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Ecology is distinguished from natural history, which deals primarily with the descriptive study of organisms. The scale and dynamics of time and space must be carefully considered when describing ecological phenomena.[9] In reference to time, it can take thousands of years for ecological processes to mature. Biodiversity (an abbreviation of biological diversity) describes all varieties of life from genes to ecosystems and spans every level of biological organization. Biogeographical patterns and range distributions are explained or predicted through knowledge and understanding of a species traits and niche requirements.[44] Species have functional traits that are uniquely adapted to the ecological niche.
Organisms are subject to environmental pressures, but they are also modifiers of their habitats. The ecosystem engineering concept has stimulated a new appreciation for the degree of influence that organisms have on the ecosystem and evolutionary process. This Malthusian premise provides the basis for formulating predictive theories and tests that follow. A group of conspecific individuals that is demographically, genetically, or spatially disjunct from other groups of individuals.
A group of individuals more genetically similar to each other than to other individuals, usually with some degree of spatial isolation as well.
A group of individuals within an investigator-delimited area smaller than the geographic range of the species and often within a population (as defined above). An arbitrary spatially delimited subset of individuals from within a population (as defined above). Metapopulation models have been used to explain life-history evolution, such as the ecological stability of amphibian metamorphosis in small vernal ponds. In metapopulation terminology there are emigrants (individuals that leave a patch), immigrants (individuals that move into a patch) and sites are classed either as sources or sinks. The concept of the ecosystem was first introduced in 1935 to describe habitats within biomes that form an integrated whole and a dynamically responsive system having both physical and biological complexes.
Community ecology examines how interactions among species and their environment affect the abundance, distribution and diversity of species within communities. Community ecology is a subdiscipline of ecology which studies the distribution, abundance, demography, and interactions between coexisting populations.
There are different ecological dimensions that can be mapped to create more complicated food webs, including: species composition (type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), productivity (rates of conversion of energy and nutrients into growth), and stability (food webs over time). Principles gleaned from food web microcosm studies are used to extrapolate smaller dynamic concepts to larger systems.[78] Food webs are limited because they are generally restricted to a specific habitat, such as a cave or a pond.
The decomposition of dead organic matter, such as leaves falling on the forest floor, turns into soils that feed plant production. Functional trophic groups sort out hierarchically into pyramidic trophic levels because it requires specialized adaptations to become a photosynthesizer or a predator, so few organisms have the adaptations needed to combine both abilities.
Links in a food-web illustrate direct trophic relations among species, but there are also indirect effects that can alter the abundance, distribution, or biomass in the trophic levels.
A keystone species is a species that is disproportionately connected to more species in the food-web.
Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are commonly cited as an example of a keystone species because they limit the density of sea urchins that feed on kelp.
Ecological units of organization are defined through reference to any magnitude of space and time on the planet. Ecological theory has been used to explain self-emergent regulatory phenomena at the planetary scale. Social display and color variation in differently adapted species of chameleons (Bradypodion spp.). Adaptation is the central unifying concept in behavioral ecology."International Society for Behavioral Ecology". Predator-prey interactions are an introductory concept into food-web studies as well as behavioural ecology.[119] Prey species can exhibit different kinds of behavioural adaptations to predators, such as avoid, flee or defend.
The behaviour of long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) presents an example in this context. Symbiosis: Leafhoppers (Eurymela fenestrata) are protected by ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) in a symbiotic relationship. Intraspecific behaviours are notable in the social insects, slime moulds, social spiders, human society, and naked mole rats where eusocialism has evolved. A often quoted behavioural ecology hypothesis is known as Lack's brood reduction hypothesis (named after David Lack).
Elaborate sexual displays and posturing are encountered in the behavioural ecology of animals. Biogeography has a long history in the natural sciences where questions arise concerning the spatial distribution of plants and animals. The important relationship between ecology and genetic inheritance predates modern techniques for molecular analysis. Molecular ecology engendered a new research paradigm to investigate ecological questions considered otherwise intractable.
