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Since you keep showing up on my blog and trying to convert me to the Church of the Holy Plant-Based Diet, I’ve decided it’s time once again to explain, in this new and improved post, why you’re wasting your time. Nice try, but it isn’t going work, and I’m going to explain why.  I’m not foolish enough to think I’ll change your minds — evangelists aren’t swayed by evidence, as Eric Hoffer explained brilliantly in his book The True Believer – but I figure there’s an outside chance you’ll finally realize I don’t find your arguments the least bit persuasive, in which case you actually might give up and go away. None of those ailments was caused by sugar consumption, because I already knew sugar was a sin and didn’t indulge except on very rare occasions.  I’ve since learned that some of those ailments were likely caused by a lack of fat and cholesterol in my diet, while others were likely caused by the gluten and lectins found in grains. But of course, those are mere anecdotes and therefore aren’t scientifically valid.  Now, you and I both know you’re only interested in the so-called “science” that supports your religion, but since you insist on pretending otherwise, I’ll deal with your science (ahem, ahem) as well. So Ornish and McDougall can cherry-pick a few studies that link saturated fat to heart disease and cancer … so what?  I’m sure that’s true to an extent, at least in America.  But some of the biggest sources of saturated fat in the American diet are grain-based desserts (sugar and refined flour), dairy desserts (sugar), pizza (refined flour) and Mexican dishes (refined flour).  Do you see any possible confounding variables there? If the only difference between Seventh-Day Adventists and the rest of the population was meat vs.
There have been native peoples all over the world who lived primarily on animal flesh and animal fat — the Masai tribes, our own buffalo-hunting tribes, the Inuits, etc. Within the study, mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes is not significantly different between vegetarians and meat eaters. That means meat-eaters didn’t have higher rates of heart disease and didn’t die any younger.
Nutrient intakes in 94 Japanese centenarians investigated between 1972 and 1973 showed a higher proportion of animal protein to total proteins than in contemporary average Japanese.
High intakes of milk and fats and oils had favorable effects on 10-year (1976-1986) survivorship in 422 urban residents aged 69-71. The survivors revealed a longitudinal increase in intakes of animal foods such as eggs, milk, fish and meat over the 10 years.
In other words, when they try wading through the confounding variables, they can’t come up with a significant link between red meat and colorectal cancer.
Our findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of red meat increases colorectal cancer risk but do suggest that high intake of fish may decrease the risk, particularly of distal colon cancer. Red meat isn’t linked to a higher rate of colon cancer, but fish is linked to a lower rate.  I don’t think you vegan zealots will care much for that result.  Fish are animals, right? Let me explain “inversely associated” in case you’re a total illiterate when it comes to science:  that means men who ate more red meat were less likely to die of heart disease, and women who ate more red meat were less likely to die of cancer.
Within the study, the incidence of all cancers combined was lower among vegetarians than among meat eaters, but the incidence of colorectal cancer was higher in vegetarians than in meat eaters. Hey, there you go!  A result all you disciples of the Church of the Holy Plant-Based Diet can use to spread The Word.  The vegetarians had lower overall cancer rates, so let’s cherry-pick this one study and start ringing more doorbells!
Clearly something other than animal fat causes heart disease — my guess is sugar and refined carbohydrates, because that result does hold up.  Go around the world, look at different cultures throughout time, and you’ll see that heart disease, cancer, and other “diseases of civilization” show up shortly after sugar and white flour become dietary staples.
Do you see a trend-line there?  I certainly don’t.  When I ran the CORR function in Excel, it showed a very slight negative association between cholesterol and heart disease — in other words, higher cholesterol was correlated with slightly lower mortality from heart disease. I found a similar result when I ran an analysis on the American Heart Association’s own data:  people with LDL over 130 actually have a slightly lower rate of heart disease than people with LDL below 130. But I also gave up sugar and refined carbohydrates, and my health also improved, despite adding more animal fat to my diet.  Hey, ya know … perhaps it’s the sugar and refined flour that are the real problem here.
So even a priest of the Church of the Holy Plant-Based Diet admits vegans can develop heart disease — by eating white flour. Ornish’s latest attempt to bang the drum came in the form of an essay in the New York Times, which several readers called to my attention. Many people have been making the case that Americans have grown fat because they eat too much starch and sugar, and not enough meat, fat and eggs.
