Unsaturated fat examples of food,high carb low carb diet recipes youtube,weight loss programs dallas texas news - Step 1

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Examples of natural trans fatty acids are vaccenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) [21]. When producers do not use trans fats in the food processing, all their foods, including those in Chart 1, can be free of artificial trans fats. In the United States, food products that contain less than 0.5 g trans fat are considered trans fat free [28].
According to 3 systematic reviews (2006, 2011), there is no association between the intake of natural trans fats and coronary heart disease [12,18,21]. In few baking and stir-frying experiments, ordinary heating of vegetable oils, like canola oil, to up to 527 °F (275 °C), did not significantly increase the amount of trans fatty acids [38,39]. Cooking at relatively low temperatures (325-375° F or 163-191° C) can actually spoil certain oils, such as extra virgin olive oil, but this is because of formation of free fatty acids, which have a bad taste, and not due to formation of trans fatty acids.
All of the above changes in blood lipid are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease [18].
There is CONFLICTING EVIDENCE about the effect of trans fats on systemic inflammation: in one interventional study, trans fats increased markers of inflammation [52] but in another one did not [49].
Based on 2 observational studies in individuals with documented atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, there is LIMITED EVIDENCE that intake of trans fats is associated with atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of coronary heart disease [47,48].
According to two 2009 systematic reviews, there is convincing evidence that intake of trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease [16,17]. According to a opinion of European Food safety Authority from 2007, there is association between higher intakes of  trans fats and coronary heart disease [36]. According to one 2006 review of studies, an increase of trans fat intake by 2% of calorie intake (5 g trans fat in a 2,000 Cal diet) is associated with 23% increase in incidence of coronary heart disease [19]. According to 2 reviews (1993, 1997) of the Nurses Health Study, consumption of trans fats (margarine, biscuits, cakes, white bread) may be associated with coronary heart disease in women [14,15]. According to one 2011 systematic review and meta analysis of studies, there is only small, insignificant association between intake of industrial trans fats and chronic heart disease [12]. In the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-1992), trans fat intake, when adjusted for dietary fiber and total fat intake, was negatively associated (0.93) with a risk of fatal coronary heart disease [9], while in one prospective Finnish study (1985-1988), trans fat intake was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease regardless of fiber intake [57].
In the 1995 EURAMIC study in several European countries and Israel, trans fat intake (estimated from the trans fat content of the body fat) in men who had heart attack was not greater than in men who did not have heart attack [10].
In another 1995 study, individuals who have died from sudden cardiac death due to coronary heart disease did not have greater amounts of trans fats in their body fat than healthy live individuals [11]. There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about trans fatty acids as a risk factor for diabetes 2 [7,8,18,36]. There is NO CONSISTENT EVIDENCE about the association between trans fat intake and cancer [31,36].
In one prospective study in men (1982-1995) [32], but not in another one (1994-2003) [34], trans fat intake was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. In one prospective study in women (1989-2002), trans fat intake was supposedly associated with increased risk of breast cancer [33]. According to one 2014 systematic review of observational studies, intake of trans fats is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer disease [13]. According to one prospective study in married women (1991-1999), high intake of trans fats may increase the risk of ovarian infertility [35].
There seems to be no association between trans fat intake and allergies, high blood pressure or thrombosis [36]. According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, all foods that contain 0.5 grams or more trans fat per serving have trans fat listed on the Nutrition Facts labels [28]. In the United States, in the New York City [45] and California [46], trans fats are banned in restaurants. The information on this site is for educational purposes only and should not be considered diagnostic or medical advice.
When the hydrocarbon chain contains a double bond, the fatty acid is said to be unsaturated. When a fatty acid has no double bonds, it is known as a saturated fatty acid because no more hydrogen may be added to the carbon atoms of the chain. In the food industry, oils are artificially hydrogenated to make them semi-solid and of a consistency desirable for many processed food products. Margarine, some types of peanut butter, and shortening are examples of artificially hydrogenated trans fats. The farthest carbon away from the carboxyl group is numbered as the omega (?) carbon, and if the double bond is between the third and fourth carbon from that end, it is known as an omega-3 fatty acid. Phospholipids are major constituents of the plasma membrane, the outermost layer of animal cells. A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule, meaning it has a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic part. Trans fats are created artificially when hydrogen gas is bubbled through oils to solidify them. Widely viewed as one of the healthiest types of cooking oil, canola oil is high in monounsaturated fats.