The environment is dynamically interlinked, imposed upon and constrains organisms at any time throughout their life cycle.[153] Like the term ecology, environment has different conceptual meanings and to many these terms also overlap with the concept of nature.
Environmental and ecological relations are studied through reference to conceptually manageable and isolated parts.
Metabolism – the rate at which energy and material resources are taken up from the environment, transformed within an organism, and allocated to maintenance, growth and reproduction – is a fundamental physiological trait. The Earth formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago[164] and environmental conditions were too extreme for life to form for the first 500 million years. We all love hot surfer girls! And Bosworth’s athletic frame really did it for us on the shores of Hawaii in Blue Crush.
Welch playing the sexy gentle seacoast dwelling Loana was so hot in 1966 it inspired the liberals to start their campaign against global warming. Halle Berry as JINX in Die Another Day was one of the most annoying Bond Girls in the 007 franchise but I still can’t deny her this list. I am not a Jessica Simpson fan but it’s impossible to deny her a place on this list after her scene stealing pink bikini in The Dukes Of Hazzard. Since Leia’s suit was never really meant for water, I have to put her as the first runner up.
York Graphic Designers News – recently completed projects and random musings from the York Graphic Designers team. A companies logo is a visual representation of their business which means portraying the right look is essential in order to be taken seriously in today’s competitive market place.
Here we have compiled a top ten list of some of the most creative examples of logo parodies and manipulations.
Just like Pepsi, McDonalds are a big player on the global market and often criticised for a rise in obesity and promoting an unhealthy diet.
The Office of Government Commerce OGC came in for a bit of stick when they launched their new logo. Between 2009 and 2011 Toyota issued three separate recalls of millions of cars due to a fault which caused unintended acceleration.
In 2007 the logo for the London 2012 Olympic was unveiled to a less than impressed UK public. Being one of the largest sporting stars on the planet, Tiger woods has a large range of merchandise featuring his distinctive TW monogram.
Our favourite logo parody has not been created to reflect a scandal that has hit a company, but to pay tribute to Apple founding member and CEO Steve Jobs after his untimely death on October 5th 2011. Connect with us and keep up to date with all the latest news and special offers from York Graphic Designers. He, his parents and his eight siblings were sent first to Auschwitz, where women and children would be separated from men, and killed. Alongside hundreds of others, he was put to work on gruelling projects such as digging underground bases for military equipment with only rudimentary tools.Order was kept with a combination of fear and extreme force. But outside, in the camp, things began to change, as the noise of Allied war planes gradually began to fill the air.But for those still inside, it wasn't a symbol of hope. Recollection: Ivor Perl, pictured recently, was able to start a new life in BritainThey were given a single loaf of bread to sustain them for several days, and warned that if they finished it too soon there would be nothing else.
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. When I was in high school, I acquired some oil paints, brushes, and some of those canvases wrapped around cardboard. Nevertheless, I pushed on painting about one work a year hoping the talent I needed so badly would miraculously appear.
Working in a small school can be very gratifying, but one must be careful not to let folks know what youa€™re good at.
When I began my earnest effort to get better at art, I did a lot of paintings of groups of people. I certainly wasna€™t developing talent while painting all those cats, but I was developing skills and techniques. If an art gallery had not opened about a block and a half from my home, I guess Ia€™d have over five hundred paintings stacked up in the garage by now. One day about four years ago, Cheryl and Cathy called and asked if they could come by to see my work.
Before the cat show, a€?Cats, Cats, and More Cats,a€? Cheryl asked what my expectations for the show were.


A year later, we had a third show, a€?Dogs,a€? which I did in conjunction with Jane Dubose of Houston. I had and still have so many paintings; I needed to find other places to attempt to sell them. I was invited to show my works at one of the local restaurants in Bryan, The Village Downtown. By searching the internet, I found one really great gallery in a little community within my 30 mile limit. Another place is Blues Alley in Navasota which is owned by Russell Cushman, one Hell of an artist and a fellow I met and liked years ago when he and a couple of other artists had a gallery in Navasota. One thing that youa€™ve probably recognized as a characteristic of the art dealers I work with is that theya€™re nice folks. Recently the Arts at the Lake association sponsored an art trail that ran through several small towns along Highway 36. Nevertheless, I pushed on painting about one work a year hoping the talent I needed so badly would miraculously appear.A  No such luck. I never mentioned to Cheryl or Cathy that I painted.A  However, to my dismay, my wife kept mentioning it to them encouraging them to come by our home to see my work.