Although people have been told for decades to eat less meat and fat, Americans actually consumed 67 percent more added fat, 39 percent more sugar, and 41 percent more meat in 2000 than they had in 1950 and 24.5 percent more calories than they had in 1970, according to the Agriculture Department. Notice how Ornish lumps added fat, sugar and meat together, attempting to paint them as members of the same murderous gang. The added fats are mostly vegetable oils – the exact type the vegetarian zealots insist are better for us than animal fats.
Meat consumption rose by 13 percent from 1970 to 2005, but mainly because we eat a lot more chicken. I guess animal foods will kill you unless you’re Japanese, in which case they extend your life. Heavy consumption of saturated fat and trans fats may double the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. A study published last March found a 75 percent increase in premature deaths from all causes, and a 400 percent increase in deaths from cancer and Type 2 diabetes, among heavy consumers of animal protein under the age of 65 — those who got 20 percent or more of their calories from animal protein. It’s yet another observational study based on food questionnaires and is therefore nearly worthless.
Data from the same study showed that heavy consumers of animal proteins over the age of 65 had lower mortality and lower rates of heart disease and cancer, not higher. So if this observational study actually tells us something about the health effects of animal protein (which it doesn’t), we’d have to conclude that meat will kill you until you turn 65, but after age 65 it will save your life. Low-carb, high-animal-protein diets promote heart disease via mechanisms other than just their effects on cholesterol levels.
Mice that were fed a high-fat, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet were found to have atherosclerosis that was not associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
So I’m going to suggest you avoid (especially if you’re a mouse) the “Atkins Diet” version of laboratory rodent chow, which is a mix of corn starch, sugar, casein, and various fats including soybean oil, corn oil and Crisco. Animal protein increases IGF-1, an insulin-like growth hormone, and chronic inflammation, an underlying factor in many chronic diseases.
To support those claims, Ornish referred to another mouse study and the observational study that showed a statistical link between meat and higher mortality up to age 65, but lower mortality after age 65. An optimal diet for preventing disease is a whole-foods, plant-based diet that is naturally low in animal protein, harmful fats and refined carbohydrates. An optimal diet for preventing disease is a whole-foods diet that is naturally low in harmful fats and refined carbohydrates.
If you’re around my age, you may remember when almost every commercial for cereal ended with the tagline: Part of this nutritious breakfast! Boy, cereal had some great flavors back in the day: chocolate, sugar, honey, cinnamon toast, more sugar, marshmallows, rocky road ice cream, even more sugar, and chocolate chip cookies. Let’s look at the nutrition breakdown of that “balanced” breakfast the cereal manufacturers were promoting back then. So I’ll go with two cups of Frosted Flakes, 2% milk (which is what we drank when I was an adolescent), Parkay Margarine (which was mostly trans fat back then) and Minute Maid orange juice from concentrate, the kind your mom mixed with water.
I believe (or hope, anyway) that most parents these days know that cereals full of chocolate and marshmallows aren’t health food.
On 2 separate days, healthy normal-weight adolescents (n = 7) and adults (n = 10) consumed the same breakfast with either orange juice or drinking water and sat at rest for 3 h after breakfast. I would shrug it off and say most people will ignore these menus – which they will – but of course every public school, military installation, prison, government cafeteria, etc., etc.
In my last post, I compared the organizations that have been promoting artercloggingsaturatedfat! You don’t take fringe studies from 50 years ago that contradict the vast majority of lipid research over the last half century and make a conclusion. Several randomized trials have evaluated the effects of replacing saturated fatty acids with PUFAs on CHD events.  Intakes of PUFA (almost entirely omega-6 PUFA) ranged from 11% to 21%. Multiple food allergies required a group of seven patients with elevated serum cholesterol levels to follow a diet in which most of the calories came from beef fat. Once again, we see a dramatic fall in cholesterol levels, but no difference in heart-attack deaths.  That looks like another black swan to me. Four hundred fifty-eight men with coronary heart disease participated in a trial of secondary prevention for 2 to 7 years.
