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Published 26.10.2013 | Author : admin | Category : Wooden Yachts

General Comments:The 44' express design is the fourth boat I have collaborated with Memory Yachts on, first the 38', then the Displacement 43', a 29' Express, and now the new 44 Express. The beam is less than that of most contemporary yachts, and this is for a number of reasons. Her bottom is a modern modified-V, with deadrise decreasing from 23 degrees amidships to 12 degrees at the transom.
The hull and deck are molded fiberglass, the interior layout and bulkhead placement are owner's choice.
Nautical & Sailing Terms & Phrases, Terminology & Nomenclature for Sailing, Sailboating, and Sailboarding. One of the most exhaustive and easily understood glossaries of sailboarding (windsurfing) and sailboating terms & nomenclature anywhere on the web.
Abaft - a relative position toward the stern of a vessel from another object; as, "abaft the forward hatch". Absolute Bearing - the bearing of an object in relation to North; either True North or Magnetic North. Abyss - that volume of ocean that is profoundly deep or lying below about 300 fathoms from surface. Acoustic Navigation - the use of a sonic depth finder to gauge water depth and bottom features for information to determine a ship's location. Admiralty Pattern Anchor or Admiralty Anchor - an older (1840's), but very good anchor design that features long arms with a long iron stock set perpendicular to the arms and at the top end of the shank. After Bow Spring Line - a mooring line fixed to the bow of the boat and leading aft where it is attached to the dock. After-Sails - all sail which are extended on the mizen-mast, and on the stays between the mizen and main-mast. Agonic Line - an imaginary line on the earth's surface where there is no magnetic declination in relation to True North and South. Age of Sail - the period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships. Aid to Navigation - a marker or device external to your craft, designed to assist in determination of position of the craft, or of a safe course, or to warn of dangers. America's Cup - The America's Cup race, dating from 1851, is the oldest trophy in sailing and is considered yacht racing's Holy Grail. Amidships - the middle of the boat; either along the longitudinal centerline, or halfway from bow to stern, but not necessarily both.
Formerly the largest and strongest anchor was the sheet anchor (hence, best hope anchor or last refuge anchor), called also waist anchor. Stock - a crossmember, spar, or rod, that rolls the anchor into an attitude that enables the flukes to dig into the sea bed.
Anchor's Acockbill - when the anchor is suspended perpendicularly from the cathead, ready to be let go.
Anchor's Apeak - when the anchor cable is drawn in so tight as to bring the ship directly over it. Anchor Buoy - a small buoy secured by a light line to an anchor to indicate position of the anchor on bottom. Angle of Attack - the angle between the chord of a sail and the relative wind or between the chord of a hydrofoil such as a keel or rudder and a vector line representing the true path through the water, taking the amount of sideslip or leeway into account. Antarctic Convergence - an irregular line of demarcation in the southern ocean, mostly between 45A° and 60A° south, along which northward moving Antarctic waters meet sub-Antarctic waters and sink below them with little or no mixing. Anti-Fouling - a type of paint or other coating for the under-water hulls of vessels that is resistant to barnacles, moss, seaweed, Teredo worms, marine grass and various other plant and animal life that would want to adhere to a vessel's hull and slow or damage the hull.
Apparent Wind - the direction and velocity of the wind relative to the speed and direction of the boat which is derived from the True Wind and Wind of Motion.
Argos - a satellite-based system which collects, processes and disseminates environmental data from fixed and mobile transmitters and receivers worldwide. Astronomical Almanac - a catalogue of tables showing the location of various celestial bodies at specific moments in time throughout the year; consulted by the navigator in preparation for taking sights of celestial bodies. Automatic Identification System or AIS - an automated tracking system for identifying and locating vessels by electronically exchanging data with other nearby ships and AIS Base stations. Information provided by AIS equipment, such as unique identification, position, course, speed, bearing and distance of nearby vessels in a radar-like display format. Auto Pilot - an electrical automated steering mechanism used to steer a preset course based on the apparent wind. Back Splice - an end section of rope that has been unlayed, reversed, and woven back into itself in order to keep it from unraveling and add weight to the end. Backstaff - a navigation instrument used to measure the apparent height of a landmark whose actual height is known, such as the top of a lighthouse.
Backstay - a wire or line that runs from the top of the mast to the stern to support the mast and control mast tension, rake, and bend. Backstay Bridle - a line, near the bottom of the stay that holds the mast stationary from aft, that splits the stay in two and runs to near the corners of the transom in order to allow clearance for movement of the tiller. Bad Tack - the direction of sail that pushes the lee side of the sail against the mast or sprit, thus deforming the sail and reducing its airflow significantly on lateen, lug, sprit sails, and others that have a yard that crosses forward beside the mast.