One thing that youa€™ve probably recognized as a characteristic of the art dealers I work with is that theya€™re nice folks.A  Life is too short to work with any other kind. Ecosystems describe the web or network of relations among organisms at different scales of organization. The life-span of a tree, for example, can include different successional or seral stages leading to mature old-growth forests.
Ecologists study ecosystems by sampling a certain number of individuals that are representative of a population. The fundamental niche is the set of environmental conditions under which a species is able to persist.
A trait is a measurable property of an organism that influences its performance.[45] Traits of each species are suited ar uniquely adapted to their ecological niche.
The terms niche construction are more often used in reference to the under appreciated feedback mechanism of natural selection imparting forces on the abiotic niche.[37][50] An example of natural selection through ecosystem engineering occurs in the nests of social insects, including ants, bees, wasps, and termites.
Simplified population models usually start with four variables including death, birth, immigration, and emigration. A site is a generic term that refers to places where ecologists sample populations, such as ponds or defined sampling areas in a forest.
They form one category of the multitudinous physical systems of the universe, which range from the universe as a whole down to the atom. An example of a study in community ecology might measure primary production in a wetland in relation to decomposition and consumption rates. They are a type of concept map that illustrate pathways of energy flows in an ecological community, usually starting with solar energy being used by plants during photosynthesis. A food web diagram illustrating species composition shows how change in a single species can directly and indirectly influence many others. The food web illustration (right) only shows a small part of the complexity connecting the aquatic system to the adjacent terrestrial land.
The total sum of the planet's soil ecosystems is called the pedosphere where a very large proportion of the Earth's biodiversity sorts into other trophic levels.
For example, predators eating herbivores indirectly influence the control and regulation of primary production in plants. Keystone species have lower levels of biomass in the trophic pyramid relative to the importance of their role.
Communities of organisms, for example, are somewhat arbitrarily defined, but the processes of life integrate at different levels and organize into more complex wholes. The largest scale of ecological organization is the biosphere: the total sum of ecosystems on the planet. Natural selection, life history, development, adaptation, populations, and inheritance are examples of concepts that thread equally into ecological and evolutionary theory. Even plants express complex behavior, including memory and communication.[112] Behavioural ecology is the study of ethology and its ecological and evolutionary implications.
Many prey species are faced with multiple predators that differ in the degree of danger posed. When threatened, the long-toed salamander defends itself by waving its tail and secreting a white milky fluid.[123][124] The excreted fluid is distasteful, toxic and adhesive, but it is also used for nutrient and energy storage during hibernation. A host is any entity that harbors another that is called the associate.[128] Host and associate relationships among species that are mutually or reciprocally beneficial are called mutualisms. Social behaviours include reciprocally beneficial behaviours among kin and nest mates.[28][115][134] Social behaviours evolve from kin and group selection. Lack's hypothesis posits an evolutionary and ecological explanation as to why birds lay a series of eggs with an asynchronous delay leading to nestlings of mixed age and weights. An r-selected species is one that has high birth rates, low levels of parental investment, and high rates of mortality before individuals reach maturity.
Molecular ecological research became more feasible with the development of rapid and accessible genetic technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular investigations revealed previously obscured details in the tiny intricacies of nature and improved resolution into probing questions about behavioral and biogeographical ecology.