From infarct to entry into the trial the majority of men had already made changes in their diet and smoking habit and has lost weight. No significant difference, and what difference there was favored the group that consumed more saturated fat. Patients in both oil groups were instructed to avoid fried foods, fatty meat, sausages, pastry, ice-cream, cheese, cakes (except plain sponge), etc.
At two years the proportion of patients remaining free of major cardiac events is greater for the control group (75%) than for the two oil groups (olive oil 57%, corn oil 52%). Strangely, the researchers concluded that corn oil isn’t a good treatment for heart disease, but said nothing about olive oil. Corn oil and safflower oil — two oils that produced higher cardiovascular mortality rates in clinical studies. Psychologically, most of us need to believe we’re both good people and good decision-makers.
We are quite capable of fooling ourselves into believing things that simply aren’t true, even if that means ignoring clear evidence.

The book provides interesting (and unfortunately common) examples of those points in action.  What happens when, say, a woman marries a guy who turns out to be an abusive creep?  She runs out and gets a divorce, right?
The American Heart Association and its sister organizations have been spreading arterycloggingsaturatedfat! This means, if a person requires 2000 calories a day for their body’s basic functions (BMR) along with their activities, and they consume 2,500 calories a day instead, they will have consumed and stored an excess of 500 calories per day or 3,500 calories in one week, and therefore gained one pound in seven days. It does not matter which of the three macronutrient groups the excess calories come from: fat, protein or carbohydrates or any combination of the three. The low carb diet does have its strategy and success though: control the production of insulin, which helps the body to one day use it again effectively and therefore metabolize glucose instead of storing it, and also to restrict the production of lipoprotein lipase.
There are options when it comes to composing the daily intake of food when controlling calories for weight loss. Deep down we know that that eating well and in controlled portions and in combination with exercise for energy expenditure is the proper way to lose weight. So, when that new fad diet comes along that makes this process easier, or more delicious, it’s equivalent to the get rich quick scheme.
The use of cholesterol-lowering medications increased from 1976a€“1980 through 2007a€“2010.
An increased percentage of adults met guidelines for low saturated-fat intake from 1976a€“1980 to 1988a€“1994, but the percentage remained unchanged from 1988a€“1994 through 2007a€“2010.
Trends are apparent in the prevalence of high LDLa€“C levels, medication use, and dietary intake of low saturated fat. The prevalence of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDLa€“C, decreased from 59% to 27% from the late 1970s through 2007a€“2010. The percentage of adults using cholesterol-lowering medication increased from 5% to 23% from the late 1980s through 2007a€“2010.
The percentage of adults consuming a diet low in saturated fat increased from 25% to 41% from the late 1970s through 1988a€“1994. No significant changes in the percentage of adults consuming a diet low in saturated fat were observed from 1988a€“1994 through 2007a€“2010.
Each year, more than 2 million Americans suffer from acute cardiovascular events that account for approximately one-fourth of the total cost of inpatient hospital care (1). Overall, the prevalence of high LDLa€“C significantly decreased from 59% in 1976a€“1980 to 42% in 1988a€“1994, and to 33% in 2001a€“2004, reaching 27% in 2007a€“2010. Between 1976a€“1980 and 2007a€“2010, the prevalence of high LDLa€“C significantly decreased for men (65% to 31%), women (54% to 24%), and adults aged 40a€“64 (56% to 27%) and 65a€“74 (72% to 30%) (Figure 1). The use of cholesterol-lowering medication grew from 5% in 1988a€“1994 to 17% in 2001a€“2004, and reached 23% in 2007a€“2010 (Figure 2). From 1988a€“1994 through 2007a€“2010, the use of cholesterol-lowering medication significantly increased for men (5% to 25%), women (6% to 21%), and adults aged 40a€“64 (4% to 19%) and 65a€“74 (10% to 39%). The percentage of adults meeting guidelines for low saturated-fat intake increased significantly from 1976a€“1980 to 1988a€“1994, from 25% to 41%, but no significant change occurred from 1988a€“1994 through 2007a€“2010 (Figure 3).
Between 1988a€“1994 and 2007a€“2010, the percentage of adults consuming a diet low in saturated fat did not change significantly for men, women, and age groups 40a€“64 and 65a€“74.