Balanced Helm - a combination of sails and rudder and mast positioning that leaves the helm with no tendency to turn either to weather or lee.
Ballantine - to flake the foresail halyards in a large coil, then three overlapping smaller coils within, then repeating. Ballast - stone, iron, gravel, or such like materials, deposited in a ship's hold, when she has either no cargo, or too little to bring her sufficiently low in the water. Ballast Keel - a heavy keel, usually cast of lead or iron, that lowers the hulls center of gravity and thus increases resistance to heeling.
Barnacle - a species of shell fish that looks like a tiny volcano and feeds by gathering nutrients on its feathery appendages called cirri, and is often found attached to the bottom of vessels, pilings, rocks, etc. Bathyscaphe - a relatively small, maneuverable, submersible vessel specially constructed to withstand enormous pressure and used to explore the deep ocean floor. Bathysphere - a hollow sphere heavily built of steel alloy and designed to withstand enormous outside pressure, used to carry observers to the deep ocean floors. Batten Pocket - pockets in the roach and trailing edge of the leech of a sail to slide battens into, to stiffen the sail, and in some cases, running from the roach to the luff. Batten Seam - a method of construction used for double planking wooden boats in which the lighter weight inboard planks are placed parallel to the outboard planks, but offset so that the seams and joints are covered. Beach Start - a technique for getting underway by stepping directly on a sailboard, boom in hand, in knee-deep water without uphauling.
Beacon - Beacons are aids to navigation that are permanent structures attached to the bottom of a body of water, not floating or may be structures on shore. Bearing - the position of one object relative to True North, Magnetic North, or to another object. Bear Off or Bearing Away - to turn the bow of the vessel further away from the Eye of the Wind. Beating - sailing close hauled through a series of tacks in order to get straight upwind of your original position.
Beating Straps - footstraps that are parallel to the centerline of a sailboard and located nearest to the centerboard trunk or case.
Beaufort Scale - a numerical scale for indicating wind speed, named after Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, who devised it in 1806. Beginner Board - these sailboards have a daggerboard, are almost as wide as Formula boards, and have plenty of volume, hence stability.
Beginner Jibe (Gybe) - a low speed sailboard jibe in which the sailboard enters and exits the turn at non-planing speed that involves turning the board by moving the sail forward to initiate the turn downwind, moving the feet to near the centerline of the sailboard to avoid tipping the board and falling into the water, flipping the clew of the sail around the mast toward the bow of the board, moving the hands to the other side of the wishbone boom, leaning the mast back to complete the turn, then moving the feet into position on the other side of the board; in that order. Belaying Pin - rods of iron or hard wood that are inserted into a hole in a rail, to which running rigging may be secured, or belayed. Bell Buoy - a floating navigation aid, anchored in place and having a bell mounted in the framework with a free-swinging clapper which sounds the bell as the buoy rolls in the seas. Bermudan Rig - A triangular mainsail, without an upper spar, which is hoisted up the mast by a single halyard attached to the head of the sail.
Bernoulli Effect - the function of fluid dynamics that tends to draw together two ships that are moving side by side   2. Bibbs - a sturdy set of timbers, attached to the mast at the hounds, which support the trestletrees on a wooden mast.
Bilgeboard - a lifting foil used in a sailboat, which resembles a cross between a leeboard and a centerboard.
Bilge Keel - a non-moving stabilizer consisting of a pair (one on each side) of small keels or fins extending out at approximately 45° from a vessel's hull at the turn of the bilge in order to lessen or slow the rolling of the vessel.
Bill of Health - a document provided to a ship's master by port health authorities indicating the state of health of the ship's company and of the port from which the ship is sailing, as well as other ports to which the ship intends to sail. Bill of Lading - an itemized list of all the cargo on board, issued by a shipping company as a receipt and as a customs document.

Bimini or Bimini Top - a weather-resistant fabric stretched over a frame, fastened above the cockpit of a sailboat or flybridge of a power yacht which serves as a rain or sun shade. Binding Knot - a knot that may be used to keep an object or multiple loose objects together, using a string or a rope that passes at least once around them. Blackstrake - a strip of extra planking fastened outboard on the hull as chafing gear and protection against impact damage.
Block - a pulley; the complete assembly of sheaves (grooved wheels), axels, and shell (side plates). Handy Billy - a loose block and tackle with a hook or tail on each end, which can be used wherever it is needed. Turning Blocks - horizontally or vertically mounted blocks used to redirect lines on or to the deck (as from the mast to the cockpit).