However, once the effective environmental components are understood they conceptually link back together as a holocoenotic[157] system. An example of the metaphysical aspect to holism is the trend of increased exterior thickness in shells of different species. During this early Hadean period, the Earth started to cool, allowing a crust and oceans to form. She’s got a little too skinny since filming this film but she was right on perfect in her beachwear back in 2002. In homage to Ursula Andress Berry finely toned bady stepped it up a notch for all girls with knife belts. If the younger generation thought she was hot stepping out of the swimming pool in Tommy Boy you’ve got to check out Derek on the beach.
But when Clark Griswald almost crossed the line in the swimming pool in the first Vacation movie I can’t help understand what he was thinking.
And he took his time delicately showing us every possible angle of Jessica Alba in her bikini. My focus is always on helping others to understand how to adopt health, fitness and a nutrient-rich clean eating diet as a lifestyle rather than a quick fix”. Large companies spend huge amounts of money on their corporate identities and branding to make sure their ethos is communicated effectively to consumers.
The new logo continues to use the red and blue circle first featured in 1962, and features a white stripe running through the middle to loosely represent a smile. There have been many behind the scenes documentaries charting what exactly goes into McDonalds products that enables them to be sold so cheaply. Here their logo has been parodied to represent the largest ever recall by a car manufacturer, and is based on the 1980’s Arnold Schwarzenegger film, Total Recall. On April 20th 2010, the Deep Water Horizon deep sea drilling platform caught fire and sank, producing the largest oil slick in American history. After the scandal broke about his antics off the golf course, someone has subtly altered the logo to represent the true Tiger Woods.
Created by 19-year-old Hong Kong based designer Jonathan Mak, the logo was an instant hit online with fans of Steve Jobs and Apple products. Ivor was saved because he mother ordered him to join the adults despite still being a boy.The decision saved his life, as his mother and seven of his siblings died in the camps. However, even then he was almost sent back to die by the notorious Auschwitz camp Dr Josef Mengele.'I could see a German officer with white gloves', Ivor says, 'who we heard later on was Dr Mengele.
When Nazi guards realised some prisoners were hiding in a cave to avoid work, they thought nothing of throwing grenades in after them.When a register of prisoners was taken in the morning, everyone faced an agonising decision of which group of labourers to join.
Part way through this gruelling journey, with a pace so uncompromising prisoners would die on their feet, it became too much.'We were walking along in the mud and suddenly my brother and I accused each other of taking bigger bites than we should have done,' Ivor remembers.
Since ecology refers to any form of biodiversity, ecologists research everything from tiny bacteria's role in nutrient recycling to the effects of tropical rain forest on the Earth's atmosphere. The ecological process is extended even further through time as trees topple over, decay and provide critical habitat as nurse logs or coarse woody debris.
One perspective lumps things that we do not understand into this category by virtue of the computational effort it would require to piece together the numerous interacting parts. Conservation priorities and management techniques require different approaches and considerations to address the full ecological scope of biodiversity.
This means that resident species are at an advantage and able to competitively exclude other similarly adapted species from having an overlapping geographic range.
There is an emergent homeostasis in the structure of the nest that regulates, maintains and defends the physiology of the entire colony. Mathematical models are used to calculate changes in population demographics using a null model. Source patches are productive sites that generate a seasonal supply of juveniles that migrate to other patch locations.
Many of these species migrate into other habitats to distribute their effects on a larger scale. Invertebrates that feed and shred larger leaves, for example, create smaller bits for smaller organisms in the feeding chain.


Although the predators do not eat the plants directly, they regulate the population of herbibores that are directly linked to plant trophism. The many connections that a keystone species holds means that it maintains the organization and structure of entire communities.
It is very difficult to experimentally determine in each different ecosystem what species may hold a keystone role. Biomes, for example, are a larger unit of organization that categorize regions of the Earth's ecosystems mainly according to the structure and composition of vegetation.[101] Different researchers have applied different methods to define continental boundaries of biomes dominated by different functional types of vegetative communities that are limited in distribution by climate, precipitation, weather and other environmental variables. Ecological relations regulate the flux of energy, nutrients, and climate all the way up to the planetary scale. To be adapted to their environment and face predatory threats, organisms must balance their energy budgets as they invest in different aspects of their life history, such as growth, feeding, mating, socializing, or modifying their habitat. Kin selection explains altruism through genetic relationships, whereby an altruistic behaviour leading to death is rewarded by the survival of genetic copies distributed among surviving relatives.
