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1492 Sultan Bayezid II welcomes Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition; in Istanbul , the Jewish population double and Salonika becomes a major Jewish centre.
1516 - 1517 The Ottoman conquest of Palestine and Egypt leads to the strengthening of Jewish communities in their ancient homeland of Eretz Israel. 1535 Approximately 56,000 Jewish live in Istanbul,1556 Sultan Suleyman ' the Magnificent' write a letter to Pope Paul IV asking for immediate release of the Ancona Conversos whom he declared to be Ottoman citizens. 1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference.1923 The Turkish Republic is founded under the preseidency of Mustafa Kemal ATATURK . 1940s Turkey stays neutral in World War II,,1942 Wealth tax ( varlA±k vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine . ISTANBUL,After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in1453 , Sultan Mehmet II ( the Conqueor 1451-1481 ) encouraged immigration to repopulate the city. Senguler Tourism a member of Association of Turkish Travel Agencies,ISTANBUL JEWISH HERITAGE TOURS,jewish tours in istanbul,jewish heritage tours in istanbul turkey,hakan hacibekiroglu,Welcome to our IJHT web site.. From 4th Century BCE Archaelogical findings indicate Jewish settlement in the Aegean region of Anatolia.
From 220 BCE There are Jewish settlements in Sardes , Miletus , Prien , Bursa in the southeast and along the Aegean ,Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts.
1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. 1453 Following the conquest of Constantinople,Sultan Mehmet II transfers Jewish populations to their new capital . 1477 Jewish make up % 11 of the total population ( 1,647 households ) of Constantinople.. 1492 Sultan Bayezid II welcomes Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition; in Istanbul , the Jewish population double and Salonika becomes a major Jewish centre. 1516 - 1517 The Ottoman conquest of Palestine and Egypt leads to the strengthening of Jewish communities in their ancient homeland of Eretz Israel. 1556 Sultan Suleyman ' the Magnificent' write a letter to Pope Paul IV asking for immediate release of the Ancona Conversos whom he declared to be Ottoman citizens.
1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion. 1870s The French Jewish school network Alliance Israelite Universelle expands throughout the Ottoman Empire in cities with large Jewish populations with a mission to modernise the Jewish communities of the East. 1881 Despite an official Ottoman policy against the modern migration of Jews to Palestine,Russian Jews are welcomed to migrate to the heartland of Ottoman Anatolia (Asia Minor ) where they set up farming communities lasting until World War I .
1908 The Young Turk revolution is supported by a wide coalition of Muslims,Jews,Armenians and Greek who unite under the French slogan of liberte,egalite and fraternite against Sultan Abdulhamid II. 1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference. 1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities.
1934 As a result of pogroms in Edirne and Canakkale the majority of the Jews A±f Thrace migrate to Istanbul. 1942 Wealth tax ( varlA±k vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine . 1948 Israel declares independence leading to continuous immigration throughtout the following years. 1989 The Quincentennial Foundation made up of Turkish Jews and Muslims is established three years before the 500th anniversary of Sephardi life in Ottoman lands and Turkey.
1990s Relations between Turkey and Israel become stronger when a strategic military bond between the two countries emerges. 1994 A modern Jewish school in Ulus opens its doors replacing the former school located in the old Jewish neighbourhood of Galata..
2001 The Zulfaris Synagogue is turned into the Quincentinal Foundation Museum of Turkish Jews providing space to commemorate Jewish Life in the former Ottoman lands and the modern Turkish state. 2002 Ishak Haleva is pronounced Chief Rabbi when Rabbi David Asseo dies after serving for more than 40 years. 2003 16 November Neve Shalom and Bet Israel synagogues are attacked during Shabbat prayers killing 23 people including six Jews . 2004 The European Day of Jewish Culture opens synagogues for the first time to the general Turkish public offering musical and educational activities. New York, NY New, Get Introduced parties and get togethers Connecting New York City singles.