Significant increases are found in the percentage of adults with low dietary saturated-fat intake, from 25% to 41%, between 1976a€“1980 and 2007a€“2010. In contrast, use of cholesterol-lowering medication continued to grow steadily, from 5% to 23%, between 1988a€“1994 and 2007a€“2010.
Despite recent advances in medical treatment, high cholesterol remains a significant public health problem in the United States, with more than one-quarter of adults aged 40a€“74 having high LDLa€“C. Low saturated-fat intake: Meeting ATP guidelines for consumption of less than 10% of total kilocalories from saturated fat (6), specifically the 24-hour period prior to the dietary recall interview (midnight to midnight), where total kilocalorie intake includes kilocalories from protein, carbohydrate, total fat, and alcohol. Data from NHANES conducted during four study cyclesa€”1976a€“1980, 1988a€“1994, 2001a€“2004, and 2007a€“2010a€”for adults aged 40a€“74 were used in this report. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaboration, Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, Holland LE, Reith C, et al. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Cholesterol Education Program. National Center for Health Statistics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Collaborative Lipid Group. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated. My only appointments with doctors in the past five years have been for regular checkups or to treat an injury.
And if you do know, you’re a diet freak who tabulates everything you eat, which means you in no way represent people in the general population.
Western lifestyle, high intake of refined sugars and alcohol, low intake of fruits, vegetables and fibre) and behavioural factors (e.g. Red meat intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality in men and with cancer mortality in women in Asian countries. The emerging evidence – the reliable kind, anyway – keeps contradicting him, so now he’s like a walking, talking example of the people described in the terrific book Mistake Were Made (but not by me): having staked out a very public position, he can’t possibly change his mind without committing career suicide. Recently, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee lifted recommendations that consumption of dietary cholesterol should be restricted, citing research that dietary cholesterol does not have a major effect on blood cholesterol levels. It’s a bit like stating that the trio of Jeffrey Dahmer, Ted Bundy and Mother Teresa were responsible for more than 50 brutal murders.
Mike Eades delved into Ornish’s creative uses of food-consumption statistics in a recent post. Ornish reached way back to 1950 to grab figures on meat consumption so he could make a dramatic comparison with today and thus blame meat for obesity rates that began rising … wait for it … 30 years later. During that same timespan, red meat consumption dropped by 22%, egg consumption dropped by 17%, and dairy consumption dropped a wee bit. Research shows that animal protein may significantly increase the risk of premature mortality from all causes, among them cardiovascular disease, cancer and Type 2 diabetes.
The vegetarian and vegan zealots do that all the time – well, at least now that they’ve admitted trans fats are bad. Arterial blockages may be caused by animal-protein-induced elevations in free fatty acids and insulin levels and decreased production of endothelial progenitor cells (which help keep arteries clean). Also, red meat is high in Neu5Gc, a tumor-forming sugar that is linked to chronic inflammation and an increased risk of cancer. Since most of us will live to be 65 anyway, I think we can stop worrying about the meat.  Eat it now, and after celebrating your 65th birthday, start eating even more of it. He’s like the Wizard of Oz, blowing a lot of smoke and bellowing loudly, but really hoping you don’t look behind that curtain.
The meal paired with orange juice was 882 kJ (210 kcal) higher than the meal paired with drinking water. Several of these trials were not double-blind, raising the possibility of differential classification of endpoints by the investigators that could overestimate benefits of the intervention. In addition to the inability to double-blind these studies, many had design limitations such as small sample size (n=54), the provision of only ?50% of meals, outcomes composed largely of “soft” ECG end points, randomization of sites rather than individuals with open enrollment and high turnover of subjects, use of vegetable oils that also contained the plant omega-3 fatty acid ?-linolenic acid, and simultaneous recommendations to increase fish and cod liver oil use.