These displays serve a dual purpose of signalling healthy or well-adapted individuals and good genes. For example, the theory of island biogeography, published by the mathematician Robert MacArthur and ecologist Edward O.
The splitting of lineages in a species is called vicariance biogeography and it is a sub-discipline of biogeography.[143][144][145] There are also practical applications in the field of biogeography concerning ecological systems and processes. The rise of molecular technologies and influx of research questions into this new ecological field resulted in the publication Molecular Ecology in 1992.[149] Molecular ecology uses various analytical techniques to study genes in an evolutionary and ecological context. The physical environment is external to the level of biological organization under investigation, including abiotic factors such as temperature, radiation, light, chemistry, climate and geology. Environmental conditions were unsuitable for the origins of life for the first billion years after the Earth formed.
The girls in the movies may not always be as hot as the girls in the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit issue but these girls have to act as well. And this was probably the last great thing George Lucas did before he introduced us to the Ewoks and Jar Jar Binks. With business practises and decisions under more scrutiny than ever before and news of scandals going round the world in next to no time thanks to the internet and social media, a companies logo is often parodied or manipulated by creative individuals to represent a story, event or scandal that may have broke about the company.
Fizzy drinks companies come in for a lot of stick due to the high sugar content of their products and in this example their logo has been manipulated to portray what happens when people drink too many cans of Pepsi. Many people have been put off McDonalds products and a simple manipulation of the famous golden arches sums this up perfectly. They also created the California Energy Crisis, plunging California into darkness with rolling blackouts and selling power re-routed through Texas back to California at a much higher rate. Oil was leaking out at 200,000 gallons per day and took nearly 3 months to cap, causing extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats.
It received a mauling by the public, and in a poll on the BBC website 80% of people gave the logo the lowest possible rating. Some tasks were easier than others a€“ and the hardest work could easily drive struggling prisoners to death.One day Ivor made a different choice to his brother, and didn't see him for three weeks. All of us would push our stomach out to pretend we were more healthy than we were.'With the help of his brother, Ivor sneaked out of the hospital, where there was clearly no prospect of getting better.
Termite mounds, for example, maintain a constant internal temperature through the design of air-conditioning chimneys. The seasonal duration of wetlands and the migratory range of the species determines which ponds are connected and if they form a metapopulation. Sink patches are unproductive sites that only receive migrants and will go extinct unless rescued by an adjacent source patch or environmental conditions become more favorable. The vertical dimension represents feeding relations that become further removed from the base of the food chain up toward top predators. Collectively, these are the detrivores that regulate soil formation.[90][91] Tree roots, fungi, bacteria, worms, ants, beetles, centipedes, spiders, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and other less familiar creatures all work to create the trophic web of life in soil ecosystems. For example, the dynamic history of the planetary CO2 and O2 composition of the atmosphere has been largely determined by the biogenic flux of gases coming from respiration and photosynthesis, with levels fluctuating over time and in relation to the ecology and evolution of plants and animals.[105] When sub-component parts are organized into a whole there are oftentimes emergent properties that describe the nature of the system. Approximately 60% of all plants, for example, have a symbiotic relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
The social insects, including ants, bees and wasps are most famously studied for this type of relationship because the male drones are clones that share the same genetic make-up as every other male in the colony.[28] In contrast, group selectionists find examples of altruism among non-genetic relatives and explain this through selection acting on the group, whereby it becomes selectively advantageous for groups if their members express altruistic behaviours to one another. The initial increase in population size is not limited by competition, which leaves an abundance of available resources for rapid population growth. In 1994, professor John Avise also played a leading role in this area of science with the publication of his book, Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution.[150] Newer technologies opened a wave of genetic analysis into organisms once difficult to study from an ecological or evolutionary standpoint, such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes. The biotic environment includes genes, cells, organisms, members of the same species (conspecifics) and other species that share a habitat.[155] The laws of thermodynamics applies to ecology by means of its physical state. The Earth's atmosphere transformed from being dominated by hydrogen, to one composed mostly of methane and ammonia. Actually our list of the hottest swimsuits in movie history includes a few former and current swimsuit models, so they you go.