New York City (or NYC) -- officially, "City of New York," and affectionately known as "The Big Apple" -- is the largest city of the state of New York and in the United States, and by many measures, one of the most important cities in the world. New York is also the location of what was, according to many experts, the most devastating act of terrorism in modern history: the September 11, 2001 attack that utterly destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center and several surrounding buildings. New York has had a reputation as a crime-ridden city, partly due to the hundreds of TV and cinematic crime dramas set in it.
The current mayor of New York City is Michael Bloomberg, elected in 2001 on the Republican ticket. Although New York's harbour was first discovered by Giovanni da Verrazano during his expedition of 1524, the history of New York City properly begins with the Dutch settlement of 1624. In 1664, British ships captured the city, with minimal resistance: the governor at the time, Peter Stuyvesant, was unpopular with the residents of the city.
Several battles were fought in New York during the Revolutionary War; the British defeated George Washington's troops, and held the city until the war ended. New York was briefly the capital of the new United States of America, in 1789 and 1790, and George Washington was inaugurated as President in New York, then the nation's second largest city.
The building of the Erie Canal, in the 1820s, helped the city grow further by increasing river traffic upstate and to the west. The modern city of New York -- the five boroughs -- was created in 1898, as the merger of the cities of New York (then Manhattan and the Bronx) and Brooklyn with the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island.


The building of the New York subway, as the separate IRT and BMT systems, and the later IND, was a later force for population growth and development. The world-famous Grand Central Terminal[?] opened as the world's largest train station on February 1, 1913. As of the census of 2000, there are 8,008,278 people, 3,021,588 households, and 1,852,233 families residing in the city. The median income for a household in the city is $38,293, and the median income for a family is $41,887. I invite people using message boards saying that I prefer my guests to be 30 - 50 years old but everyone is welcome. DESCRIPTION: The YA? Chi Ta€™u (Yuji tu) [Map of the Tracks of YA? (the Great)] is one of the two oldest extant comprehensive maps of China and is engraved on the opposite side of the stone tablet that displays the Hua I Ta€™u (#218).
A brief history of the Chinese cartographic tradition will serve to reference the sources upon which these two maps have drawn, and demonstrate the remarkable antiquity and show the continuity that prevailed in Chinese cartography. It can be assumed that maps, charts and plans accompanied even very early examples of these geographical works. Apparently the rectangular grid (a coordinate system consisting of lines intersecting at equal intervals to form squares which were intended to facilitate the measurement of distance, in li), which was basic to much of the scientific cartography in China, was formally introduced in the first century A.D. Pa€™eia€™s methods are comparable to the contributions made in this regard by Ptolemy in the west; but whereas Ptolemya€™s methods passed to the Arabs and were not known again in Europe until the Renaissance, Chinaa€™s tradition of scientific cartography, and in particular that of the use of the rectangular grid, is unbroken from Pa€™ei Hsiua€™s time to the present. If the Hua I Ta€™u is the older of the Xian pair, and the more closely linked with the work of earlier cartographers, the YA?-chi Ta€™u [Map of the Tracks of YA? (the Great)] may be regarded nonetheless as the more archaic, or at least belonging to a younger tradition. A comparison of this stone engraved map from the 12th century with that of a modern map of approximately the same scale (below) demonstrates the remarkable accuracy of this unknown medieval Chinese cartographer.
A closer comparison again of the 12th century Chinese map and the accompanying modern example will show some of the same rivers flowing in different directions. Adding to the modern appearance of both of the Xian maps is the lack of the fabulous creatures, religious themes or adornment of superfluous material so common to many of the European maps of the same period. The assumption of power by the great Chin dynasty has unified space in all the six directions. These three principles are used according to the nature of the terrain, and are the means by which one reduces what are really plains and hills (literally cliffs) to distances on a plane surface.
