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The introduction of the microprocessor, a single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after 1975. The success of the Arab state-owned airline hasn't just made its European competitors nervous; it's also made them aggressive.
Rivals like Lufthansa accuse all three Arab airlines of massively benefiting from state-provided financial assistance. Granted, it cannot be said that the three Arab airlines directly depend on the sheiks for life support. Europe's veteran airlines also strongly criticize the fact that since Dubai doesn't levy any corporate or income taxes, Emirates can pay lower salaries, and that it primarily employs low-cost workers from countries such as India and Pakistan. Unlike Lufthansa, for example, Emirates does not operate an expensive short-haul network to satisfy demand in its own country. Furthermore, Dubai doesn't have a ban on night flights like the one enforced at most German airports. Christoph Franz, Mayrhuber's successor at the helm of Lufthansa, accuses Emirates of deliberately poaching passengers in order to fill its own planes. Indeed, Clark has a hard time understanding all the fuss about his airline's expansion in any case. Still, there's no denying that the fight being waged between the established airlines and the new high-flyers from the Gulf states is somewhat unequal. On the other, wealthy sheiks and top executives from across the world are demonstrating that you can also have air transport without all of those burdensome limitations as long as local conditions allow you to do so -- as is the case in Dubai.
Having learned a similar lesson long ago, major German companies set up subsidiaries around the world, oftentimes facing bitter resistance from their core workforces back home. JA?rgen Weber, a former Lufthansa CEO who now chairs its supervisory board, has apparently already realized that such a development could be necessary. Mayrhubers and others argument regarding the state subsidies and lower costs are just a red herring; and that's why Clark can so easily disprove those.
The main reason for Emirates success is their cost advantage because of (near) slave labour and complete absence of protection and work rules. There will always be enough demand for direct flights from Europe to the booming Asian centres therefore I canA’t understand the fuss. Sign up for our newsletter -- and get the very best of SPIEGEL in English sent to your email inbox twice weekly. I agree to receive information about products from SPIEGEL-Verlag and manager magazin Verlagsgesellschaft (e.g. Las necesidades energeticas de Europa se cubririan con paneles solares en tan solo el 0,3% del desierto del Sahara; el 1% abasteceria a todo el mundo. La base del proyecto Desertec es tan sencilla como logica: el desierto del Sahara, mucho espacio libre y muchas horas de luz con rayos solares de gran intensidad. Hace poco tiempo, una veintena de empresas, en su mayoria alemanas (aunque tambien se encuentra la multinacional espanola Abengoa Solar) ha dado a conocer su objetivo de reunir los 400.000 millones de euros que necesita el proyecto para su puesta en marcha.
La idea se basa en montar una red de cooperacion entre Europa y la region de Oriente Medio y Africa del Norte (MENA en sus siglas inglesas), y aprovechar no solo la energia solar, sino tambien la eolica, la hidroelectrica, la biomasa y la geotermica generada en dichas areas.
No obstante, la parte fundamental del proyecto se mueve en el aprovechamiento de la energia solar. Otros expertos tampoco desechan la posibilidad de la energia solar fotovoltaica, habida cuenta de los progresos de esta tecnologia y su reduccion progresiva de costes. Una vez conseguida la energia, el siguiente paso seria transportarla a sus lugares de consumo.
La idea del proyecto Desertec no es nueva, pero las dificultades tecnicas, economicas e institucionales no la han dejado pasar de su fase teorica. Anthony Patt, experto del Instituto Internacional de Analisis de Sistemas Aplicados, con sede en Austria, senala la inestabilidad politica de la zona, la complejidad de poner de acuerdo a los paises africanos y europeos interesados, o la falta de un plan de negocio coherente que permita gestionar adecuadamente las fases del proyecto. Hay quienes destacan que el exito depende de una verdadera colaboracion entre la Union Europea y los paises norteafricanos, algo que hoy por hoy no se produce. Por su parte, otros expertos recuerdan que en el desierto estas instalaciones necesitarian unas labores de mantenimiento mucho mayores, y agua para su funcionamiento. Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios mediante el analisis de sus habitos de navegacion. Since 1930, DBC(Direct Bonded Copper) substrate has been the main methods for making electrically conductive interconnects on insulating substrates. DBC means Direct Bonded Copper and denotes a process in which copper and a ceramic material are directly bonded.
Normally, DBC has two layers of copper that are directly bonded onto an aluminum-oxide (Al2O3) or aluminum-nitride (AlN) ceramic base. Excellent thermal conductivity provides the possibility of very close packaging of the chips.
The high insulation voltage allows the use of thin dielectric material (alumina) for improved thermal dissipation for high voltage applications. The newly developed DBC technologies of the liquid cooled and the partial discharge free substrates have a great potential to expand further application fields of DBC substrates as well as high power semiconductor modules in the near future. Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography.
The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air.
The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy).
X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity.