Block and Tackle - an arrangement of two or more pulleys (blocks), and ropes and hooks (tackle), used to reduce the amount of force needed to move heavy loads.
While rigging to advantage is obviously the most efficient use of equipment and resources, there are several reasons why rigging to disadvantage may be more desirable. The mechanical advantage of a block and tackle is equal to the number of parts (falls) in the line, that either attach to or run through the MOVING block, counting both upward and downward moving lines. The mechanical advantage of a block and tackle is relevant, because it dictates how much easier it is to haul or lift your load.
P is the power gained by the purchase (this is the same as the number of parts at the moving block).
Boarding Party - a group of people organized to go on board a vessel to attack or inspect, usually bearing arms.
Boat - 1.a watercraft of small to modest size designed to float or plane on water, and provide transport over or through it. Boatswain's Pipe or Bosun's Call (Pronounced "Bosun") - a pipe that is made of a tube (called the gun), that directs air over a grape-sized metal sphere (called the buoy) with a hole cut in the top (called the hole). Bobstay - a stay attached to the bottom of the bowsprit and to the bow to hold the bowsprit down and counteract the force of the forestay. Bonnet - a strip of canvas laced onto the bottom of a loose footed jib in order to increase the sail area in fair weather. Booby Hatch - a small hatch through the deck of a ship with a raised frame and a sliding cover.
Boom Bra - a padded protective cover for the boom head that keeps the boom head from denting a sailboard as the mast pivots forward during a fall. Uncontrolled jibes can be violent and often damage elements of the rig, and can knock crew overboard or inflict serious and sometimes fatal injuries to crew in the path of the boom or the mainsheet and associated hardware.
Boom Clamp - a lever on the boom head of a wishbone boom that tightens around and attaches the boom to the mast of a sailboard. Boom Iron - a set of iron brackets near the outboard ends of a yard through which the studding sail boom is mounted to support studding sails out beyond the yard arm. Boom Traveler - an arrangement of a wide metal bracket or horse often mounted athwartships on the cabin top or deck under the boom to which the sheet block is secured allowing it to move to the lee side at each tack. Boom Vang - a line attached to the bottom of the boom and the mast, a short distance from the mast, that adjusts downward tension on the boom. Bottom Paint - specialized paint containing ingredients like copper and lead that are toxic to marine crustaceans and algea, applied to the bottom of boats to inhibit growth of marine life that can substantially reduce the speed and range of the vessel. Bow - the front of the boat or sailboard   See General Shipboard Directions illustration.
Bow and Quarter Line - a group of ships arranged such that each ship follows on the quarter of the ship ahead. Bowsprit Shrouds - opposing cables or chains fitted horizontally from the end of the bowsprit to chainplates on the bow's sides to support the bowsprit from side to side. Box-Hauling - a method of veering or jibing a square rigged ship, without progressing to leeward appreciably.
Boxing - an operation in sailing somewhat similar to box-hauling, but is a tack rather than wearing about or veering.
Box the Compass - To state all 32 points of the compass, starting at north, proceeding clockwise.
According to Roberts, all four have strong historical ties, economical performance, and, of course, beauty. I have used shallow propeller pockets to reduce draft, and the hull incorporates a molded keel for running gear protection. She is intended as a coastal cruiser with good accommodation for two over long periods, and there is room for two occasional guests. She will be comfortable along shore in all weather, and "stand out" beautiful in any harbor. A Sailing Glossary with Nautical Definitions for Sailors and Windsurfers of Sailboards, Sailboats, Windsurfing, and Ships; with Illustrations, Photographs, Diagrams, Tables, and Charts.
The agonic line is a line of longitude on which a compass will show true north, since where magnetic declination is zero, magnetic north coincides with geographic north. In practice, the celestial navigator will consult tables to estimate the azimuth and altitude of each star line he will attempt, and preset the sextant as an aid to identification of the star or planet. The race was originally called the Hundred Guineas Cup, presented by the British Royal Yacht Club, and raced around the Isle of Wight. The shank is fitted to the crown with (on some anchors) a pivot or ball-and-socket joint that allows a movement from 30o to 45o either way. The chain acts partially as a weight to keep the anchor lying next to the ground so that it can hold better.
Two such lights are displayed by a ship over 150 feet (46 m) in length, Also called a riding light. An abrupt change in sea temperature takes place, and with it a change in sea and bird life.
Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia, and about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1 mile (1.6 km) in thickness. The purpose is to prevent the hard chine of the boat catching a wake or small wave on a sharp turn.