Unsaturated fat is one of the three main types of fats, the other two being saturated fat and trans fat.


Unsaturated and saturated fat are essentially composed from the same raw ingredients, including carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Unlike saturated fat, fat that is unsaturated usually contains an unstable amount of hydrogen atoms — the result is a chain of fat that is lacking hydrogen atoms. Through a process called hydrogenation, a new form of fat is formed called trans fat, or partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. Health experts are quick to point out the advantages of unsaturated fats over saturated or trans fats when following heart-healthy diets. One major disadvantage of unsaturated fats, such as olive oil or canola oil, is that they will eventually turn rancid as oxygen molecules from the air mix with the hydrogen and carbon atoms in the fat. I was looking for some answers for my biology homework and I couldn't find chemical structure of fatty acids which wouldn't use proper chemical language.
Zero trans fat French fries, potato chips, chicken nuggets, pies, margarines and shortening are available. The potential health benefits of conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) found in milk have not been proven so far [21]. It is not only heating but adding hydrogen to oils in the presence of a catalyst, like nickel, that converts cis unsaturated fats to trans fats [40]. There is another conflict in observational studies: in 2 reviews of the Nurses Health Study I, two different groups of researchers have found different markers of inflammation [53,54,55]. Note, that at the time of the studies, the average trans fat consumption was much higher than today. FDA has also removed trans fats and partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil from the list of Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food ingredients [1,43], which means they may become illegal in the United States in near future. In general, the use of trans fats in Western Europe has declined, while in Eastern Europe may still be high [30]. This is because they are hydrocarbons that include mostly nonpolar carbon–carbon or carbon–hydrogen bonds.
Glycerol is an organic compound (alcohol) with three carbons, five hydrogens, and three hydroxyl (OH) groups.
In a fatty acid chain, if there are only single bonds between neighboring carbons in the hydrocarbon chain, the fatty acid is said to be saturated.
Recent studies have shown that an increase in trans fats in the human diet may lead to an increase in levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol, which in turn may lead to plaque deposition in the arteries, resulting in heart disease.
Nutritionally important because the body does not make them, omega-3 fatty acids include alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), all of which are polyunsaturated.
It is true that eating an excess of fried foods and other “fatty” foods leads to weight gain.
Because of the hydrophobic nature of waxes, they prevent water from sticking on the surface ([link]). Like fats, they are composed of fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol or sphingosine backbone. The fatty acid chains are hydrophobic and cannot interact with water, whereas the phosphate-containing group is hydrophilic and interacts with water ([link]). In a membrane, a bilayer of phospholipids forms the matrix of the structure, the fatty acid tails of phospholipids face inside, away from water, whereas the phosphate group faces the outside, aqueous side ([link]).
If a drop of phospholipids is placed in water, it spontaneously forms a structure known as a micelle, where the hydrophilic phosphate heads face the outside and the fatty acids face the interior of this structure. Although they do not resemble the other lipids, they are grouped with them because they are also hydrophobicand insoluble in water. Cholesterol is mainly synthesized in the liver and is the precursor to many steroid hormones such as testosterone and estradiol, which are secreted by the gonads and endocrine glands. The double bonds of the cis conformation in the hydrocarbon chain may be converted to double bonds in the trans configuration.
Due to the lack of hydrogen, the fat chain is generally unstable and ripe for attack from oxygen atoms, which may cause it to turn rancid.
Hydrogenation can occur because unsaturated fat still has room to accommodate hydrogen atoms; by bubbling pure hydrogen gas through tanks of unsaturated fats, trans fat can be made.
The reason why unsaturated fat is considered healthier than the other types of fat is due to the nature of the fat molecules once they reach the bloodstream; saturated or trans fat molecules have a natural tendency to bond with each other on contact, which eventually leads to the formation of artery-clogging plaque. A hydrocarbon chain with double bonds is unsaturated fat. There is also a mono-unsaturated fat (single-double bond) and poly-unsaturated fat (multiple-double bond). They are important because they help eliminate bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol in our body.
On the other hand, partially hydrogenated menhaden oil [1,50] and partially hydrogenated version of low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil (LEAR), known as canola oil [1,51] are still listed as GRAS. Fats are also called triacylglycerols or triglycerides because of their chemical structure. Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen; in other words, the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton is maximized.