Decker was a swimsuit model before stepping into Sandler’s Hawaiian comedy so she was pretty much a shoe in for first place on this list. The losses were reported to be in the region of $16 billion and forced Bank of America to be bailed out by the American taxpayer at a figure thought to be between $20 – $50 billion. Never before has a logo created such a negative response, causing one individual to take to his computer and create his own interpretation of the which echoes the opinion of the majority of the UK public.
And as he came to me, he suddenly stopped and said a€?how old are you?a€?'Remembering what I was told, I said I was 16.
While his brother was posted to a farm, and allowed to eat decently for a time, Ivor grew so emaciated and ill that his older sibling did not recognise him. For example, a single tree is of smaller consequence to the classification of a forest ecosystem, but it is of larger consequence to smaller organisms.[10] Several generations of an aphid population, for example, might exist on a single leaf.
The International Long Term Ecological Network[20] manages and exchanges scientific information among research sites. Metapopulation models examine patch dynamics over time to answer questions about spatial and demographic ecology. As organisms feed and migrate through soils they physically displace materials, which is an important ecological process called bioturbation. To a microbe, the human body is a habitat and a landscape.[103] The microbiome has been largely discovered through advances in molecular genetics that have revealed a hidden richness of microbial diversity on the planet. This the Gaia hypothesis,[19] and is an example of holism applied in ecological theory.[106] The ecology of the planet acts as a single regulatory or holistic unit called Gaia. Symbiotic plants and fungi exchange carbohydrates for mineral nutrients.[129] Symbiosis differs from indirect mutualisms where the organisms live apart. These early phases of population growth experience density independent forces of natural selection, which is called r-selection.
In contrast, a K-selected species has low rates of fecundity, high levels of parental investment in the young, and low rates of mortality as individuals mature. Over the next billion years the metabolic activity of life transformed the atmosphere to higher concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor. Fortunately I was big for my age.'I've often, even now after all these years, I can remember his eyes as he was thinking to himself which side he should put me to.
He spent his working life in fashion retail, married and has four children and six grandchildren.Ivor Perl shared his story in conjunction with the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. Inside each of those aphids exist diverse communities of bacteria.[11] Tree growth is, in turn, related to local site variables, such as soil type, moisture content, slope of the land, and forest canopy closure.
Moreover, the nest can survive over successive generations, which means that ancestors inherit both genetic material and a legacy niche that was constructed before their time.[37][38][51] Diatoms in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, provide another example of an ecosystem engineer.
Alternatively the patterns differ significantly from the random model and require further explanation. Biomass of soil microorganisms are influenced by and feed back into the trophic dynamics of the exposed solar surface ecology. When the population becomes crowded, it reaches the island's carrying capacity, and individuals compete more heavily for fewer available resources. These gases changed the way that light from the sun hit the Earth's surface and greenhouse effects trapped heat. Benthic diatoms living in estuarine sediments secrete carbohydrate exudates that bind the sand and stabilizes the environment. Paleoecological studies of soils places the origin for bioturbation to a time before the Cambrian period.
Trees living in the equatorial regions of the planet supply oxygen into the atmosphere that sustains species living in distant polar regions of the planet. To protect them from the weather, prisoners had only the infamous black-and-white striped prisoner underclothes and a thin cotton overcoat. The diatoms cause a physical state change in the properties of the sand that allows other organisms to colonize the area. A dynamic metapopulation structure evolves from year to year, where some patches are sinks in dry years and become sources when conditions are more favorable. This relationship is called commensalism because many other host species receive the benefits of clean air at no cost or harm to the associate tree species supplying the oxygen.[130] The host and associate relationship is called parasitism if one species benefits while the other suffers.



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