Argos is unique in its ability to geographically locate the source of the data anywhere on the Earth utilizing the Doppler effect. These include: instruments carried aboard the NOAA polar orbiting environmental satellites (POES) and the EUMETSAT MetOp satellites, receiving stations around the world, and major processing facilities in France and the United States.
AIS information supplements marine radar, which continues to be the primary method of collision avoidance for water transport.
These are expensive and very susceptible to breakdown, but most handy when there is not enough wind to operate a windvane.
On some lug rigged sails, the yard can be switched to the other side, but other rigs cannot. The system is used by schoonermen to keep the halyards ready to run free in the event the sail must be doused quickly.
It is used to counter-balance the effort of the wind upon the masts, and give the ship a proper stability, that she may be enabled to carry sail without danger of capsizing. Lead is more desireable because it is denser and thus takes up less space for its weight and won't corrode; but it makes a vessel more expensive. The method creates considerable longitudinal strength, and reduces the likelihood of leaking, at the expense of greater weight.
A beacon that has a light attached is simply referred to as a light; a beacon without a light attached is called a daybeacon.
A bell buoy is usually mounted near a rock or shoal to warn of a serious danger to navigation. This configuration, introduced to Europe about 1920, allows the use of a tall mast, enabling sails to be set higher where wind speed is greater. Mounted between the centerline of the boat and the sides, they are almost always asymmetric foils mounted at an angle to maximize lateral lift while minimizing drag and are most often found on racing scows. Bilge keels on sailing yachts extend below the lowest point of the hull extending slightly outwards. Bilge keels do not have any components inside the hull that would adversely affect cargo or storage space, but do increase the drag of the vessel slightly. The procedure is a result of international agreements, with the intent to keep infectious diseases from spreading to otherwise healthy areas from the crew of visiting ships. A similar type of shelter on a boat, but with added forward and side protection, is called a Dodger. There are various binding knots, divided into two types: Friction knots are held in place by the friction between the windings of line. The decision of which to use depends on pragmatic considerations for the total ergonomics of working with a particular situation. For example, take a block and tackle with 2 sheaves on both the moving block and the fixed block.

A tackle with a mechanical advantage of 4 (a double tackle) will be able to lift 100 lbs with only 25 lbs of tension on the hauling part of the line. The linear movement of the line of a tackle refers to the relative linear movement of the hauling line to the hauled load.
The boom brake acts as a preventer when sailing downwind, and can also be used to jibe the mainsail in a slow controlled movement. With this type of convoy arrangement, each ship is clear of the wake of the ship ahead making it easier to keep up.
It is performed by heading bow to windward until most speed is lost, but steerage way is still barely maintained. It is performed by turning head to wind and backing the headsails, then, as sternway is made, reversing the helm to turn the bow down wind on the opposite side.
Twelve feet of beam would have been considered only a little fat for a 44' boat in the 1920's. Her deckhouse is a wonderful place to be, with large opening windows on all four sides and double doors opening onto the covered aft cockpit.
Although it has great holding power in a penetrable bottom it is extremely awkward and the long stock is vulnerable to mechanical damage. Then he will measure the exact altitude of the body and use that figure to calculate a line on the chart.
The winning vessel that year was the "America", and the name of the race was changed to "America's Cup". Then came the best bower and the small bower (so called from being carried on the bow of the vessel).
An anchor buoy can be a valuable asset in relocating an anchor that has been lost while weighing anchor or if the anchor has been slipped in an emergency.
Because of the amount of land mass near the pole in the northern hemisphere, there is no corresponding convergence there.
Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.
Since the early square rigged ships could not sail to weather, they had to cross to the New World on the trades or tradewinds, and return by a more Northerly route in the antitrades. This fully integrated system works to conveniently locate and deliver data from the most remote platforms to the user's desktop, often in near real-time. They are mostly found at the entrances of great rivers or havens, and often render navigation extremely dangerous and may only be crossed at high tide, but have calmer waters on the shore side. On a sailboard sail, battens are usually tapered with the fore end thinnest and may extend the full width of the sail. View a downloadable and printable US Coast Guard brochure about buoys and other aids to navigation. Early on, a beak or beakhead was often used as a ram in order to punch holes in an enemy ship at or near the waterline.
A hitch or knot tied "on the bight" is one tied in the middle of the rope, without access to the ends. When sailing, the windward bilgeboard is retracted into the hull of the boat, so that it creates no drag. Such an arrangement also enables the vessel to stand upright on firm sand or mud at dry moorings without the need for detachable legs, and is simpler than retractable fin keels while giving the hull greater protection.