If one draws a map without having graduated divisions, there is no means of distinguishing between what is near and what is far. But if we examine a map which has been prepared by the combination of all these principles, we find that a true scale representation of the distances is fixed by the graduated divisions.
A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. An essential prelude to any visit to any synagogue in Turkey is contact with the Jewish Heritage tour company in Istanbul .
Jewish communities were invited to take up residence at HaskA¶y on the eastern bank of the Golden Horn. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor. They find a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.The Jews greet the Ottomans as saviours.
Some Jews and other non-Muslims are forced to work in labour camps to pay off debts to the Government. Louis Fishman is assistant professor of Middle East history at Brooklyn College City University of New York.
The city is probably the world's most important financial center, and one of the most important cultural centers of the Western world. Each borough elects a Borough President, but under the current city charter, the Borough President's powers are limited--he or she has a small discretionary budget to spend on projects within the borough.
The population of the City of New York is more than eight million (2000 US Census), with the population of the entire metropolitan area at around 20 million. Residents generally refer to New York City (or just Manhattan) as "New York" or "the city". In fact, the city has a high crime rate compared to the United States of America at large, but a relatively low rate compared to other North American cities. Bloomberg had come to prominence as an expert on Wall Street, which had brought him great wealth, but the mayoralty is his first political office. His bid for United States Senator from New York State was aborted by treatment for cancer and controversy over his affair with Judith Nathan. That town, at the southern tip of Manhattan, was called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), and was the main city of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands.
The British renamed the colony New York, after James II of England, who sponsored the takeover and who was at that time the Duke of York.
Patrick's Day was celebrated in New York City for the first time at the Crown and Thistle Tavern on March 17, 1756. By 1835 Manhattan overtook Philadelphia as the most populous city and established itself as the financial and mercantile capital of the western hemisphere. The song gave its name to a film directed by Martin Scorsese (see New York, New York (film)[?]). Also their orientation to the North (true of all Sung Dynasty maps that have survived) contributes to the allusion. So also the reality of the relative positions is attained by the use of paced sides of right-angled triangles; and the true scale of degrees and figures is reproduced by the determinations of high and low, angular dimensions, and curved or straight lines. The YA?-chi Ta€™u shows this river following a course to the North of its present one, but that older course, in one of the northern valleys, is perfectly reasonable. They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital. Under Sultan Beyazit II ( 1481-1512 ) Jews persecuted in Spain and Portugal were encouraged to establish themselves in the Ottoman Empire.


A Turkish militant Islamic group claims responsibility for the attacks but the level of sophistication suggest involvement of international terror organizations. The United Nations headquarters is in New York City, giving some credence to the city's self-designation as "capital of the world".
In addition, New York has been growing safer for most of the last decade--FBI data indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1967.
Bloomberg had been a Democrat until only a short time earlier, but switched to the Republican Party to run for mayor, in order to avoid a crowded Democratic primary.
He handled the aftermath of the World Trade Center disaster well, providing much-needed leadership, and greatly increased his popularity. The Dutch origins can still be seen in many names in New York City, such as Brooklyn (from Breukelen), Harlem (from Haarlem), The Bronx (from Pieter Bronck) and Staten Island. The city grew northward, and remained the largest and most important city in the colony of New York.
This holiday has since become a yearly city-wide celebration that is famous around the world as the St. A nearly pure form of capitalism created a large upper-middle and upper class, but its need for manpower encouraged immigration on an unprecedented scale, with mixed results.
Professors Needham and Ling, writing in their excellent multi-volume Science and Civilisation in China, assert, with ample justification, that this latter map is a€?the most remarkable cartographic work of its age in any culturea€?.
If one has a rectangular grid, but has not worked upon the tao li principle, then when it is a case of places in difficult country, among mountains, lakes or seas (which cannot be traversed directly by the surveyor), one cannot ascertain how they are related to one another.
Thus even if there are great obstacles in the shape of high mountains or vast lakes, huge distances or strange places, necessitating climbs and descents, retracing of steps or detoursa€”everything can be taken into account and determined. They find a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.The Jews greet the Ottomans as saviours. Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion.