Long straight fatty acids with single bonds tend to get packed tightly and are solid at room temperature. During this hydrogenation process, double bonds of the cis- conformation in the hydrocarbon chain may be converted to double bonds in the trans- conformation. Many fast food restaurants have recently banned the use of trans fats, and food labels are required to display the trans fat content.


Omega-3 fatty acids (like that shown in [link]) fall into this category and are one of only two known for humans (the other being omega-6 fatty acid). Instead of three fatty acids attached as in triglycerides, however, there are two fatty acids forming diacylglycerol, and the third carbon of the glycerol backbone is occupied by a modified phosphate group ([link]). All steroids have four linked carbon rings and several of them, like cholesterol, have a short tail ([link]). Some restaurants are banning trans fats because they cause higher levels of LDL, or “bad”cholesterol. This form of fat is considered to be unsaturated, because it has not taken on all the hydrogen it can hold, and the fat will remain liquid at room temperature because of its incomplete bonding process. Michael Pollick should do his homework on the saturated fat coconut oil and the benefits over all the oils he mentions.
In a fat molecule, the fatty acids are attached to each of the three carbons of the glycerol molecule with an ester bond through an oxygen atom ([link]). Animal fats with stearic acid and palmitic acid (common in meat) and the fat with butyric acid (common in butter) are examples of saturated fats. These are polyunsaturated fatty acids and are called omega-3 because the third carbon from the end of the hydrocarbon chain is connected to its neighboring carbon by a double bond. Research indicates that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of sudden death from heart attacks, reduce triglycerides in the blood, lower blood pressure, and prevent thrombosis by inhibiting blood clotting. Many vitamins are fat soluble, and fats serve as a long-term storage form of fatty acids: a source of energy. A phosphate group alone attached to a diaglycerol does not qualify as a phospholipid; it is phosphatidate (diacylglycerol 3-phosphate), the precursor of phospholipids. Many steroids also have the –OH functional group, which puts them in the alcohol classification (sterols).
Cholesterol is also the precursor of bile salts, which help in the emulsification of fats and their subsequent absorption by cells.
Phospholipids and steroids are important components of animal cell membranes, as well as plant, fungal, and bacterial membranes. If we want to prevent this, we need to consume vegetable oils.If you want to know the benefits of fats in general, they are an important food source for our body. I stay away from those that have saturated fats or trans fats. If I eat saturated fat, I feel that it will harden in my arteries, build up and eventually give me a heart attack. Mammals store fats in specialized cells called adipocytes, where globules of fat occupy most of the cell’s volume.
Although cholesterol is often spoken of in negative terms by lay people, it is necessary for proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids may be unsaturated or saturated, depending on the presence or absence of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. While it may be unwise for some people to eliminate all saturated fat from one's diet, using unsaturated fat alternatives, such as olive or canola oils, may be beneficial.
They also contain essential vitamins and amino acids like Omega 3 and Omega 6.My dietitian says that fats also help increase metabolism. Arachidic acid is derived from Arachis hypogea, the scientific name for groundnuts or peanuts. In plants, fat or oil is stored in many seeds and is used as a source of energy during seedling development. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine are two important phospholipids that are found in plasma membranes.
It is a component of the plasma membrane of animal cells and is found within the phospholipid bilayer.
For example, they help keep aquatic birds and mammals dry when forming a protective layer over fur or feathers because of their water-repellant hydrophobic nature. Unsaturated fats or oils are usually of plant origin and contain cis unsaturated fatty acids. Being the outermost structure in animal cells, the plasma membrane is responsible for the transport of materials and cellular recognition and it is involved in cell-to-cell communication. Lipids are also the building blocks of many hormones and are an important constituent of all cellular membranes.
If hydrogens are present in the same plane, it is referred to as a cis fat; if the hydrogen atoms are on two different planes, it is referred to as a trans fat. They have a glycerol or sphingosine backbone to which two fatty acid chains and a phosphate-containing group are attached.
The cis double bond causes a bend or a “kink” that prevents the fatty acids from packing tightly, keeping them liquid at room temperature ([link]). Unsaturated fats help to lower blood cholesterol levels whereas saturated fats contribute to plaque formation in the arteries.
Cholesterol is a type of steroid and is an important constituent of the plasma membrane, where it helps to maintain the fluid nature of the membrane.



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