Even if these organization believe their advice is correct, I don’t see how they could feel successful in their missions. If a person eats 500 calories a day less than their required intake, will they lose one pound in a week? This occurs when the cells of the body no longer respond to insulin, the hormone responsible for transporting glucose or carbohydrates out to cells to be used for body processes and activities. If a person consumes a diet that is 1500 calories made up of chick peas, quinoa, spinach, broccoli, apples, oranges, peppers and tomatoes which is all carbohydrates and therefore deemed high carbohydrate because there is no other macronutrient included, and their daily required energy intake for their BMR plus daily activities is 2000 calories, they will lose 1 pound in a week. Trying to get the most nutrition out of that say 1500 calories would be the strategy that falls in line with the healthiest. Her clients include those who are trying to lose fat, gain muscle, increase muscular and cardiovascular endurance, speed up metabolism, recover from injury and learn proper exercise technique. Control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLa€“C) has been shown to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality (2).
However, other data sources indicate that less than 1% of the population used lipid-lowering medication during the 1976a€“1980 time frame (5).
High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is measured levels above the treatment goals established by the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. These findings may provide useful information for evaluation of programs and policy initiatives aimed at reducing the prevalence of high cholesterol in the adult population.
Standard conversion factors were used to convert grams of saturated fat to kilocalories: 9 kilocalories per gram. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: A meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials.

Third report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Trends in high LDL cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering medication use, and dietary saturated-fat intake: United States, 1976a€“2010. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status -- Booth et al.
Colin Campbell, etc.  This may surprise you, but I don’t find those sermons any more convincing on the 100th repetition than I did on the 10th. The man desperately wants to convince everyone to live on a low-fat vegetarian diet, and yet the Wisdom of Crowds effect is turning the tide in the opposite direction. Let’s back up instead to 1970, when Americans were still lean on average and not suffering from record rates of diabetes. It’s another one of those number-crunching analyses of two lousy observational studies based on food questionnaires.
Back in the 1980s, The Guy From CSPI was pushing trans fats as a safe alternative to animal fats.  Point is, trans fats and saturated fats have very different effects on your health – which Dr. Egg yolks and red meat appear to significantly increase the risk of coronary heart disease and cancer due to increased production of trimethylamine N-oxide, or TMAO, a metabolite of meat and egg yolks linked to the clogging of arteries. A plant-based diet may prolong life by blocking the mTOR protein, which is linked to aging. A quick reference to a mouse study (which he doesn’t identify as a mouse study), a quick reference to an observational study (citing one result but skipping the result he doesn’t want you to see), a quick conflation of trans fats and animal fats, and VOILA! A healthful diet should be low in “bad fats,” meaning trans fats, saturated fats and hydrogenated fats.
A healthful diet should be low in “bad fats,” meaning trans fats, processed vegetable oils, seed oils, and hydrogenated fats. Forty-six studies were excluded because they did not meet inclusion and exclusion criteria. One trial used a cluster-randomization cross-over design that intervened on sites rather than individuals; and two trials used open enrollment that allowed participants to both drop-in and drop-out during the trial. An excess of this food energy that surpasses the body’s requirements is unfortunately not excreted by the body, but instead stored in fat tissues and so weight is gained. Even if a person eats an excess of 500 calories worth of lean protein (say, 2 ? chicken breasts) a day, they will still gain one pound in one week. A low carbohydrate diet can help this imbalance by lessening the production of insulin over a given period of time and one day the body may become sensitive to insulin again and it can do its’ job—help the body use the carbohydrates instead of storing them and gaining weight. If someone opts to compose their 1500 calories per day from 30 ounces of bacon and nothing else, yes they will lose weight but at the expense of sacrificing fibre, vitamins, minerals and substituting instead a diet that is high in saturated fat, low in protein (yes bacon is not a high protein source) and can contribute to creating or exacerbating conditions like heart disease ad gout. She is certified by the American Council on Exercise as a Personal Trainer, and AMFPT as a Sports Nutritionist. High LDLa€“C is LDL cholesterol above the treatment goals established by the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines.
These changes were consistent among all population subgroups defined by sex and age (Figure 3). A substantial decline in the prevalence of high LDLa€“C from 59% to 28% was seen over this same time period.
The percentage of kilocalories from saturated fat was then calculated by dividing the caloric intake from saturated fat by the total daily caloric intake, and multiplying this fraction by 100.