In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens.
Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images.
Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them. For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging.
Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier.
For computers generally referred to as PCs, see IBM Personal Computer and IBM PC compatible.
In suspiciously similar-sounding statements, they have been urging their governments not to grant any additional air rights to Emirates. Lufthansa, the country's flagship carrier, wants to use everything at its disposal to prevent Emirates from being allowed to take off and land in Berlin and Stuttgart in addition to its existing rights in Frankfurt, Munich, DA?sseldorf and Hamburg. But one thing is true: Since the airports, air traffic controllers and transport authorities in their countries closely cooperate with each other and often even share the same management structures, the fees these airlines have to pay are significantly lower than the ones paid at European airports. Little has calculated that Emirates' costs are almost a third lower than those of most of their European competitors.
What's more, its European competitors could never reach the 18-plus hours of use that Emirates airplanes see in an average day. Which traditional European airline offers passengers the choice of 600 radio and 150 television stations? On one side, you have the defenders of a system that long ago accepted work councils, unions and bans on night flights because all those things are taken for granted in European corporate culture. The euro carriers can't really criticise that because they desperately try to find a way to do the same.
Europe is so densely populated that is not possibly to set up mega hubs like the one in Dubai. El lugar ideal para instalar una gigantesca granja de colectores solares de concentracion (CSP) que podrian suministrar energia a los paises vecinos y a toda Europa.
Y parece que el anuncio podria ir en serio, a juzgar por la magnitud y nombre de las empresas (la aseguradora Munich Re, Deutsche Bank, Siemens o E.On, entre otras). Por ejemplo, ya hay trabajos de campo que senalan a Marruecos y el Mar Rojo como las mejores zonas para instalar aerogeneradores. La mejor opcion parece la energia solar termica, en concreto la construccion de grandes CSP ubicadas en los mejores lugares de MENA. Por ejemplo, Arnulf Jaeger-Walden, del Instituto de la Energia, dependiente de la Comision Europea, ha calculado que los paneles fotovoltaicos instalados en el Sahara podrian producir hasta tres veces mas electricidad. Tanto las ciudades de los paises africanos como las europeas se encuentran muy alejadas de estas plantas solares, por lo que las perdidas de electricidad de una red convencional serian considerables. Son varios los expertos que senalan los desafios que tendra que hacer frente el proyecto, e incluso, algunos dudan de que sea viable aunque se disponga de la financiacion que ha anunciado el consorcio de empresas. No obstante, considera que el desafio mayor supone traer la electricidad a Europa, ya que afirma que el sistema de distribucion electrico europeo es en realidad una coleccion de 27 sistemas diferentes. Por ejemplo, Marruecos podria recelar del control de las empresas alemanas, y Francia esta mas interesada en vender a su antigua colonia la tecnologia nuclear que la solar. Por eso, algunos expertos consideran que el conjunto de las dificultades hacen inviable la idea. El ano pasado, un grupo de expertos, Charlie Paton, Michael Pawlyn y Bill Watts, dio a conocer el Proyecto Sahara Forest. Direct bonded copper substrates have been proven for many years as an excellent solution for electrical isolation and thermal management of high power semiconductor modules. The DBC process yields a super-thin base and eliminates the need for the thick, heavy copper bases that were used prior to this process. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines.
The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area.


The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen.
In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate.
But, at the same time, Emirates also provides accommodation and health care for the majority of its employees. Moreover, unlike Lufthansa, Emirates offers business-class customers seats that convert into flat beds and even limousine service to and from the airport.
Maybe Emirates attracts a lot of people from the third world, however, the more their developments progress the higher the likelihood that there will be direct connections to commercial centres. Los responsables del proyecto estiman que no seria hasta 2019 cuando se empezara a transmitir la primera energia producida en estas plantas solares.
Asimismo, estas instalaciones podrian servir tambien para la puesta en marcha de varias plantas desaladoras que podrian suministrar agua de consumo humano y para crear cultivos en dichas zonas deserticas. Los responsables de Desertec estiman que cada una de estas granjas solares podria generar entre 50 y 200 megavatios (MW), y de contar con la financiacion senalada, se podria lograr un conjunto de granjas con una capacidad de 100 gigavatios (GW), suficientes para cubrir el 15% de las necesidades energeticas europeas.
Ahora bien, estima que se necesitaria invertir 1.400 millones de euros cada ano hasta 2050. Por ello, se propone una super red de lineas de transmision de corriente continua de alto voltaje (HVDC en sus siglas en ingles) con un sistema que luego permitiria convertirlo a la corriente alterna utilizada en la red convencional. Por ello, explica Patt, si no se consigue su verdadera integracion, sera muy dificil distribuir la energia proveniente del Sahara.
Aun cuando se consiga la financiacion inicial para ponerlo en marcha, los retrasos en alguna fase implicarian un incremento considerable de los costes.
Su idea se basa en combinar dos tecnologias, la energia solar de concentracion y los invernaderos de agua marina. The advantages of DBC substrates are high current carrying capability due to thick copper metallization and a thermal expansion close to the silicon at the copper surface due to high bond strength of copper to ceramic. Because power modules with DBC bases have fewer layers, they have much lower thermal resistance values. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels. Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images.
In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. No obstante, diversos expertos recuerdan las dificultades y desafios que deberan hacer frente para que se materialice. Asimismo, sus responsables calculan que el 90% de la poblacion mundial vive cerca de un desierto, por lo que la idea seria extensible a otros desiertos del mundo. De esta manera, los expertos de Desertec aseguran que seria factible transmitir la electricidad desde el norte de Africa al Reino Unido con perdidas menores al 10%. De esta manera, se podria producir energia renovable, agua y alimentos en este desierto de forma mas eficaz que si se utilizaran dichas tecnologias por separado. And because the expansion coefficient matches silicon, they have much better power cycling capabilities (up to 50,000 cycles). The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel.
In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels.
This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event".
Algunos expertos sostienen que este proyecto podria asentar los cimientos para la nueva red electrica necesaria con el fin de aprovechar las energias renovables.
Ademas, una parte de las cosechas podrian destinarse al cultivo de la Jatrophra, una planta que se utiliza para producir biocombustibles de segunda generacion. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film.
Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history.
The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.



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