In fact the bitter end is the end of the Anchor "Cable" that connects to the Anchor Bitts in the cable or chain locker under the forecastle or poop using the bitter pin.
If one compares the blocks, one will see one block will have 4 lines running through its sheaves. Other parts of the boatswain's call are the keel, a flat piece of metal beneath the gun that holds the call together, and the shackle, a keyring that connects a long silver or brass chain that sits around the collar, when in ceremonial uniform.
A vessel loaded such that its boot top is below water level is in extreme danger of either sinking or, if the overload is on or above decks, capsizing and turtling due to its new high center of gravity. The bow is then turned back downwind to the side it came from, aftermost sails are brailed up to spill the wind and to keep them from counteracting the turning force of the foresails, and the ship allowed to pivot quickly downwind without advancing.
Aftermost sails may be brailed up to keep them from counteracting the turning force of the foresails, and the ship allowed to pivot quickly downwind, then the brails released and the yards braced about again when the the wind hits the opposite quarter of the vessel to assist in turning.
These brails belong only to the two courses and the mizzen sail of a square rigged sailing vessel. Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland, yet it has huge amounts of ice due to the millions of years of accumulation. Copper itself is under increasing pressure and is already banned in some areas because it can harm other marine life, too. Argos is a key component of many global research programs including: TOGA, TOPP, WOCE, Argo, and others. Also has some similarities to the sextant, but cannot be used to take accurate observations of the nighttime stars. The boom bail reduces twist on the boom by allowing the sheet block to change angles as the boom moves from side to centerline to the opposite side of the vessel.
From the 16th to the 18th century they served as a working platform by sailors working the sails of the bowsprit, the forward-pointing mast that carries the spritsails. The leeward foil provides the lift to counter the lateral force of the sail, and converts it into forward motion. Bilge keels are not as effective as central fin keels in preventing leeway (sideways slippage) caused by crosswinds but are preferred by many small craft owners due to their other advantages. Pulling on the Fall or Hauling Part of the rope or chain slowly draws the load-bearing block toward the fixed block with high mechanical advantage (MA). The other will have 4 lines running through its sheaves (including the part of the line being pulled or hauled), with a 5th line attached to a secure point on the block. In other words, to raise a load at 1 meter, 4 meters of line must be pulled from the hauling part of the rope.
This needs to be very strong and not stretchable, so it is usually made of wire rope or heavy chain since it counteracts most of the upward and rearward pull of the foremast through the forestay. The boom clamp is a major improvement that has undergone many modifications and some current models are still much better than others. Also, if a hull is given a new coat of paint, it extremely important that its boot top be repainted at the proper height on the hull.
The technology of the poisons used has progressed from organoarsenicals and organomercurials in the 1960's to relatively harmless organic materials today which target fouling organisms without harming other marine creatures. Since the late 1980's Argos transmitters have routinely been deployed on a large number of marine mammals and sea turtles and continues to serve as the most important tool for tracking long distance movements of both coastal and oceanic species. The beakhead would be one of the most ornate sections of a ship, particularly in the extravagant Baroque-style ships of the 17th century.
The bilgeboards are angled so that as the boat heels, or leans under the force of the wind, the leeward bilgeboard becomes more vertical, and provides the most possible force in the desired direction.
If the hauling part is coming out of the fixed block, the block and tackle will have a mechanical advantage of 4. Because of its high pitch, it could be heard over the activities of the crew and bad weather. Yards are "Braced Aback" to bring the wind onto the forward side of the sail and to take way off the ship. Recent developments include "foul release" technologies in which non-stick coatings based on silicones or fluoropolymers are able to shed fouling at speeds above about 10 knots. By uploading of data from pressure transducers attached to wild animals of the oceans, it has been possible to obtain a wealth of knowledge about their diving and foraging behavior.
The sides were often decorated with carved statues and located directly underneath was the figurehead, usually in the form of animals, shields or mythological creatures. If the tackle is reversed, so that the hauling part is coming from the moving block, the mechanical advantage is now 5. They are "Braced About" to bring the ship onto the opposite tack and "Braced Abox" to bring the headyards flat aback to stop the ship. The operation of thus drawing them together, is called brailing them up, or hauling them up in the brails. The beakhead also housed the crew's toilets (head), which would drop refuse straight into the sea without sullying the ship's hull unnecessarily. They are "Braced In" to bring the yards athwartships when running and they are "Braced Sharp" or "Braced Up" to make the yards as close as possible to fore-and-aft when sailing close-hauled.

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