Shaw are with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention.Margaret D. Because of these factors, the currently available epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to support an independent positive association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer. People previously frightened into giving up eggs and red meat have gone paleo, improved their health, and announced as much to the crowd. Other analyses of the same parent studies (The Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses’ Health Study) have consistently shown that the participants who ate the most meat and eggs were also more likely to smoke, to drink, to be overweight, etc. You can keep bellowing away about the hazards of animal foods, but it’s the information age now and the crowd knows better – and the crowd is loud. For both age groups, both meals resulted in a net positive energy balance 150 min after breakfast. The methods for estimating and reporting PUFA and SFA consumption in each trial varied, which could cause errors in our estimation of the quantitative benefit per %E replacement. The general nature and purpose of treatment were explained, together with the fact that different patients were receiving different kinds of oil. Eating an excess of calories is the only way to gain weight and depleting the calories (or expending them through activity) is the only way to lose weight unless there is an imbalance in the body’s hormones and therefore the body is not metabolizing food the way it should. An excess of insulin in the bloodstream also stimulates the production of lipoprotein lipase, a hormone that conserves fat. She has completed her training with CanFitPro as a Pre and Post-Natal Specialist and with OMgym as a Suspension Yoga Teacher. It can be managed with lifestyle changes, medications, or a combination of these approaches (3). There also were significant increases in the percentage of adults meeting federal dietary guidelines (6) for low dietary saturated-fat intake, from 25% to 42%, between 1976a€“1980 and 2007a€“2010; however, no significant changes were observed from 1988a€“1994 to 2007a€“2010.
The survey consists of interviews conducted in participants' homes and standardized physical examinations in mobile examination centers (MECs), including laboratory tests. Carroll and Rosemarie Hirsch are with CDC's National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Books like The Big Fat Surprise are shining a very bright light on the shoddy science that led to anti-animal-fat hysteria in the first place.
I suspect he is not much different than other vegans I have met: for him, diet is a religion and he cherry picks the science. Resting fat oxidation 150 min after breakfast was significantly lower after breakfast with orange juice, however. One of the trials also provided, in addition to the main advice to consume soybean oil, sardines to the intervention group, so that observed benefits may be at least partly related to marine omega-3 PUFA rather than total PUFA consumption.
There are conditions that exist that affect the body’s metabolism: PCOS, insulin resistance, thyroid hormone imbalances, menopause and andropause to name a few. A diet low in saturated fat is recognized as one of the most effective lifestyle changes to decrease high LDLa€“C (4).
Although declines in the proportion of calories from saturated fat have occurred since the 1970s, the average dietary energy intake has increased (7).
One-half of participants aged 12 and over who participated in the MEC exam were randomly assigned to the morning sample and instructed to fast for at least 8 hours up to 24 hours prior to venipuncture. The results suggest that, independent of a state of energy excess, when individuals have a caloric beverage instead of drinking water with a meal, they are less likely to oxidize the amount of fat consumed in the meal before their next meal. At the beginning of the study, six of the patients had an average high-density lipoprotein percentage of 21%. Suspected relapses were assessed at regular intervals by a review committee unaware of the patient’s diet group.
Multivariate analysis showed that none of the dietary factors were significantly related to survival. This report evaluates the trends in high LDLa€“C, use of cholesterol-lowering medication, and low dietary saturated-fat intake from 1976a€“1980 through 2007a€“2010 among adults aged 40a€“74. Use of cholesterol-lowering medication continued to grow steadily, from 5% to 23%, from 1988a€“1994 to 2007a€“2010.
The prevalences of high LDLa€“C are based on persons examined in the morning and fasting for 8.5 up to 24 hours prior to venipuncture. The dietary saturated-fat data for this report were collected from in-person, 24-hour dietary recall interviews in the MEC.
Statistical hypotheses of no linear trends were tested using orthogonal contrasts matrices.
The total number of men who had a major relapse at any time in the trial was 45 in the test group and 51 in the controls; of these major relapses 25 in each group were fatal. Dietary recalls cover intake during the day (24 hours) prior to the standardized physical examination at the MEC. Improvement in dietary intake methodology and food composition databases, as well as changes in food composition, occurred during the time frame of 1976a€“1980 through 2007a€“2010 (7). Relapses were not related to initial cholesterol level, to change in cholesterol level during the trial, nor, in any consistent way, to observance of the dietary regimen.

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