a mushroom cloud surging out of catastrophe. Although there are Filipino officers onboard as well as Filipino crew, de facto, the division between the officer and crew mess and recreation rooms translates into a division between French and Filipino. Therea€™s only so far these men will dig into personal reminiscence at the dinner table and only so far that talk of future ports or a homecoming can go. Then it broke free in a full-throated, grinding roar that seemed to rise and fall with the sea itself.
I stopped in to one of the fabulously varied hawker centers (food courts), which make Singapore such an exciting culinary destination and I continued up to the Singapore River to the colonial-era General Post Office, now a hotel with a plaque commemorating Conrad outside.
China and neighboring Malaysia have both been building ports far better able to handle today's supercapacity container ships. One thing is for sure: Wherever there is seaborne trade, there will be a kind of cosmopolitanism.
How to load a ship was one of a senior officera€™s biggest challenges: It could make the difference between a profitable and an unprofitable voyage, a slow or a fast passage, and even life and death. If you are shipping less than a container load, your price is often determined by cubic meter. It should be noted that technology keeps moving forward in the international shipping world. However, considering oil spills and the water ecosystems affected by ocean freight, gives pause.
Outdoors, it seemed that everywhere I looked there was something getting in the way of the sky.
I learned about individuals, an industry and a way of life a€” and got to polish up my French for good measure. They all prefer Marlboro Gold to Red and dona€™t like the packages that have gruesome pictures of cancerous lungs a€” but theya€™ll take what they get. The manual suggests stringing razor wire or electric fences along the railings and setting up a€?well constructed dummies a€¦ at strategic locationsa€? to look like sailors keeping watch.
Officers and crew (and passenger) drank Tiger beer and ate grilled meat and sang karaoke late into the breezy, twinkling night.
Our entry in the computerized Automatic Information System, which transmits information among ships about each vessela€™s cargo, destination, etc., was deliberately scrambled. In the evening, a charcoal-gray patrol boat cruised by as I photographed a blazing orange sunset. A set of utility shelves holds two daysa€™ worth of bottled water and emergency food rations, a stack of inflatable mattresses with air pumps, a chemical toilet in a box and several dozen rolls of toilet paper. Usually Ia€™m too busy dodging and ducking obstructions to focus much on the glimpses of sea. Ita€™s here that I feel most powerfully the oceana€™s force, commanding even in its serenity.
Here I feel the power of humanity as Ia€™ve rarely felt it before a€” awesome, transformative, destructive. Out of respect for their privacy and professional integrity, I am treating my sources as anonymous, and limiting my reporting to incidents and conversations that relate directly to my own experience. At least the food changes twice a day a€” even if ita€™s only from rice to potatoes and back. I realized it was the containers, scraping against one another as they rolled with the ship.
Though I've visited Singapore before and delighted in all these things, I've never felt as transported as I did stepping into its bustle from my confined, if mobile, home on the Christophe Colomb. And as these ships have already started exceeding the limits of the Suez and Panama Canals (the Christophe Colomb, for instance, surpasses Panamax, the maximum size for a ship that can traverse the Panama Canal), soon the Strait of Malacca may be superseded by ships that exceed Malaccamax, and search out alternate routes. For sailors, this drawn-out process had the benefit of long shore leaves, to indulge in the notorious delights of foreign ports. The chief officer monitors the process on a panel of computer screens, ensuring an appropriate distribution of cargo weight against ballast. For many, a day or two here or there doesna€™t hurt; however, for many businesses, a day or two could have serious cost effects. Even a country landscape seemed to have too much going on, too much clutter, too many trees, roads, houses, sheep. We exited the canal as the sun set, bathing the Mediterranean in a gorgeous pink-gray twilight. Up on the bridge, four bulletproof vests and helmets had been laid out a€” albeit made of metal, not Kevlar (lightweight but expensive), and weighing a good 20 pounds.
Two French navy ships on patrol made radio contact with the a€?Christophe Colomba€? to check in. About halfway along the length of the ship, the exhaust kicks in a€” a sticky, metallic tang so strong, I can smell it without inhaling. He has no idea whata€™s in the containers, of course a€” only which ones need to be refrigerated, and which ones contain hazardous materials.
As a shipment gets smaller, the margin between the prices gets smaller and sometimes air will even end up less expensive. With airlines, there are usually daily flights back and forth between major cities around the world.
With so many options suddenly available to me for how to spend my time, I felt indecisive and overwhelmed by choice. Suez became a linchpin for British imperial defense and trade and remains a central artery of international shipping. Therea€™s also, critically, a satellite phone, with emergency phone numbers posted next to it a€” though this arrived a year after everything else. There are many ocean freight shipments crossing the oceans and being delivered in as few as 8 days. When I heard how much the a€?Christophe Colomba€? was paying to transit Suez a€” $800,000 a€” Nassera€™s desire to wrest control of the canal made more sense than ever. At the entrance to the canal, the ship is joined by a boat carrying the first pilot, the shipa€™s agent and an electrician. All ships transiting Suez are required to have two special projectors installed at the front, in case they traverse the canal in the dark.
Big ships like this one are expected to have a specially designated cabin to accommodate this Suez crew. The first pilot directs the ship through the opening stretch to Suez proper, about 30 minutes away. They get off and are replaced by one or two more pilots, who guide the ship to Port Said, the canala€™s eastern terminus.

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