Over time Judeo-Spanish would be phased out and Turkish takes hold as the Jewish communities mother tongue.1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities.
Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community. Over time Judeo-Spanish would be phased out and Turkish takes hold as the Jewish communities mother tongue. Holiday Party, Office Party, Christmas Party, Divorce Party, Cast Party, Many Types Of Events And Parties. The island of Manhattan was in some measure self-selected as a future metropolis by its extraordinary natural harbor formed by New York Bay (actually an arm of the Atlantic Ocean), the East River (actually a tidal strait) and the Hudson River, all of which are confluent at the southern tip, from which all later development spread. The famed melting pot was brought into being, from which multitudes have since arisen in the successful pursuit of the "American Dream". If one has adopted the tao li principle, but has not taken account of the high and the low the right angles and acute angles, and the curves and straight lines, then the figures for distances indicated on the paths and roads will be far from the truth, and one will lose the accuracy of the rectangular grid. When the principle of the rectangular grid is properly applied, then the straight and the curved, the near and the far, can conceal nothing of their form from us. They are now housed among a very large collection of engraved stones in the Pei Lin [the Forest of Steles or Tablets] in the Shensi Provincial Museum at Xian. 1934 As a result of pogroms in Edirne and Canakkale the majority of the Jews A±f Thrace migrate to Istanbul.
They will ask you to complete a form giving details of a reference your adress in Turkey and the dates and times you wish to visit particular synagogues,ISTANBUL,After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in1453 , Sultan Mehmet II ( the Conqueor 1451-1481 ) encouraged immigration to repopulate the city. Have The Jellin Girls Introduce You To Other Great People In New York City's Top Night Clubs.
Also of prime importance was the presence of deep fresh water aquifers near the southern tip, especially the Collect Pond[?].
But countless others failed to rise, or entire generations were forced to plough themselves under for their children or grandchildren to rise.
Rivers and mountains are named, prefectures from the past to the late 11th century are also marked. Holiday Party, Office Party, Christmas Party, Divorce Party, Cast Party, Many Types Of Events And N.Y. In the mid-1800s these antipodes could be found in the fabulously rich stretches of lower Broadway (wealth that would later take up residence on Fifth Avenue[?]) and the almost unbelievably squalid enclave of Five Points (abject poverty later to take up residence in the Lower East Side[?]).
This document was highly significant as a primary source for any cartographic effort during this and subsequent periods, which also can only be dated with certainty at least as early as the Chou Dynasty. The YA? Kung became and has remained a source of challenge and inspiration to all later generations of Chinese geographers and cartographers. In Istanbul the new immigrants settled mostly near the Balat quarter on the western bank of the Golden Horn where a Jewish community had existed since Byzantine times. Jews also settled in villages along the western shore of the Bosphorus.GALATA,The area around the Galata Tower in Beyoglu is of prime interest to visitors touring the Jewish interest sites.
The neighborhood has bustling street life the synagogues have great historical and artictic value,and all sites are within easy walking distance of one another.BALAT,This is another of the quarters in which Jews were settled after their expulsion from Spain enlarging a community which had lived here since Byzantine times. The Best Singles events in New York City Now internet Audio Personals Help Make Connections 24 hrs A Day! Though it once has as many as nineteen synagogues,only two of importance remain the famous Ahrida and the neighboring Yanbol. Today Ortakoy has become part of the Istanbul metropolis and is a fashionable place to live winter or summer.
Though the Jewish orphanage here is gone and the Historic ETZ Ahayim Synagogue building burnt in 1941 and there is stilla synagogue here and many order historic Ottoman sites in the vicinity.PRINCESS ISLANDS,Some historians say the Princes' Islands ,a half hour's voyage southeast of Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara were named for their use as a place of exile for wayward or inconvinent Byzantine princes.



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